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1 1833 01 149 7994 












Western Historical Publishing Company 








"You will find but a scattered few likely to take anything more 
than a biographical view of human affairs. " 

— Herbert Spencer: Study of Sociology. 


ITH this volume is presented the first History ever compiled and published, devoted 
exclusively to Stevens, Ferry, Okanogan and Chelan counties, Washington. Part I, 
which concerns itself directly with the prominent events in the Territorial and-state 
history since 1550, is a comprehensive abridgement from the most authentic data 
obtainable by eminent historians of the United States, England and Spain. In this connection 
we acknowledge our indebtedness to the late George Bancroft; Hon. Hall J. Kelley; the 
"Journal" of Lewis and Clarke; letters and other documents written by the ill-fated Dr. Marcus 
Whitman; "Oregon: the Struggle for Possession," by William Barrows; "Astoria," by Wash- 
ington Irving; Congressional Reports on the Oregon Question; Washington's correspondence 
with John Jay; the Colfax, Washington, C^/«w^(7«fr; correspondence of James Douglas; Barton's 
"Washington Legislative Handbook and Manual"; correspondence printed in the Olympic 
Pioneer: the eminent western historian, Hubert Howe Bancroft; State papers of Governor Isaac 
Ingalls Stevens; Archibald Mc'Vicker and Hon. A. A. Denny. 

Our friendly coadjutors, who have so kindly and cheerfully assisted during the collabora- 
tion and compilation of the volume, have been many. We desire to here frankly state that in no 
instance has any one of these pioneers, business men, or even temporary residents of the vast 
country traversed, bearing on every hand undeniable evidence of thrift and prosperity, refused 
to assist or failed to greet the arduous works with encouragement. We cannot too cordially 
thank each and all of them. 

To us the editorial fraternity has been friendly. To A. E. Adams, Colvillc Reveille, W. D. 
Allen, Statesman-Index, John B. Slater, W. P. Hughes, Northport News, W. H. Brownlow 
& Sons, Cheioelah Independent, George W. Bisson, Springdale Record, all of Stevens county; 
.\. I. Drake, Republic News-Miner, H. C. V'asYvcnftnt, Rep2iblic Record, Ferry county; Frank 
M. Dallam, Palmer Mountain Prospector, J. O. Sehorn, Meyers Creek News, Ozro H. Woody, 
Okanogan Record, Messers. Gillespie & Savage, Brewster Herald, Okanogan county; A. S. 
Lindsay and Martin Spencer, Wenatchee Advance, and De Witt C. Britt, Chelan Leader, due 
acknowledgment is made for valuable assistance in work upon this History. The files of their most 
creditable publications are, at present, the most available and authentic data for a work of 
this description. 

To Auditors Richard Nagle, of Stevens, and Henry Carr, of Okanogan, counties. State 
Representative M. J. Maloney, Francis Wolff, Jacob Stitzel, John Rickey, S. F. Sherwood, of 
Colville; Dr. S. H. Manly, George B. Stocking, J. C Kerley and M. H. Joseph, Ferry county; 
County Attorney E. K. Pendergast, County Treasurer J. M. Pitman, Henry Lawrence, George 
H. Blackwell and Harry Harris, of ConconuUy; Father E. de Rouge, of the Omak Mission, 
Okanogan county; Captain Charles Johnson, of Lakeside, and Arthur Gunn, of Wenatchee, 
Chelan county, our thanks are sincerely tendered for many courtesies extended by them. 

The general and introductory history is the production of Richard F. Steele. The special 
histories of Stevens, Ferry, Okanogan, and Chelan counties were written by Richard F. Steele 
assisted by Arthur P. Rose. 

Spokane, Washington, March 1, 1904. 


We, the undersigned, after listening for several evenings to the reading of a large portion of the manuscript 
containing the history of Stevens county, to be published by The Western Historical Publishing Company, of 
Spokane, Washington, bear testimony that it gives evidence of extensive reading and careful and conscientious 
research, and presents — to our best knowledge — an accurate, comprehensive, and impartial record of events, and as 
such we endorse and commend it. 

Francis Wolff, 
S. F. Sherwood, 
JOHN B. Slater, 
• Committee of Citizens. 

COLVILLE, Wash., Nov. 15, 1903. 

We, the undersigned, having examined a large portion of the manuscript containing the history of Ferry 
county, to be published by The Western Historical Publishing Company, Spokane, Washington, bear testimony that 
it gives evidence of extensive reading and conscientious research, and presents — to our best knowledge — an accurate, 
comprehensive and impartial record of events, and as such we endorse and commend it. 

George B. Stocking, 
S. H. Manly, 
J. C. Kerley, 

Committee of Citizens. 

Republic, Wash., Dec. 

We, the undersigned, have examined such portions of the history of Stevens, Ferry, Okanogan, and Chelan 
counties as relate to the county of Okanogan, in manuscript, to be published by The Western Historical Publishing 
Company. To the best of our knowledge they give evidence of careful research, extensive reading, and comparison of 
dates and names, and are written in a comprehensive, impartial and conscientious manner. As such we endorse and 
commend the work to the public. 

Henry Carr, 

George H. Blackwell, 

Henry Lawre.^ce, 

Committee of Citizens 
CONCONULLY, Wash., Jan. 20, 1904. 

We, the undersigned, having examined those portions of the manuscript of the history of Stevens, Ferry, 
Okanogan and Chelan counties, relating exclusively to the county of Chelan, cheerfully testify that to the best of 
our knowledge, the work has been written in an impartial and conscientious manner, and shows in its compilation 
extensive reading and research with an honest endeavor to secure the facts and thoroughly authentic data. As such 
we cordially commend it to the public. 

N. N. Brown, 
W. O. Parr, 
C. A. Harlin, 
W. R. Prowell, 
Arthur Gunn, 

Committee of Citizens. 

Wenatchee, Wash., Feb. 2.S, 1904 



Dawn of Discovery. 
Juan Rodriguez in the Waters of the Smiling Pacific— His Mantle Falls Upon the Shoulders of Bartolome 
Ferrelo— Francis Drake Reaches as High as Latitude Forty-three Degrees— He Abandons the Search for 
Anian and Returns to England— Spain Becomes Aggressive in Northwest Exploration— Early Voyages of 
Urdaneta — Juan De Fuca Sails From Spain in Search of the Strait of Anian — Advance Guard of Inland 
Explorers Led by Sir Alexander Mackenzie— Speculation on the Origin of the Word "Oregon"— Story of 
^L Le Page du Pratz 2-G 

Mississippi to the Coast. 
President Jefferson's Scheme to Traverse Continent to the Pacific Ocean— Selection of Merriwether Lewis and 
William Clarke for the Enterprise— Their Achievements After Entering the Territory of Oregon— Major 
Joshua Pitcher's Description of this Terra Incognita in 1800— The Willamette River and a Section of the 
Mighty Columbia— Lewis and Clarke Start L'p the Missouri— Fourteen Months From their Departure— Party 
Endures Innumerable Hardships— Topography of the Qjuntry— Explorers Interview Various Indian Tribes 
— Across the Mountains — Compelled to Eat Horses and Dogs— Arrival at "Hungry Creek" — Pow Wow with 
Savages— Down the Snake to the Columbia River— Dangerous Rapids Interfere With Navigation— From 
Tidewater to the Sea— Lewis and Clarke's Party Pass the Winter in Camp at the Mouth of the Columbia and 
Set Out on their Return T-l:! 

The Oregon Controversy. 
Struggle of Five Nations for Possession of "Oregon" — Question Becomes Important and Far Reaching — One 
Hundred Years Punctuated With Many Wars— Part Played by the Hudson's Bay Company— Results ol 
Mackenzie's Explorations— Monotony of the Fur Trader's Life— Boundary Commission of 1841— Ashburton- 
Webster Treaty— Commission of 1846— Eyes of England Opened by the Expedition of Lewis and Clarke- 
First English Settlement Made by Fraser in 1806— John Jacob Astor Establishes a Trading Post at Astoria- 
Supremacy of Commercialism Over Sentimental Statesmanship— Twenty-Seven Years of Diplomatic Delay 
Over International Boundary Affairs — Continuance of Joint Occupancy of Oregon for Ten Years — Ameri- 
cans Strike Oregon Where English Fail— Oregon is Left Out of the Ashburton-Webster Treaty— Dr. Marcus 
Whitman Arrives in Washington, D. C, With the Facts in the Case— Establishment of the Forty-ninth 
Parallel as the International Boundary 14-26 


Tragedy of Whitman's Mission. 

Visit to St. Louis, Mo., of Four Flathead Indians— They Come For the "White Man's Book"— President Fiske 

Calls on Missionaries to Go to the Indian Tribes of the Great Northwest— Prompt Response by Whitman, 

Rev. Parker and the Lees— Sketch of Dr. Whitman by an Acquaintance— Significant Letter Sent by 


Whitman to Secretary of War Porter— Savage Details of the Whitman Massacre— Horrible Superstition of 
Indian Tribes— Names of the Victims— Miraculous Escape of Mr. Osborne and Family — Harsh and Cruel 
Treatment of Refugees by McBean — Christmas in 1847 Passed in the Midst of Hostile Savages 26-33 

The Cayuse War. 
Explanation of Mr. Mc Bean's Treatment of Survivors of the Whitman Massacre— Americans Take the Initiative 
in the Cayuse War — James Douglas Writes to Governor Abernethy — Intense Excitement Among People 
'in the Wallamet Settlement — Spokane and Nez Perce Indians Refuse to Join the Cayuse Tribe — Colonel 
Gilliam Sets Forth From The Dalles — Death of "Swallow Ball" and Wounding of the "Wizard" — Indians 
Fall Back to the Snake River— Escape and Final Capture of the Assassins of Dr. Whitman 34-38 

Other Ixdiax Outbreaks. 
Indian Wars Immediately Affecting Washington — Expedition of Major Granville O. Haller — Discovery of Gold 
Causes a Stampede to Fort Colville — Defiance of Chief Pierre Jerome — Kamiakin Declares War on the 
Whites — Campaign Against the Yakimas — Indian Tragedies in the Puget Sound District — Assassination of 
Lieutenant Slaughter — Renewal of Hostilities in the Yakima Country — Some Blunders of General Wool — 
Campaign of Colonel Cornelius— Memorable Siege of the Cascades— Steptoe's Campaign-^Failure of the 
Council With the Cayuses, Deschutes and Tyghes — Governor Stevens Recommends Enlargement of the 
Puyallup and Nisqually Indian Reservations— Arrest, Trial and Execution of Leschi — Indemnity Claims 
Following Indian Troubles are Lodged With Congress — Horace Greeley Favors Repudiation of Them — 
Defeat of Steptoe — Triumph of Industry ^^d Intelligence Over Barbaric Ignorance and Indian Squalor. . . .38-50 


Territory and State. 
Topographv of Washington— First Inroads of Civilization— Washington Might Have Been Columbia— Creation 
of Lewis County— Agitation for Territorial Division— Congress is Memorialized— Isaac Ingalls Stevens 
Appointed First Territorial Governor — Sketch of His Life and Heroic Death — First Washington Territorial 
Legislature — A State in all But Name — Struggle for Capital Removal — Political Operations of Victor Smith 
—A Customs House Imbroglio— Removal from Port Townsend to Port Angeles— Death of Victor Smith- 
General Wright in Command of the Department of the Pacific — Congressional Delegate Jacobs Introduces 
Bill for the Admission of Washington into the Union— Adoption of a Constitution Declared A'oid and 
Nugatory — Administration of Governor Watson C. Squire — Chinese Riots — Proclamation by President 
Cleveland — Fiscal Condition of the Territory in 1886 — Administration of Governor Eugene Semple — Wash- 
ington Territory Admitted as a State— Munificent Land Grant— First State Officials 50-63 




From Beaver Pelts to Ballot Box. 

Encroachments of the Hudson's Bay Company — Explorations of John McLeod — Mission of Father De Smet— 

Father Ravalli— Pioneers of Stevens County— Pinckney City— Colville in 1859— Influence of Eraser River 

Excitement in Stevens County— First Election Precinct— Assassination of H. W. Watson— First Term of 

Superior Court — Primitive Litigation — Indians Respect White Men's Laws — Consultation at Missoula — 

Francis Wolff Brings First Wagon to Colville — Execution of an Indian for the Murder of George Breemer — 

Organization of Election Precincts 65- 



Material Progress From 1871 to 1903. 

Cutting Up Stevens County — Gold Dust a Circulation Medium — "Colville" the Capital of Stevens County — 

Commissioners Lease a Court House Building — Construction of the Spokane Falls & Northern Railway — 

Contest for County Seat— Disastrous Flood in the Colville Valley— Damage by Wind Storm— First Telephone 

Service— Citizens of Colville Subscribe for New Court House— Last of the Old Town of Pinckney City 85-99 

The Stevens County of Today— Altitudes of Various Towns— The Beautiful Colville Valley— Along the Pend 
d'OreiUe— Excellent Roads and Highways— Stevens County Game— "A Great Country With a Great Future" 
—The Marble Quarries— Considered as a Fruit Producing Section— Transportation Facilities— Stevens 
County's Markets— Gardiner's Cave— Geology— Coal— Opening of the "North Half" of the Colville Reserva- 
tion 99-n2 

Mines and Quarries. 
The Old Dominion— The Marble Area— History of the Industry— First Marble Tombstone— Excellent Clay for 
Manufacturing Pottery, Terra Cotta, Sewer Pipe and Brick — Eureka Marble Quarries— Columbia River 
Marble Company — "Tombstones for Unborn Millions" — Jefferson Marble Company — The Keystone — The 
Metalline District— Original Silver Lead Discovery— Young America Group— Mineral Belt on Rickey Moun- 
tain—Placer Mining n3-127 

Cities and Towns. 
Colville, the County Seat— Platted by IMajor Hooker and John Still— Troops Depart from the Fort— Town 
Incorporated but Action is Declared Void — Reincorporation — Initial Session of New Council — Losses by 
Fire — Erection of a Smelter — Building Improvements in 1897 — Water Works — Educational Matters — 
Colville Fire Department — Fraternal Societies — Northwestern Light & Power Company — Northport — First 
Passenger Train— Postoffice Inspector Receives a Gentle Hint— Disastrous Conflagration 1'27-150 

Cities and Towns — Continued. 
Marcus— Establishment of "Fort" Colville— Visit to the Old Landmark— The Historic Block House— Original 
Store at Marcus— Meyers Falls— The Goodwin Mission— D.C. Corbin Extends His Railroad— Kettle Falls- 
Incorporation— Falls of the Columbia— The Old Jesuit Chapel— First Stevens County Fair— Chevvelah— 
Springdale — Bossburg — Newport— Other Towns 150-165 

Records of Earlier Days Incomplete— H. W. Watson Chosen First Territorial Representative— Not Permitted to 
be Seated— He is Followed by J. R. Bates— Admission of the State— Populists Carry the County in 1894— 
Three Tickets m the Field in 1896— "Fusionists"— Election of County Officials Contested 165-172 



Private School of Angus McDonald— First Public School— Superintendent George Taylor— Father Militry— 

Modesty of Superintendent John U. Hofstetter — Incomplete Educational Reports— Rochester Academy at 

Kettle Falls— Northwestern Washington Academy— Eells Academy— Present Number of School Districts in 

Stevens County 1 72-181 





Early History and Organization. 
First White Men in Republic Camp— Original Mining Location— Opening of the North Half of the Colvilie Reser- 
vation— Operations of Thomas Ryan and Philip Creaser— Formation of the Republic Gold Mining & Mill- 
ing Company — Flood of 1898 — Sensational Experience of A. W. Strong and Others — Opening of the South 
Half of the Colvilie Indian Reservation to Mineral Entry — Formation of a New County — Erection of a 
Court House— Horse and Cattle Thieves— The Rainy Winter of 1899— Freight Rates 880 a Ton— North Half 
of the Colvilie Reservation Open to Homestead Entry— Railroad Exploitation 403-412 

Republic Camp and Other Towns. 
Prospectors Flock In — Establishment of First Business House in Republic — Various Additions to the Town — 
Material Progress — Connected by Telephone With the Outside World — Completion of Court Room and Jail — 
Organization of a Presbyterian Congregation — Change of Name From Eureka to Republic — Formation of a 
Fire Department — Disastrous Fires — Incorporation — Keller on the South Half — Judge Hanford Makes Im- 
portant Ruling— Orient— Curlew— Danville— Other Towns 412-429 


Mines and Mining. 
Geological Characteristics of Ferry County — Suspension of an Experimental Mill — Reorganization of the Repub- 
lic Gold Mining & Milling Company— The Chico Mine— Butte & Boston— Princess Maud— The Quilp— Lone 
Pine — Surprise — San Poll — Ben Hur and Trade Dollar — The Mountain Lion — Tom Thumb— Morning Glory 
— El Calif — General Development of the Eureka Mining District — Belcher and Hawkeye Mines — "Tenas 
George"— The Hendryx Cyaniding Process 429-439 


Establishment of a School in Republic Camp in 1898 — No Funds in the Treasury — Mrs. W. R. Collins the First 
Teacher — Educational Affairs Awaken Warm Discussion — Erection of First School House in Ferry County — 
Superintendency of George A. Graham— School Building at Keller— Total Enrollment of Scholars in 1900— 
Bonded Indebtedness 440^42 


Contour, Boundaries and Area of Ferry County — Farming and Grazing Lands — Geological Structure — Excellent 
System of Wagon Roads— The Famous Bunch Grass— Game Awaiting the Ardent Sportsman— Principal 
Streams— The Kettle River 443^44 


Right to Vote Tested in the Courts— Storm of Indignation Against Alleged Disfranchisement— First Election- 
Original Commissioners of Ferry County — Democratic Landslide — Republicans Make Gains in 1902 445-447 





First Exploration and E.\rly History. 

First White Man on the Northern Portion of the Columbia River— New Fort in the Wilderness— Derivation of 
the Word "Okanogan. '—The Early Religious Field— Father de Rouge Settles at Omak— Founding of St. 
Mary's Mission— Chief Aeneas— Chief Moses and Alexander McCauley— Conflicting Interests Clash Over 
Limits of the Reservation for "Non Treaty" Indians— Biography of -'Okanogan" Smith— Mr. Thorp Ex- 
periments With Peanut Agriculture— Organic Act Creating the County of Okanogan— Ruby the First County 
Seat — Salmon City — Severe Winter Causes the Death <if Much Stock— Okanogan County Board of Trade — 
County Seat Removal Agitated 48.5-498 

Passing Events, 1891—1903. 
Threatened Uprising of Okanogan Indians— Lynching of Indian Stephen— State Called on for Troops to Protect 
the Whites — General Curry Arrives at Conconully — Interview With "Okanogan" Smith— Delay in Securing a 
Survey and Extension of Standard Lines— Settlers Doomed to Disappointment — Increase of Taxable Property 
in the County— Lot and Claim Jumping Discouraged— Organization of Taxpayers' League — Assassination of 
Peter Coutts— The Blizzard of 1898— Floods of Unusual Proportions— Okanogan Raised to a County of the 
Twenty-second Class — War Between Sheep and Cattle Men — Report of State Fish Commission on the Methow 
Fish Hatchery— Revival of the Mining Industry— Valuation of Okanogan County Property in 1903 499-512 

Mines and Mining. 
Okanogan County the Birthplace of Mining in the State of Washington— Opening of Chief Moses' Reservation 
Induces Development — First Investors Doomed to Failure — Geological Structure of the County — Wonderful 
Showing Made in Palmer Mountain — The Pinnacle Mine— Other Mines and Groups in that Vicinity — Meyers 
Creek Mining District — The Methow — The Multnomah Mining Company's Properties — In the Vicinity of 
Twisp — Great Excitment in the Salmon River District — Original Prospectors— Mineral Hill — The Far Famed 
Ruby Mine— The Squaw Creek Country 513-527 



Area and Topography of Okanogan County— Mountainous Contour of the Entire Country — Soil Elements and 
Climate— Variations of Scenery Causes Grand and Imposing Effects — Legend of the "Hee Hee Stone" — 
Stage Ride From Oroville to Loomis — Lake and Mountain Scenery — Heart of the Palmer Mountain Mining 
District — Wanicutt and Spectacle Lakes — Pogue Flat — Agricultural Methods — The Methow Valley — Pro- 
ductive Ranches Along the Okanogan River 527-.537 

Cities and Towns. 
Conconully, the Capital of Okanogan County — Indian Lineage of the Name — Concenully Lake Considered as an 
Irrigation Reservoir by the L'mted States Government— Original Name of the Town Salmon City — First 
Business Enterprises— Season of Great Activity in Building — Remodeling of the Hotel Elliott — Organizing a 
Militia Company — Fire Nearly Wipes Out the Town in 1892— Forty-two Buildings Destroyed by Floods in 
1894— Cloud Burst on the Mountains— Farms and Orchards Destroyed— One Life is Lost— Dedication of the 
First Church Building in Conconully— First Settlement of Loomis— Many Miners and Prospectors Congre- 
gate There— A Typical Western Mining Town— Loomis Improves Rapidly During 1891-2— Educational Af- 
fairs — Marked Improvement in Property \'alues — Death of "Pinnacle Jim" — Chesaw — Only Town in United 
States Named After a Chinaman — Fire Destroys the Hotel Barker 637-551 


Cities and Towns — Continued. 
Riverside — Uriah Ward, the Original Pioneer — "Pard" Cummings Establishes the Initial Store — Riverside the 
Head of Navigation on the Okanogan River — Oroville — Surrounded by a Fine Agricultural Country — Bolster 
— Rivalry Between This Young Town and Chesaw — The Latter Wins Out — Molson — Phenomenal Growth in 
Early Days — George B. Mechem its Promoter — Present Conditions — Loop Loop Platted in 1888 by W. P. 
Keady and S. F. Chadwick — Depreciation in Silver Market the Immediate Downfall of the Town — Ruby — 
Now a Deserted \"illage — Was at one Time the County Seat of Okanogan — Nighthawk — Its Proximity to the 
International Boundary Line — Owes its Existence to the Nighthawk Mine — Brewster at the Junction of the 
Okanogan and Columbia Rivers — Original Name Swansea — Virginia City — Brewster Nearly Destroyed by 
Fire in 1903 — Twisp -Handsomely Located in an Ideal Spot — Great Mining Excitement in the Methow Valley 
— Methow — Other Towns 551-563 



Organization of Okanogan County — County and Appointment of First Commissioners — General Election of the 

Autumn of 1888 — Charles E. Laughton First Lieutenant Governor of the State of Washington — Result of the 

Election of 1890 — Election of 1892 — Largely in Favor of the Republicans— Plurality in Okanogan County in 

1-892 for President Harrison 139— Trend of Political Events to 1902 564-571 

Earliest School Superintendent's Report — Administration of J. F. Samson — Financial Depression of 1894 Dis- 
couraging to School Improvement — Joseph E. Leader County Superintendent in 1895 — Financial Showing 
for the Year 1902 571-573 




Early History and Passing Events. 

Derivation of the Word "Chelan" — Chinese the Earliest Settlers — Romance of One Celestial — Driven Away by 
Indians — Missionary Labors of Fathers Respari, Grassi and Rouge — First White Settlers Along the Lake — 
Adventures of Sanders and Dumke — Woodin and Dumke Erect Rival Saw Miils — The Entiat Valley — 
Wenatchee Once an Indian Council Ground — Franklin Freer Settles on the Columbia River — Efforts in 1893 
to Create Wenatchee County — High Water in the Columbia — "Long Jim" — Tidal Wave in Lake Chelan — 
Organic Act Creating Chelan County — Wenatchee Development Company — Steamboats Cast Away. . 

Wonderful Scenic Attractions — Rapid Progress Made in the Development of the Wenatchee Country — Mildness 
of the Climate— Sounding Lake Chelan by the United States Geological Survey— Voyage on the Lake— Stu- 
pendous Heights, Gigantic Domes, Cavernous Precipices— Round Mountain— Moore's Point— "Painted 
Rocks"— Glacial Phenomena— Wonderful Results of Irrigation— The"High Ditch Line"— Lake Wenatchee in 
the Heart of the Cascades — Tumwater Canyon — Entiat Valley — Horseshoe Basin — Rainbow Falls — Mission 
\"alley 685- 



Mines and Mining. 

First Quartz Mine Ever Developed in Washington— The Holden Mine— Entiat Valley District— Baker Mountain 
Mininsc Company— Copper Queen Group— Doubtful Lake— Railroad Creek— Stehekin District— Mining in 
the Vicinity of Wenatchee— Golden King Company— Peshastin an4 Negro Creeks— Blewett Gold Mining 
Company— The Phoenix— Leavenworth District— Rock Creek Canyon 702-711 

Cities and Towns. 
Wenatchee— Genesis and Definition of the Word— First Business Enterprise in the Vicinity— The "North End" 
—Rapid Increase of Population— Opening of the Columbia Valley Bank— Townsite Company Throws Lots 
Upon the Market— Organization of First Sunday School— Move for Incorporation— Advent of the Great 
Northern Railroad— First Municipal Election— Fire— Public Library and Reading Room Established— Burn- 
ing of Steamer "Irish World" — Wenatchee Commercial Club — Building Improvements — Names of River 
Steamers — Platting of Original Townsite — Various Additions — Chelan — Early pioneers — Chelan Water Pow- 
er Company — Church History — Lakeside — Chelan Falls — Leavenworth — Mission — Other Towns 711-736 

Organization of First School District— John D. -Atkinson First Superintendent— Report of Superintendent Foster 

^Growth of Schools — High Schools 736-738 

First County Commissioners— Republicans Hold County Convention at Leavenworth in 1900— Democrats Meet 
at Wenatchee— Fusion an Accomplished Fact— Democrats Carry the County at Presidential Election— Re- 
publicans Successful in 1902 738-740 




Press of Stevens, Ferry, Okanogan and Chelan Counties. 
Pioneer Journalism in Stevens County — Stevens County Sun.of Chewelah, Initial Paper in the County — The Miner, 
Published at Colville— Mr. Slater Sells the Miner— Stevens County Standard and Colville Republican— 
W. D. Allen Purchases the Springdale Statesman and Consolidates it with the Colville Index— The North- 
port News — Stevens Standard — Springdale Gazette — Other Stevens County Publications — First Paper in 
Ferry County the Reservation Record — E. R. Cleveland and Albert J. Drake Establish the Republic Pioneer 
— It is Subsequently Consolidated With the Miner — Five Weekly Newspapers in Okanogan County — The 
First One Issued Was the Okanogan Outlook — Its Sensational History — The Ruby Miner— The Loomiston 
Journal Issued by A. H. Sroufe — Palmer Mountain Prospector, by Frank Dallam, the Oldest Paper Now in 
Okanogan County — Other Journals — The Wenatchee Advance the First Weekly Paper in Chelan County — 
Established by Frank Reeves— Many Political and Personal Changes on the Advance— Chelan Falls Leader 
Comes Into the Field— Owned and Edited by Dewitt C. Britt— The Paper is Moved to Chelan in 1892— The 
Wenatchee Graphic — The Rock Island Sun — Lake Chelan Eagle — Wenatchee Republican Established bv 
A. S. Lindsay— Lakeside Light 840-852 



Incident in Wright's Campaign — Something of a Bear Story — Of Historical Interest — A Hurried Departure — 
A Minister's Trip to Colville— Colville an Island— Meyers Falls— A Man of Claims— The Opium Traffic- 
Building the Spokane Falls & Northern Railroad— An Orderly Camp— Old Fort Colville— She Witnessed 
the Whitman Massacre — Father de Rouge Among the Indians — Racing Between Indians — "ConconuUy Kate" 
— The Embrace of Death — Legend of the Columbia— Battle at Mouth of Okanogan — Legend of Pauline. 852-867 



Colville, County Seat of Stevens 

County 154 

Meyers Falls of the Colville river 153 
Kettle Falls of the Columbia river 154 
Fruit exhibit at the Stevens 
county fair, Colville, Septem- 
ber, 1903 113 

Buildings of the Hudson's Bay 
Company's post near Marcus as 

they appear to-day 153 

Ruins of the old Jesuit mission 

near Kettle Falls 113 

Grist mill at Meyers Falls, Ste- 
vens county, erected in 1872. . 153 
King gold and copper mines.... 113 
Wagon bridge and dam across the 

Chelan river 669 

\'ie\v on Lake Chelan 690 

Rainbow falls near the Stehekin 
■iver ..., 695 


Lake Chelan. View from Moores' 

Point 690 

Painted rocks near the head of 

Lake Chelan 696 

VVenatchee fruit exhibit at the 

Spokane fruit fair in 1902.... 696 
They came from Lake Chelan. . 696 
Wenatchee, county seat of Chelan 

county 711 

Winter scene on Lake Chelan. . 669 

Glacier Peak 685 

Chelan falls of Chelan river .... 685 

Residence of J. ^IcFarland SOU 

Palmer Lake 527 

Tramway from Pinnacle mine, 

Okanogan county 485 

Wannicut Lake 5-' 

Toats Coula Falls of the Sinla- 

hekin river 527 

Group of Okanogan Indians .... 485 


St. Mary's mission, Okanogan 
county, as it was in pioneer 

days 527 

Medicine woman of the Okano- 
gan tribe 485 

Salmon or Conconully lake .... 485 

Chief Joseph 499 

Curlew lake. Ferry county 427 

Republic ni lS9r. then Eureka. 4:i!) 
Sans Poil Falls of the Sans Foil 
river. Ferry county, during 

high water 427 

Gold bricks 429 

Republic, county seat of Ferry 

county 412 

First store in Ferry county, lo- 
cated at Danville, formerly 
Nelson 429 



Abbott, James H 378 

Adams, Charles 339 

Adams, George E 339 

Aljbaugh, John H 375 

Alldredge, Wilham L 251 

Allison, Albert F 268 

Allison, James N 269 

Anderson, Hans 212 

Anderson, Peter 383 

Anderson, Robert D 205 

Arcasa, Peter 3-5 

Argue, John J 297 

Ashpaugh, John W 348 

Arnold, Adam W 314 

Arnold, Charles H 3^5 

Atkinson, William A 34i 

Aubin, Gilbert B 312 

Ayers, Elmer J 310 

Baker, Charles 196 

Baker, John 196 

Baker, William R 320 

Banks, Frank 343 

Beam, George W 360 

Belhumeur, August 372 

Belknap, Millard F 285 

Bethurum, Isaac 188 

Bethurum, Ralph 188 

Bidgood, Amiron E 306 

Blair, George W 35° 

Blair, John S 298 

Bobier, George H 203 

Boss, Chester S 215 

Boyd, Adam 294 

Boyd, William 399 

Boyes, Henry D .270 

Brackett, George 189 

Brechbill, Samuel L 257 

Brinser, Otto 187 

Bronson, James L 355 

Brown, Albert 386 

Brown, Francis M 242 

Brown, Lewis H 239 

Brown, Thomas 240 

Brown, William V 292 

Bruce. Jane E 211 

Bryant, Ann 221 

Buchanan, Mark L 352 

Buck, Allen A 262 

Burden, John 369 

Burdick, Albert ^77 


Cagle, William S 304 

Calhoon, William L 358 

Camp, Arthur F 218 

Campbell, George 249 

Caplin, William J 397 

Carey, Daniel H 235 

Carroll, George F 400 

Cary, George 350 

Castner, Frederick L 271 

Cecil, Samuel P 395 

Chamberlin, Charles H 228 

Chapin, Burrell W 213 

Charles, Edgar 361 

Clark, Simon S 333 

Clinton, James B 244 

Coates, Orin 291 

Colley, William P 272 

Colter, William R 343 

Conrady, Charles F 224 

Copp, George 209 

Corbell, Francis M 216 

Cosner, Henry E .398 

Coulter, George 248 

Coulthard. George D 187 

Covell, John H T93 

r-ox, Henrv T 396 

Crandall, Uriah 329 

Crawford, James 302 

Crory, Isaac L 353 

Gulp. David M 301 

Currie, Joseph P, ., 219 

Davey, Josiah M 335 

Davies, James 346 

Davies, Thomas 345 

Davis, Frank B 323 

Davis, William H 204 

Dawdy, John C .380 

Day, Elwood 214 

Day, William 229 

Dearinger. Squire L 279 

Decker, Dennis ,365 

Decker, John W 331 

Denn, Harrv R 392 

Denny, Elijah M' 252 

Desautels, John 274 

Dickson, AVilliam W 303 

Diedrich. John S ,187 

Dixon, Thomas .300 

Dorman. Garland 284 

Dorman, Harrison Y 283 


Driscoll, William 218 

Drugan, William P 401 

Dudrey, Elias S 281 

Duncan, William W 220 

Dunn, Peter 256 

Dunlap, Joseph W 361 

Dunham, Dewey H 268 

Dupuis, Henry A 314 

Dupuis, Norbert 266 

Elliott, Frank 256 

Ellis, Etheldred T 356 

Ellis, Ira B 186 

Eva, Sheba R 337 

Feeler, Simon • ■ ■ 275 

Felland, Knut 205 

Ferguson, Frank 326 

Flaugher, Henry 206 

Felt, Jay H 328 

Fountain, Robert 33° 

Fox, Ray J 348 

Erase, Ed A 342 

Frase, John M 34' 

Fry, Elbert L 314 

Fry, Nathan B. . 26.^ 

Fry, Richard B 3^2 

Garrison, Henderson P .395 

Garner, Laban 254 

Geaudreau, George 208 

Giebeler, Henry 302 

Gillen, Aggie 275 

Gilpin, William J 217 

Glasgo, Presley 278 

Gordon, Frank 291 

Graham, Charles 357 

Graham, Henry A 246 

Grahant, Jav '95 

Gr,iham, William H 318 

Gray, John S 368 

Gregory, Eugene B i99 

Gregory, James B 207 

Grittner, Henry 220 

Hadley, Henry M 262 

Hafer, E. E .?8i 

Haines, Charles .371 

Haines. Guy 229 

Haley. Peter 399 

Hall, Harry J 274 



Hall, Jesse R 211 

Hamblet, Joanna C 297 

Hamilton, Mart H 352 

Hanson, Hans K 353 

Harbaugh, Daniel 303 

Hart, William J 372 

Hartill, David 389 

Hartill, Emanuel S 388 

Hartill, Enoch 307 

Hartill, Jesse 388' 

Hartill, Joseph M 389 

Harvey, George W 245 

Harvey, Lee B 322 

Hatton, William S 263 

Hawkins, John A 377 

Hawkins, Oliver U 367 

Heidegger, Abraham 251 

Heller, Thomas 311 

Heppe, Frederick 344 

Herron, John N 296 

Herzner, George 380 

Hessel, John P 310 

Hibert, Frank 214 

Hilts, William S 257 

Hoffer, John N 217 

Hofstetter, John U 317 

Holcomb, Walter E 359 

Holdernian, Wallace R 379 

Holland, Thomas H 363 

Horton, Joseph N 238 

House. Daniel 267 

Houtchens, Christopher T 212 

Hovey, Perry H 332 

Huffman. Joel 232 

Hughes, Henry 250 

Hughes. James 250 

Hughes. William P 236 

Hughson, Andrew , 291 

Hull, George 308 

Hurd, Albert B 356 

Hurd, Maria 356 

Hunter, James 259 

Inkster, John 384 

Jackson, Zachariah T 207 

Jacobs, Mile 311 

Jared, Robert P 192 

Jarvis, Francis M 385 

Jarvis, John F 379 

Jenks, Elias W 223 

Jenkin, Henry R 384 

Jennings, Lewis W 259 

Johnston, George W 206 

Joneson, Emil 307 

Jore. John 203 

Keevil, Lester W 359 

Keller, Henry 183 

Kent, Miles C 202 

Keough, John 284 

Kindorf, George 340 

King, Peter 394 

King, William W 264 

Knapp, George H 306 

Knowlton, Francis M 349 

Knutson, Christian C 235 

Koontz, Joseph A 398 

Krug, August 383 

Kyes, Ephraim A 392 

Kulzer, John G 334 


Lacey, John B 351 

Lambert, Lawrence 391 

Lane, Harry B 286 

Lang, Peter J 261 

Lapray, George 370 

Lapray, Joseph 241 

Laundrv, Henry 308 

Layton,' Daniel D 268 

Leblank, John 218 

Ledgerwood, Christopher A 319 

Leonard, Luther A 196 

Liepp, John 311 

Lindahl, Charles 354 

Linder, Peter N 346 

Linton, William H 373 

Long, Jesse L 208 

Long, John H 208 

Luce, Alvah E 271 

MacDonald, Donald 201 

Magee, John H 243 

Maher, John T 329 

Major, Thomas R 255 

Maloney, Martin J 321 

Mantz, Charles A 318 

Marks, Eugene 198 

Martin, Grant 269 

Martin, Jacob 349 

Martin, Jacob E 348 

Maxwell, John W 242 

i\Iaxwell, William H 238 

Meek, John 359 

Metcalfe, John L 366 

Meyers, Calvin H 367 

Meyers, Louther W 288 

McCloud, Erasmus S 309 

McCoy, Robert L 225 

McDonald, Archibald G 215 

McGregor, John H 243 

McKinney, Alfred 294 

McRae, Roderick D 260 

Moomaw, Samuel T 300 

Montgomery, Charles H 276 

Moon, George H 345 

Moon, Horace G 357 

Moon, Sam 186 

Monroe, James 199 

Morgan, Henry 293 

Morrison, Thomas E 341 

Morrow, John E 308 

Mowatt, George A 400 

Murphy, Charles F 232 

Nagle, Richard 313 

Nelson, John B 31s 

Nett, P. Joseph 386 

Neumann, George 273 

Newhouse, James 370 

Oakes, William H 253 

Olson, John 30.^ 

Overmyer, Ralph E 258 

Pahl, C. F. William 388 

Parker, Cigmarion 282 

Pease. Flavins E 197 

Pelkey, Joseph H 324 

Peone, Louis 319 

Peltier, Moses C 265 

Perkins, Andrew F 301 

Phelps, Forrest 1 373 

Platts, John C 338 

Pomeroy, Henry 393 

Potter, Abe 387 

Prouty, Austin 29s 

Ralston, Albert 375 

Rame\', Richard G 191 

Ramey, Richard T 195 

Rasmussen, Peter 340 

Ranch, John W 210 

Rednours, George 198 

Reid, Robert 35 1 

Reilly, James C 258 

Reynolds, Enoch J 264 

Richards, Charles B 273 

Richmond, James M 335 

Rickard, Barney 283 

Rickey, John 317 

Rider, Elbridge C 199 

Rigg, Charles T 277 

Riggs, Ira L 231 

Rivers, Adolph 295 

Roberts, Joseph 200 

Roberts, Randolph 280 

Rochford, J. A 354 

Rogers, James N 194 

Rogers, John T 189 

Ross, Clarence E 185 

Rusch, Peter 299 

Rusho, Anthony J 190 

Russell, William K 188 

Salvage, Frank 279 

Salvage, James T 287 

Salvage, John 282 

Savage, Frank A 276 

Scott, Edward W 222 

Scott, Jacob 222 

Scott, Richard P 184 

Scott, Wilber F 223 

Schulenburg, Henry 202 

Schutze, Ernest H 194 

Seabrandt, Henry 396 

Seal, George W 315 

Seigle, Harry M 285 

Sewell, James A 270 

Shannon. Benjamin F 24S 

Sharp, Elmer L 331 

Sharp, Monroe L 363 

Shepard, John H 219 

Shepler, Alphonso V 394 

Sherwood, Samuel F 289 

Slater, John B 327 

Slocum, Ralph A 337 

Smith, Floyd C ,236 

Smith, George W 225 

Smith, John L 362 

Smith, Roland T 280 

Smith, Thomas M 298 

Smith, William D 376 

Snodgrass, Eugene 304 

Spaulding, Alonzo 228 

Spence, James 391 

Spence, James P 39i 

Spencer, William H 296 

Staves, George H 303 

Stearns, William W 221 

Stensgar, Alexander 281 

Stensgar, Isaac 201 

Stolp, Claud 390 

Stolp, Mead C 22.1 

Stone, Samuel 401 

Storm, Jasper N 368 



Story, John W 390 

Story, Joshua 394 

Story, Perry D 390 

St. Pere, David 293 

Sturgis, Benjamin S 344 

Sullivan, Edward S 360 

Sullivan, Rodger 309 

Sykes, Adelbert B 246 

Sykes, Gustavus W 247 

Tait, Thomas 384 

Tarble, M. Elsie 385 

'I'avlor, William J 342 

Tessmann, Carl 299 

Tetro, Peter 397 

Theis. George 332 

Thomas, George 237 

Thomas, Robert 254 

Thomason, Mary L 240 

Thompson, Joseph 382 

Towle, Rofseter 1 347 

Townsend. William P 322 

Travis, John J 233 

Troger, Henry 267 

Troger, Louis 261 

Tuttle, James B., Jr 336 

Tweedie, Henry 330 

Uterhardt, Frank W. A 325 

Vanhorn, Williatn O ■. . . 272 

Van Slyke, Elijah A 3S9 

von Zweygberg, Johan A 204 

Weston, Eli S 

Weston, William E. . . 

Whitney Fred A 

Wilcox, Deles E 

Wiley, James G 

Wilson, Emsley D.... 

Wilson, Fred E 

Willenbrink. Bernard 
Williams, Charles ... 
William-., Weslie S. .. 

Wade, John 278 

Waitt, Charles 3«i 

Wakefield, George W 230 

Walker, Frank 255 

Walter, Arthur G 287 

Waterman, Kendrick S 362 

Watts, David M 210 

Wayland, Stephen E 334 

Weatherwa.x, Frank 333 

Weatherwax, Henry 183 

Welch, Thomas R 234 

Wells, Edward P 377 

Weston, Charles H 213 

Weston, Charles R 226 

Wiiichcsur, Frank 
Windle, Joseph A. 
Wisner, George H. 
Wolff, Francis . . . 
Wright, George E.. 
Wynne, Richard J. 

Young, Jerry 
Young, J. H. 
Young, Zell. . 

Zent, Daniel J. . . . 
Zigler, George W. 




Bidgood, Amiron E 304 

Brown, Thomas 240 

Cagle, William S 304 

Cagle, Mrs. William S 304 

Chamberlin, Charles H 224 

Conrady, Charles F 224 

Crandall, Uriah 328 

Day, William 224 

Dupuis, Norbert 264 

Felt, Jay H 328 

Fountain Robert 32S 

Fry, Nathan B 264 

Hartill, Enoch 304 

Hughson, Andrew 288 

Joneson, Emil 304 


Keller, Henry 183 

Knapp, George H 304 

Lapray, Joseph 240 

Lapray, Mrs. Joseph 240 

MacDonald, Donald 200 

Maher, John T 328 

McCoy, Robert L 224 

Meyers, Louthcr W 288 

Olson, John 304 

Olson, Mrs. John 304 

Peltier, Moses C 264 

Reynolds, E. John 264 

Roberts, Joseph 200 

Roberts, Mrs. Joseph 200 


Ross, Clarence E 183 

Scott, Richard P i8.i!' 

Sherwood, Samuel F 288 

Smith, George W 224 

Snodgrass, Eugene 304 

Spaulding, Alonzo 224 

Stensgar. Isaac 200 

Stolp, Mead C 224 

Sullivan, Edward S .^fo 

Thomason, Mary L 240 

Tweedie, Henry, 32S 

Weatherwax, Henry 183 

Weston, Charles R 224 

Weston, Eli S 224 

Zcnt, Daniel J 288 


Baizlev, George F 467 

Ballew, Irvin 4^3 

Barrett, Thomas F 474 

Bewley, John M 480 

Bennett, Charles P 478 

Brown, William C 476 

Clark, Michael 453 

Clark, William M 466 

Creasor, Philip 45° 

Crounse, Millard F 463 

Dahl, Henry 453 


DeGasper, Joseph D 457 

Dcsautel, Gilbert 458 

Desautel. Maxim 470 

Dimond, Quinland 4^9 

Dodson, John A 475 

Fortman, N. J. H 477 

Fuller, Thomas D 4St 

Gendron, Alexander 461 

Gendron, Anthony 461 

Gray, Samuel 481 


Hall, Daniel R 464 

Hall, Robert J 464 

Herron, George 459 

Hurley, George J 45' 

Johnson. James T 474 

Jones, Michael R 480 

Keck, Ben F 479 

Keogan, Richard 45o 

LaFlciu, Isaac 468 

Lambert, Stephen 457 



Lewis, Charles H 467 

Mack, Harry D 466 

Manley, Shere H 475 

Mars, Arthur C 462 

Mason, L. H 462 

May, John F 464 

McCann, John W 461 

McDougall, John D 456 

Mires, John S 449 

Nelson, Peter B 465 

O'Brien, Frank 460 


Otto, William C 472 

Peone, Dennis 454 

Ragsdale, Fred 478 

Raymond, Alexander 460 

Ritter, John E 473 

Rumsey, Howard D 456 

Runnels, George W 483 

Rutherford, Justice A 470 

Samby, Joseph 458 

Seibert, John W 482 

Shinn. Maxwell H 468 

Sly, Lester 472 


Stack, John 471 

Stewart, Alphaeus E 449 

Stover, William L 453 

Summers, Frank 463 

Thompson, Harry W 482 

Tompkins, Gideon J 479 

Wagner, William 454 

Waisman, Henry 471 

Wakefield, William B 477 

Watson, John J 455 

Wilmot, Lew P 484 

Winker, Joseph 469 


Creasor, Philip . . 
Fuller, Thomas D. 

Hurley, George J 449 

John S., 

Stewart, Alphaeus E. 



Alderman, Warren W 604 

Almquist, Charles W 601 

Andersen, Anton 656 

Anglin, Thomas S 579 

Arbogast, Ira 593 

Barron, Stephen E 575 

Bassett, Chandler 663 

Beall, John 607 

Beall, Lloyd 654 

Beidler, Elliott W 661 

Blaine, James P 617 

Blatt, Charles A 603 

Block, Frank A 577 

Bottomley, Jennie 660 

Bown, Walter 582 

Brackett, Andrew J 629 

Brigham, Ervin F 667 

Burdett, James 620 

Burton, Levi D 632 

Carpenter, John W 599 

Champneys, Herbert G 602 

Champneys, Weldon V 633 

Chilson, Daniel G 6l'> 

Chilson. Elisha P 624 

Clerf, Frank H 595 

Cloud, Walter W 595 

Colwell, James L '. . . . 657 

Cooper, George 581 

Cooper, William Z 628 

Couche, James B 627 

Cummings, Frank J 610 

Cutchie, John M 647 

Dallam, Frank M 666 

Davis, W. L 605 

Decent, Henry P 604 


Doheny, Henry 653 

Donnelly, Frank J 664 

Drury, Lafayette 666 

Edwards, Adelbert G 655 

Filer, Peter L 614 

Forde,' James E 625 

French, Wellington 6s6 

Fulton, Frank M 589 

Gamble, Daniel S' 635 

Garigen, Mathias 583 

Garrett, John C 615 

Garrett, Robert A 596 

Gillespie, David L 665 

Grant, Charles 613 

Grant, William E 621 

Grififin, Matthew D 582 

Grogan, Frank 607 

Hall, Joseph 591 

Hamilton. William 643 

Hancock, John 601 

Hargrove. Robert R 597 

Harris, Harry A 648 

Holt, James M 616 

Hone. John 1 610 

Huntley, Hiram A 580 

Hurlbert, George R 6r6 

Ives, Lee 591 

Johnson, Earl F 642 

Johnston, Andrew W 593 

Johnston. James A 645 

Jones, Charles L 6^3 

Joyce, Bill 584 


Judd, James M 661 

Kahlow, William R. . 585 

Kaufman, Lewis A 637 

Kendall. John 622 

Kiper. James A 588 

Lancaster. Prince A 610 

Lauber. Meinrad 645 

Lawrence, John C 589 

Lenton, Joseph 647 

Lewis, Walter E 598 

Lewis, William 602 

Libby, Ashbel 657 

Looniis, Julius A 636 

Loudon, George W 611 

Loundagin, Lawson A 623 

Macaulay, Alax 600 

Maloney, Michael 586 

Maloney, Ted 588 

Malott, Leonard C 587 

Marshall. Antoinc 631 

McDaniel. William H 648 

McDonald, John 625 

McDonald, John H 592 

McEachen, John 630 

McFarlane. Charles S 580 

McKinley, Charles R 649 

McKinney, James M 646 

McLean, Chauncey R 626 

Moore, George W S99 

Muller, Karl A 631 

Muller, Karl R 595 

Munson, Willard K .S87 

Murray, Thomas M 650 

Nelson, Nels B 638 



Nickell, George E ego 

Nickell, Harvey H 639 

Noyes, George H 651 

Ogden, Conburse J 658 

Overacker, Edward S 613 

Patterson. Sam 614 

Payne, E. L 662 

Pendergast, Edmund K 618 

Peterson, Charles T 660 

Peterson, William T 640 

Phillips, John Y 578 

Piper, August J 621 

Pitman, John M 608 

Pogue, Joseph 1 585 

Prewitt, Robert T 629 

Proebstel, William F 642 

Ragen, John 576 

Reilly, Peter 649 

Rinehart, Jonathan C 622 

Risley, Joshtia .M 658 

Rizeor, Henry J 627 

Rounds, Edwin P 577 

Ruark, William F 615 

Schafer, John 619 

Sincock, Samuel J 596 

Skeffington, Joseph 576 

Snialley, M. A 659 

Sneve, Peter S 588 

Speckman, John 662 

Squires, Andrew J 594 

Stansbury, F>ank L 620 

Staton, Henry B 056 

Stofferan, Louis 581 

Stone, Horace L 628 

Stone, Manford G 641 

Taylor, Wilson M 609 

Thein, John P 663 

Thompson, Henry 644 

Thorp, Alvin R 606 


Tindall, George W 632 

Van Brunt, Harry 578 

Vanderpool, George W 643 

Ventzke, Emil 590 

Ventzke, Fred F 617 

Waglay, Richard 626 

Walter, John E 639 

Wehe, A. George 634 

Wehe, Eugene F 664 

Wehe, Frederick P 637 

Wellington, Henry 507 

Wentworth, John M O05 

Wheeler, Emery P 609 

White, Edward F 619 

Wilder, Hiram A 651 

Willard, Lyman W 652 

Williams, Henry A 641 

Williams, John D 584 

Willmarth. Frank M 655 

Wilson, William C 634 

Witte, George W 643 

Wright, Francis M 592 


Barron, Stephen E 575 

Blaine, James P 616 

Burton, Levi D 632 

Donnelly, Frank J 664 

Hurlbert, George R 616 

.^L^caulay, Alax 600 

Pendergast, E. K, 
Ventzke, Fred F. 



Bailey, Isaac J 838 

Bellinger, Philip 765 

Biggar, W. J 794 

Bills, Hiram G 799 

Bjork, John B 746 

Blair,_ George W 816 

Bonar, Jesse D 747 

Bowman, Louis H 823 

Boyd, SpenCer 792 

Britt, DeWitt C 834 

Brown, George W 782 

Brown, Noah N 777 

Brown, Reuben A 750 

Browne, Guy C 788 

Bryant, Albert G 795 

Burbank, Andrew S 748 

Buttles, Charles E 755 

Caldwell, Henry M 776 

Campbell. Clinton C 827 

Carpenter, Joseph C 835 

Chapman, Benjamin M 815 

Christensen, Carl 780 

Clayton, Albert P 76S 

Colt, Lyman R 759 

Cblver, Charles 745 

Cool, Adelbert L S09 

Cooper, Charles G 797 

Cottrell, George E 753 


Courtway, Albert N 796 

Cromwell, Charles 790 

Gulp, Frank E 786 

Darby, Alonzo E. . .- 805 

Darnell, Joseph .' 79 1 

Dawson, Arthur H 837 

Derifield. Isaac M 806 

Detwiler, Lewis 7n 

Devore, Dan 791 

Dexter. William H 820 

Drew, Will S 825 

Edmunds. Amos 828 

Edwards, Ira D 781 

Farnham, Frederick C 817 

Farwell, George H 8:7 

Ferguson. James W 772 

Field. Merritt E &r8 

Frank, Emil 806 

Freer, Ira 801 

Freytag, Charles H. A 77S 

Geddes. Irvin R 771 

Gehr, Winfield S. 766 

Gellatly. John A 812 

Gibson, Thomas R 774 

Gibson, William ....' 812 


Gilchrist, Colin 744 

Graham, Howard A 778 

Grant, George F 805 

Gray, Charles E 807 

Gray, George H 752 

Gray, Horatio B 784 

Griggs, Bruce K 757 

Gunn, Arthur 773 

Hansen, Clans E 758 

Harlin, Charles A 8i6 

Haskell, Charles F. B 832 

Hedding, Charles E 812 

Hinman, W. Edward 765 

Hoag, Oscar h 827 

Holcomb, Pearl P 815 

Holden, James H 825 

Holden, John 8oi 

Holmes. James B 803 

Holzhauser. William F. J 833 

Horan, Michael 814 

Howard, Stapleton C 833 

Jacobs. Judson L 7+2 

Johnson, Charles 775 

Johnson, Ozias D 779 

Johnson, Rufus D 776 

King, Charles C ....836 



Kingman, Morrison M 74s 

Knowles, Albert 821 

Knowles, Amos 837 

Lanham, Zadok A 798 

Larrabee, Julius A 792 

Leonard, Dike 820 

Lindsay, Amasa S 822 

Losekamp, Franklin A 769 

MacLean, Lauchlin- 741 

Martin, C. Victor 770 

McCready, Sylvester C 769 

McFarland. Jeremiah 800 

McKenzie, William K 742 

Messerly, Alpheus 804 

Messerly, Elias 764 

Miller, Jacob H 807 

Miller, John F 808 

Miller, John G 790 

Miller, Philip 828 

Mitchell, Levi W 761 

Moore, J. Robert 811 

Moore, William B 761 

Morical, Samuel E 758 

Morris, Enoch 784 

Morris, Enoch F 784 

Morrison, Charles A 789 

Musgrove, Thomas W 75i 

Navarre, Ignatius A 766 

Newland, William S 829 

Northup, Charles 752 

Northup, Edward D 762 

Olive, Walter M 829 


Paton, William B 831 

Patterson, Hector 802 

Pattison, Thomas 772 

Peterson, Julius M 824 

Petrie, Daniel 804 

Pflaeging, Fred 760 

Phillips, Scott VV 767 

Pitcher, Alexander 818 

Porter, John E 764 

Prowell, Winter R 830 

Rarey, William T 813 

Rea, James 754 

Reed, C. Will 796 

Reeve.';, Frank 747 

Reeves. Fred 762 

Richards, Walter D, 810 

Richardson, George T 802 

Riddle, Richard W 759 

Ringstadt, John P 823 

Robichaud, Peter 774 

Robinson, Christopher 787 

Rose, Conrad 748 

Rowse, George L 824 

Sanders, 'william L 793 

Scheble, Ellsworth D 751 

Schindler, Charles A 802 

Schrader, Adolph 760 

Shamel, Allen C 779 

Shelton, Joseph L 753 

Shotwell, Ellsworth E 743 

Shotwell, Harry 1 819 

Shotwell, Jacob A 786 


Simmons, Herman S 831 

Skiles, Robert 1 750 

Slawson, Frank D 782 

Smith, Benjamin F 793 

Smith, Irving 797 

Smith, John 774 

Sprague, Ernest F 749 

Stevens, Wendell E 798 

Stewart, Squire 834 

Stohl, Charles E 763 

Swanson, Paul 819 

Taylor, Frank S 753 

Thompson, Harvey 826 

Treadwell, David 754 

Tripp, Talman 821 

Turner, William 813 

Venneberg, Martin 79s 

Wallberg, Edmund 781 

Wallender, J 835 

Walsh, John 810 

Wapato, John 743 

Wapato, John B 758 

Warner, William J 818 

Webb, Richard P 785 

Wentworth, Harry W 756 

Weythman. James L 783 

Wheeler, Peter 771 

Wilson, David C 836 

Wilson, George 787 

Wilson. Melvin P 803 

Wolf, Daniel C 780 

Wright, Leroy 799 



Blair, George 816 

Blair, William 816 

Clayton, Albert P 768 

' Cottrell, George E 75^ 

Farwell, George H 816 

Field, Merritt E 808 

Freer, Ira 800 

Freer, Mrs. Ira 800 

Gray, George H 752 


Gray, Mrs. George H 752 

Harlin, Charles A 816 

Haskell, Charles F. B 832 

Holden, John 800 

Larrabee, Julius A 792 

Leonard, Dike S20 

MacLean, Lauchlin 741 

McFarland, J 800 

McFarland, Mrs. J 800 


Miller, Philip 828 

Miller, Samuel 784 

Morris, Enoch 784 

Morris, Mrs. Enoch 784 

Morris, Enoch F 784 

Morris, Mrs. Enoch F 784 

Northup, Charles _. 752 

Richardson, George T 800 

Rowse, George L 824 

Schindler, Charles A 800 








Few students of history ha\-e failed to ob- 
serve the immediate impetus given to maritime 
exploration by the royally proclaimed exploit 
of Columbus in 1492. Only nine years after the 
caravels of the Italian navigator had dropped 
anchor in American waters, off San Salvador, 
a Portugese sailor, Caspar Cortereal, was cau- 
tiously feeling his way along the Atlantic coast. 
This was in the summer of 1501. This voyage 
of Cortereal reached as high, on the Atlantic 
mainland of North America, as 42 degrees 
north. Certain historians have claimed that the 
explorations of Cortereal really antedated the 
discovery of Columbus. But of this there is no 
authentic evidence ; there is an accumulation of 
testimony to the contrary. By eminent cosmo- 
graphists the }ear 1501 is now accepted as the 
period of Cortereal's exploits on the coast of 
the Atlantic, in the vicinity of modern New 
England. This expedition of two caravels had 
been sent out l)y Manuel, King of Portugal. 
There is no proof that this voyage had any 
other object, at least any other result, than 
profit. Seizing fifty Indians he carried them 
away, on his return, and sold them as slaves. 

As Cortereal was among the earliest on the 
Atlantic seaboard, so Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo, 
or Cabrilla, as the name is variously spelled, 
is admitted to have been the earliest navigator. 

along- southern California. It was evidently 
the intention of Cabrillo, to continue his voyage 
far higher on the Northwest Coast, for he, too, 
had heard of the mysterious "Strait of Anian," 
and was enthused with most laudable geograph- 
ical ambition. But fate ruled otherwise. Ca- 
brillo died in the harbor of San Diego, Cali- 
fornia, in January, 1543, fifty-one years after 
the momentous achievement of Columbus on 
the southeastern shores of the present United 
States. The mantle of Cabrillo fell upon the 
shoidders of his pilot, Bartolome Ferrelo. To 
within two and one-half degrees of the mouth 
of the Columbia river Ferrelo continued the 
exploration, tracing the western coast of the 
American continent along this portion of the 
Pacific, and to Ferrelo has been accredited the 
honor of having been the first white man to 
gaze upon the coast of Oregon. 

But back of that dimly outlined shore which 
Ferrelo skirted, above latitude 42 degrees, far 
inland, lay the immense, wonderful territory 
which afterward became Oregon. It is not 
susceptible of proof that Ferrelo ever gained 
north of the present Astoria, although this 
claim was at one period urged by Spain. But 
a country which could solemnly lay claim to the 
whole Pacific ocean would not be at all back- 
ward in declaring that one of her navigators 


was tlie first to sight the Northwest Coast, and 
that, too, far above the point really gained by 
Ferrelo. It is not considered likely that he 
reached above the mouth of Umpqua river. 

In 1577 Francis Drake, ai privateer and 
freebooter, a pirate and plunderer of Spanish 
galleons, yet withal a man of strong character 
and enterprising spirit, attempted to find a 
northwest passage. Drake probably reached 
as high as latitude 43 degrees, and dropped his 
anchors into the shoals of that region. No in- 
land explorations were achieved by him, and 
he reluctantly abandoned the search for Anian, 
returned to Drake's Bay, on the coast of Cali- 
fornia, and subsequently to England around the 
Cape of Good Hope. En passant it is notice- 
able that during the famous Oregon Contro- 
versy, which obtained ascendancy in interna- 
tional politics two hundred and fifty years later, 
the discoveries of Drake were not presented by 
England in support of her claims for all terri- 
tory north of the Columbia river. Whether 
Great Britain was doubtful of the validity of 
discoveries made by a freebooter, or attached no 
importance to his achievement, the fact remains 
that they were not urged with any force or en- 

Cabrillo and Ferrelo were not emulated in 
maritime discoveries in the waters of the 
Northwest Coast, until 1550. But on the 
shore-line of the Atlantic, Cartier, for six years, 
between 1536 and 1542, had made a number of 
inland voyages, ascending the St. Lawrence 
Gulf and river five hundred miles, past the site 
of Montreal and to the falls of St. Louis. In 
the far south Hernando De Soto, contemporary 
with Cartier, had sailed coastwise along the 
Florida peninsula and penetrated that tropical 
country until forced back by swamps, morasses 
and everglades. Inland exploration in the mid- 
dle of the sixteenth century comprised, prac- 
tically, in its northern limitations, a line cross- 
ing the continent a few miles below the 36th 
parallel, from the Colorado to the Savannahs, 
Coronado advancing into the modern Kansas, 

having passed the line at its central part. The 
Pacific had been explored sufficiently only to 
barely show the shore-line to the 44th degree of 
north latitude. 

In the way of northern exploration on the 
Pacific coast Spain had, in 1550, accomplished 
little or nothing. But fifteen years afterward 
Spain became aggressive along the lines of mar- 
itime activity. Urdaneta, in 1565, planned and 
executed the initial voyage eastward, opening 
a northern route to the Pacific coast of North 
America. ' He was followed, from the Philip- 
pines, by Manila traders, eager for gain, and 
for two centuries thereafter, through the rise 
and decline of Spanish commercial supremacy, 
these active and energetic sailors reaped large 
rewards from the costly furs found in the 
waters of the Northwest Coast. It is fair to 
say that the spirit of commercialism contributed 
far more toward development of the region 
of which this history treats than did the more 
sentimental efforts of geographical science. 

Still, the latter spirit was not without its 
apostles and propagandists. Among them was 
one who called himself Juan de Fuca, a Greek 
of Cephalonia. His real name was Apostolos 
Valerianos. Acting, as had Columbus, under 
royal commission from the King of Spain, he 
sailed bravely away to find the legendary Strait 
of Anian — the marine pathway between the 
greatest oceans of the world. The name of 
Anian, a mythical northwestern kingdom, orig- 
inated in 1500, and is said to have been taken in 
I honor of a brother of Cortereal. The real strait 
was discovered by Russians in 1750. These 
Russians were fur-hunting Cossacks, who 
reached the Pacific coast of North America in 
1639. Their point of rendezvous was at 
Okhotsk, on the sea of that name. 

Though the voyage of Juan de Fuca proved 
fruitless it must be conceded that it was con- 
ceived in the interest of science ; a move in be- 
half of international economics, and honorable 
alike to both Spain and the intrepid navigator. 
In 1584 Francisco de Gali reached the Pacific 


coast, from the west, in 37 degrees 30 minutes ; 
some say 57 degrees 30 minutes. He was con- 
tent to sail southward without landing, but 
recorded for the archives of Spain the trend 
and shore-line of the coast. By the same route 
Cermenon, in 1595, met with disaster by losing 
his vessel in Drake's Bay, a short distance 
above the present city of San Francisco. 
Prominent among numerous other voyagers, 
mainly bent on profit, were Espejo, Perea, 
Lopez and Captain Vaca. 

As has been stated, the earliest explorations 
of the Northwest Coast were maritime. They 
were, also, in the main, confined between lati- 
tudes 42 degrees and 54 degrees, mainly south 
of the boundary line finally accepted by Great 
Britain as between Canada and the United 
States. Even in that twilight preceding the 
broad day of inland discovery, there were wars 
between nations, with "Oregon" the issue, and 
some compromises. Later came the advance 
guard of inland explorers who found, at the 
occidental terminus of their perilous journeys, 
a comparatively unknown seaboard 750 miles 
in extent, below the vast reaches of Alaskan 
territory and the Aleutian Islands. From the 
far north came Russian explorers, and they en- 
countered Southern navigators who had come 
upward from the ambrosial tropics. They com- 
pared notes, they detailed to each other many 
facts, intermixed with voluminous fiction, but 
from the whole was picked out and arranged 
much of geographical certainty. Four nations 
of Pacific navigators came to what afterward 
was known as Oregon, related their adventures, 
boasted of the discoveries each had made, dis- 
cussed the probability of a northwest passage, 
the "Strait of Anian," — and the Northwest 
Mystery remained a myster\f still. 

The Spaniards, between 1492 and 1550. 
were in the lead so far as concerns actual geo- 
graphical results, of all other European sailors. 
Spain, through the agency of the Italian, Col- 
umbus, had discovered a new world : Spain had 
meandered the coast-line for 30,000 miles, from 

60 degrees on the Atlantis coast of Labrador, 
round by JMagellan Strait, to 40 degrees on the 
coast of the Pacific. Vast were the possibilities 
of the future for Spain, and the world did 
honor to her unequalled achievement. From a 
broad, humanitarian view point, it is a sad 
reflection that so many of the golden promises 
held out to her should have, in subsequent cen- 
turies, faded away as fades the elusive rainbow 
against the storm-cloud background. But 
Spain's misfortune became North America's 
opportunity. England, too, and Russia, 
watched and waited, seized and assimilated so 
ra*pidly as possible, piece by piece the territory 
on which the feet of Spanish explorers had been 
first planted. That it was the survival of the 
fittest may, possibly, remain unquestioned, but 
it is a fact that Spain's gradual yet certain loss 
of the most valuable territory in the world has 
furnished many of the most stirring episodes 
in the world's history. Spain has lost, sold, 
ceded and relinquished vast domains to nearly 
all the modern powers. And not the least valu- 
able of Spain's former possessions are now 
under the Stars and Stripes. 

Thus far has been hastily sketched the 
salient facts concerning the earliest maritime 
discoveries of the Northwest Coast. None of 
the Spanish, English, Russian or Italian navi- 
gators had penetrated inland farther than a few 
miles up the estuary of the Columbia river. It 
was destined to remain for a class of explorers 
other than maritime, yet equally courageous 
and enterprising, to blaze the trail for future 
pioneers from the east. 

To Alexander Mackenzie, a native of In- 
verness, knighted by George III, is accredited 
the honor of being the first European to force 
a passage of the Rocky Mountains north of 
California. On June 3, 1789. Mackenzie left 
Fort Chipewyan, situated at the western point 
of Athabasca lake, in two canoes. He was ac- 
companied by a German, four Canadians, two 
of them with wives, an Indian, named English 
Chief, and M. Le Roux, the latter in the capac- 


ity of clerk and supercargo of the expedition. 
The route of this adventurous party was by the 
way of Slave river and Slave lake, thence down 
a stream subsequently named the Mackenzie 
river, on to the Arctic Ocean, striking the coast 
at latitude 52 degrees, 24 minutes, 48 seconds. 
This territory is all within the present boundar- 
ies of British Columbia, north of the line finally 
accepted as the northern boundary of "Oregon" 
by the English diplomats. 

Singular as it may appear there is no 
authentic history of the origin of this term 
"Oregon." There is, however, cumulative 
testimony to the effect that the name was in- 
vented by Jonathan Carver, who pushed his in- 
land explorations beyond the headwaters of the 
Mississippi river; that the name was exploited 
and made famous by William Cullen Bryant, 
'author of "Thanatopsis," and late editor of the 
Nezv York Evening Post; that it was fastened 
upon the Columbia river territory, originally 
by Hall J. Kelley, through his memorials to 
congress in 181 7, and secondly by various other 
English and American authors. Aside from 
this explanation are numerous theories adduc- 
ing Spanish derivatives of rather ambiguous 
context, but lacking lucidity or force. It is 
likely that no more etymological radiance 
will ever be thrown upon what, after all, is a 
rather unimportant, though often mooted 

The expedition of Mackenzie, crowned with 
results most valuable to science and territorial 
development, comprised one hundred and two 
days. At the point he first made, on the Pacific 
coast the explorer executed, with vermillion 
and grease, a rude sign bearing the following- 
inscription : "Alexander Mackenzie, from Can- 
ada by land, July 22, 1793." Subsequent ex- 
peditions were made by Mackenzie to the coast, 
one of them via the Peace river. 

But now comes one M. Le Page du Pratz, 
a talented and scholarlv French savant, with 

the statement made se^•eral years ago, that 
neither Mackenzie nor Lewis and Clarke were 
the first to cross the Rockies and gain the 
Northwest Coast. Our French student claims 
to have discovered a Natchez Indian, being of 
the tribe of the Yahoos, called LTnterprete, on 
account of the various languages he had ac- 
quired, but named by his own people Moncacht 
Ape, "He Who Kills Trouble and Fatigue." 
M. Le Page declares that this man, actuated 
mainly by curiosity, a stimulant underlying all 
advancement, unassisted and unattended, trav- 
eled from the Mississippi river to the Pacific 
coast so early as 1743. This was sixty years 
before President Jefferson dispatched Captains 
Lewis and Clarke on their governmental expe- 
dition, the results of which have proved so im- 
portant and momentuous in the history of the 
development of Oregon and Washington. 
Moncacht Ape, it is claimed, met many tribes 
of Indians, made friends with all of them, ac- 
quired portions of complex dialects, gained as- 
sistance and information and, eventually gazed 
upon the same waters upon which Balboa had 
fixed his eyes with enthusiasm, many hundreds 
of miles to the south. 

It can not be denied that hardly has a great 
discovery been heralded to the world ere some 
rival genius springs up to claim it. Possibly 
it is this spirit which may have actuated M. Le 
Page in producing the somewhat mysterious 
Moncacht Ape, to pose as the pioneer of North- 
western exploration. But we, of to-day, are in 
no position to combat his claims, reserving to 
ourselves the undeniable fact that Mackenzie, 
Lewis and Clarke were- the first white men to 
gain, overland, the Northwest Coast. 

From 1500 to 1803 this greatly abridged 
foreword has traced northwestern discoveries. 
We now enter upon a brief description of the 
glorious achievements of Lewis and Clarke in 
that portion of their journey so fruitful with 
results to Washington and Oregon. 



Eleven years before the departure of Lewis 
and Clarke, on their expedition to the North- 
west, President Jefferson in 1792, proposed a 
plan to the American Philosophical Society, in- 
volving a subscription for the purpose of em- 
ploying a competent person who should pro- 
ceed by land to the Northwest Coast. It is at 
this period that Captain Meriwether Lewis 
emerges from the obscurity of his military post 
at Charlotteville. Virginia. It had been ar- 
ranged that M. Michaux, a French botanist, 
should become the companion of Captain 
Lewis. These two had proceeded on their 
journey so far as Kentucky, at that time one 
of the western states, when an end was put to 
this initial enterprise by the French minister, 
who suddenly discovered that he had use for 
.the botaracal abilities of M. Michaux else- 
where. The later was recalled. 

But this plan, which had grown in devel- 
opment of detail since its inception, was not 
abandoned by Jefferson. In 1803, on the eve 
of expiration of the act for the establishment 
of trading posts among Indians, the president 
again brought forward the scheme which he 
had first proposed to the American Philosophi- 
cal Society. The object sought was to trace 
the Missouri river to its source, cross the 
Rocky Mountains, and gain tlie Pacific Ocean. 
This was most satisfactorily accomplished, and 
because this expedition first sighted the Pacific 
in latitude 46 degrees, 19 minutes 11.7 seconds, 
it becomes an important factor, within the ter- 
ritorial limits of this history. Tlie confidential 
message, transmitted by President Jefferson to 
congress, in January. 1803, had been favorably 
received, and results were far beyond his most 

sanguine expectations. Not only had the orig- 
inal plan been fully approx'ed, but it was consid- 
erably amplified in its details, and Captain 
Lewis had been given as a companion, William 
Clarke, brother of General George Rogers 
Clarke. To Captain Lewis, to whom was 
given full command of the expedition, instruc- 
tions were imparted concerning the route, va- 
rious objects to which inquiries should be 
directed, relating to geography, character of 
the country traversed, the different inhabitants, 
biology, and such other scientific information 
as it was possible to obtain. 

Coincident with this momentous under- 
taking another, and equally important negotia- 
tion was being carried to a successful conclu- 
sion. This was the Louisiana Purchase from 
Napoleon Bonaparte, by which the United 
States acquired title to a domain whose extent 
and topographical location made that other 
territory to which Lewis and Clarke were en 
route, "Oregon," an almost absolute necessity. 
Louisiana, at that period extending from the 
mouth of the Mississippi river to the,' then, 
indefinite boundaries on the north of Montana 
and the Dakotas, had been recently ceded by 
Spain to France. The latter power, by a treaty 
involving the payment to Napoleon of 
$15,000,000, ceded it to the LTnited States. 

Following the return of the Lewis and 
Clarke expedition, a donation of land was made 
by congress to the members of the party. This 
was in 1807. Captain Lewis was appointed 
governor of our newly acquired territory of 
"Louisiana," and Clarke was made agent of 
Indian affairs. But while on his way to Phila- 
delphia, to supervise the publication of his 


journal, in 1807. Captain Lewis was stricken 
with death. 

That portion of Lewis and Clarke's expe- 
dition with which this history concerns itself 
relates chiefly to the achievements of these in- 
trepid captains after they had entered the terri- 
tory known as "Oregon," and from which the 
states of Oregon, Washington and Idaho were 
carved : And what was this territory, at that 
period a terra incognita? Major Joshua 
Pitcher, early in 1800 contributes the following 
brief descripition : 

The form or configuration of the coinitry is the 
most perfect and admirable which the imagination can 
conceive. All its outlines are distinctly marked ; all its 
interior is connected together. Frozen regions on the 
north, the ocean and its mountainous coast to the west, 
the Rocky Mountains to the east, sandy and desert 
plains to the south— such are its boundaries. Within 
the whole country is watered by the streams of a single 
river, issuing from the north, east and south, uniting 
in the region of tidewater, and communicating with the 
sea by a single outlet. Such a country is formed for 
defense, and whatever power gets possession of it will 
probably be able to keep it. 

This was published in Volume I, No. 39, 
senate documents. Twenty-first Congress, sec- 
ond session. A more extended description is 
sketched later by Mr. Parker, who says : 

Beyond the Rocky Mountains nature appears to 
have studied variety on the largest scale. Towering 
mountains and wide-extended prairies, rich valleys and 
barren plains, and large rivers, with their rapids, cata- 
racts and falls, present a great variety of prospects. 
The whole country is so mountainous that there is no 
elevation from which a person can not see some of the 
immense range which intersect its various parts. 
From an elevation a short distance from Fort Van- 
couver, five isolated, conical mountains, from ten to 
fifteen thousand feet high, whose tops are covered with 
perpetual snow, may be seen rising in the surrounding 
valley. There are three general ranges west of the 
Rocky chain of mountains, running in northern and 
southern directions; the first above the falls of the 
Columbia river ; the second at and below the Cascades ; 
the third toward and along the shores of the Pacific. 
From each of these branches extend in different direc- 
tions. Besides these there are those in different parts 
which are large and high, such as the Blue Mountains, 
south of Walla Walla; the Salmon River Mountains, 

between Sahnon and Kooskooskie rivers, and also in 
the region of Okanogan and Colville. The loftiest peaks 
of the Rocky Mountains have been found in about 52 
degrees north latitude, where Mr. Thompson, astrono- 
mer of the Hudson's Bay Company, has ascertained the 
heights of several. One, called Mount Brown, he esti- 
mates at sixteen thousand feet above the level of the 
sea ; another, Mt. Hooker, at fifteen thousand seven hun- 
dred feet. It has been stated, farther (though probably 
with some exaggeration) that he discovered other points 
farther north of an elevation ten thousand feet higher 
than these. Between these mountains are widespread 
valleys and plains. The largest and most fertile valley is 
included between Deer Island in the west, to within 
twelve miles of the Cascades, which is about fifty-five 
miles wide, and extending north and south to a greater 
extent than I had the means of definitely ascertaining: 
probably from Puget Sound on the north, to the 
Umpqua river on the south. 

The Willamette river, and a section of the Colum- 
bia, are included in this valley. The valley south of 
the Walla Walla, called the Grand Rond, is said to ex- 
cel in fertility. To these may be added Pierre's Hole, and 
the adjacent country; also Recueil Amere, east of the 
Salmon River Mountains. Others of less magnitude 
are dispersed over different parts. To these may be 
subjoined extensive plains, most of which are prairies 
well covered with grass. The whole region of country 
west of the Salmon River I\Iountains, the Spokane 
woods and Okanogan, quite to the range of mountains 
that cross the Columbia at the Falls, is a vast prairie 
covered with grass, and the soil is generally good. 
Another large plain which is said to be very barren, 
lies off to the southward of Lewis, or Malheur river, 
including the Shoshone country; and travelers who have 
passed through this have pronounced the interior of 
America a great, barren desert, but this is drawing a 
conclusion far too broad from premis s so limited. 

Aside from Captains Lewis and Clarke, the 
party of exploration consisted of nine young 
men from Kentucky, fourteen United States 
soldiers, who had volunteered their services, 
two French watermen (an interpreter and 
hunter), and a black servant, employed by 
Captain Clarke. Before the close of 1803. prep- 
arations for the voyage were all completed, and 
the party wintered at the mouth of Wood river, 
on the east bank of the Mississippi. 

The start was on May 4, 1804, and the first 
reach made on the sixteenth, was twenty-one 
miles up the Missouri. Of the many surpris- 
ing ad\entures encountered in ascending this 
ri\er to Fort Benton, it is not the province of 


this history to recount. It was toward the 
Northwest Coast that their faces were set, and 
the advent of these -pioneers into the future 
"Oregon" becomes of material interest to 
present residents of this section. 

August 1 8, 1805, fourteen months from the 
departure of this expedition, it had reached the 
extreme navigable point of the Missouri river, 
stated in Captain Lewis' journal, to be in lati- 
tude 43 degrees, 30 minutes, 43 seconds north. 
The party was now, for a certain distance, to 
proceed by land with pack horses. Tribe after 
tribe of strange Indians were encountered, a 
majority of whom met the explorers on friendly 
terms. The party endured hardships innum- 
erable; game was scarce in certain localities, 
and at times the weather was inclement. They 
forded unknown streams, and christened many, 
Lewis river, Clarke's Fork, and others. 

Particular inquiries were made regarding 
the topography of the country and the possibil- 
ity of soon reaching a navigable stream. In 
answer to such questions an ancient chief, who, 
it was claimed, knew more concerning the 
geography of this section of the northwest than 
any one else, drew rude delineations of the vari- 
ous rivers on the ground. It soon developed 
that he knew little about them. But some 
vague information was gained sufficient to 
show that the different streams converged in 
one vast river, the Columbia, running a great 
way toward the "setting sun, and at length los- 
ing itself in a great lake of water, which was ill- 
tasted and where the white men lived." Still 
another route was suggested, an analysis of 
which convinced Captain Clarke that the rivers 
mentioned debouched into the Gulf of Cali- 
fornia. He then inquired concerning the route 
used by the Pierced-nose Indians who, living 
west of the mountains, crossed over to the Mis- 
souri. According to Captain Lewis' journal 
the chief replied, in effect, that the route was a 
very bad one; that during the passage, he had 
been told, they suffered excessively from hun- 
ger, being obliged to subsist for many days on 

berries alone, there being no game in that part 
of the mountains, which was broken and rocky, 
and so thickly covered with timber that they 
could scarcely pass. 

Difficulties, also, surrounded all routes, and 
this one appeared as practicable as any other. 
It was reasoned that if Indians could pass the 
mountains with their women and children, no 
difficulties which they could overcome would 
be formidable to the explorers. Lewis sets 
down in his journal: "If the tribes below the 
mountains were as numerous as they were rep- 
resented to be, they would have some means of 
subsistance equally within our power. They 
had told us, indeed, that the natives to the 
westward subsisted principally on fish and 
roots, and that their only game was a few elk, 
deer and antelope, there being no buffalo west 
of the mountains." 

It was decided by Captain Clarke to ascer- 
tain what difficulty, if any, would be encoun- 
tered in descending the river on which the 
party was then encamped. Continuing down 
tlie stream, which runs nearly northwest, 
through low grounds, rich and wide, they 
came to where it forked, the western branch 
being much larger than the eastern. To this 
stream, or rather the main branch, was given 
the name of Lewis river. The party followed 
it until confronted by insurmountable ob- 
stacles ; it foamed and lashed itself through a 
narrow pass flanked by the loftiest mountains 
Captain Clarke had ever seen. The Indians 
declared that it was impossible to descend the 
river or scale the mountains, snow-capped and 
repellant. They had never been lower than the 
head of the gap made by the river breaking 
through the range. Captain Clarke decided to 
abandon the route. It was determined to pro- 
ceed on their course by land. On being ques- 
tioned their guide drew a map on the sand, rep- 
resenting a road leading toward two forks of 
another river, where lived a tribe of Indians 
called Tushepaws. These people, he said, fre- 
quently came to Lewis river to fish for salmon. 


Through the broken, hilly country through 
which flow the tributaries of the Columbia the 
party pressed forward. On the 29th Captain 
Clarke and his men joined the main party, 
which had made a wide detour in order to gain 
information regarding a more feasible route. 
Although August was not yet passed the 
weather was quite cold, and during the night 
ink froze in the pen and frost covered the 
meadows. Yet the days were warm, and this 
atmospheric condition grew more pronounced 
as they drew nearer the "Oregon" climate. 

The expedition began the passage across 
the mountains August 30, 1805. Accompanied 
by the old guide, his four sons and another 
Indian, the party began the descent of the 
Lemhi river. Three days later all the Indians, 
save the old gviide, deserted them. There being 
no track leading across the mountains it became 
necessary to cut their way through the dense 
underbrush. Although the Indian guide ap- 
pears to have lost his way, on September 4, 
after most arduous labor in forcing a passage 
through the almost impenetrable brush, the 
party came upon a large camp of Indians. The 
following day a "pow-wow" was held, con- 
ducted in many languages, the various dia- 
lects suggesting a modern Babel, but it proved 
sufficient to inform the Indians of the main ob- 
ject of the expedition. These Indians were the 
Ootlashoots, a band of the Tushepaws, on their 
way to join other bands in hunting buffalo on 
Jefferson river, across the Great Divide. Part- 
ing from them the toilsome journey was re- 
sumed. The party was seeking a pass across 
the Bitter Root mountains. Game disappeared. 
On September 14 they were forced to kill a colt, 
their stock of animal food being exhausted. 
And with frequent recurrence to the use of 
horseflesh they pressed on through the wilder- 
ness. An extract from Captain Clarke's jour- 
nal of September 18, conveys an idea of the 
destitute condition of his party : 

We melted some snow and supped on a little porta- 
ble soup, a few cannisters of which, with about twenty 

pounds' weight of bear's oil, are our only remaining 
means of subsistence. Our guns are scarcely of any 
service for there is no living creature in these mountains 
except a few small pheasants, a small species of gray 
squirrel, and a blue bird of the vulture kind, about the 
size of a turtle dove, or jay. Even these are difficult 
to shoot. 

Arriving at a bold, running stream on Sep- 
tember 19, it was appropriately named "Hun- 
gry Creek," as at that point they had nothing to 
eat. On September 20 the party passed down 
the last of the Bitter Root range and gained a 
comparatiA-ely level country. Here they found 
another band of strange Indians, people who 
had ne\-er looked upon the face of a white man. 
They proved hospitable and the party remained 
with them several days. The Indians called 
themselves Chopunnish, or Pierced-noses, the 
Xez Perces of to-da}-. The expedition was now 
in the vicinity of Pierce City, at one period the 
capital of Shoshone county, Idaho. On a white 
elk skin, the chief, Twisted Hair, drew a chart 
of the country to the west, to explain the geog- 
raphy and topography of the district beyond. 
Captain Clarke translates it as follows : 

"According to this the Kooskooskee forks 
(confluence of its north fork) a few miles from 
this place ; two days toward the south is another 
and larger fork (confluence of Snake river), on 
which the Shoshone or Snake Indians fish ; five 
days' journey further is a large river from the 
northwest (that is, the Columbia itself) into 
which Clarke's river empties; from the mouth 
of that river (that is, confluence of the Snake 
with the Columbia) to the falls is five days' 
journey further; on all the forks as well as on 
the main river great numbers of Indians re- 

On September 23 the Indians were assem- 
bled, and the errand of the party across the 
continent explained. The talk satisfied the sav- 
ages; they sold their visitors pro^•isions for 
man and beast and parted with amity. But 
immediate progress was somewhat delayed by 
illness of different members of the party. They 
were nearly famished when they encountered 


the Nez Perces, and had eaten too heartily fol- 
lowing their privations. September 27 they 
camped on Kooskooskee river and began the 
building of canoes. Gradually the health of 
the men was recruited, and the early days of 
OctolDer were passed in making preparations to 
descend the river. According to Lewis' jour- 
nal the latitude of this camp was 46 degrees 
34 minutes 56 seconds north. It should be re- 
membered that the Kooskooskee is now the 
Clearwater, flowing into the Snake river which, 
in turn, empties into the Columbia. October 
8 the party began their long and adventurous 
voyage in five canoes, one of which served as 
an advance pilot boat, the course of the stream 
being unknown. They were soon assailed by 
disaster, one of the canoes striking a rock and 
sinking. The river was found to be full of 
rocks, reefs and rapids. At the confluence of 
the Kooskooskee and Snake rivers a night's 
camp was made, near the present Idaho town of 
Lewiston, named in honor of the commander 
of this expedition. And from this point the 
party crossed over into the territory now 
bounded by the limits of the state of Washing- 
ton. Experience in this camp finds the fol- 
lowing expression in Lewis' journal. 

Our arrival soon attracted the attention of the In- 
dians, who flocked from all directions to see us. In the 
evening the Indian from the falls, whom we had seen at 
Rugged Rapid, joined us with his son in a small canoe, 
and insisted on accompanpying us to the falls. Being 
again reduced to fish and roots, we made an experiment 
to vary our food by purchasing a few dogs, and after 
having been accumtomed to horse-flesh felt no disrelish 
for this new dish. The Chopunnish have great numbers 
of dogs, which they employ for domestic purposes, but 
never eat ; and our using the flesh of that animal soon 
brought us into ridicule as dog eaters. 

On October 11, having made a short stage 
in their journey, the party stopped and traded 
with the Indians, securing a quantity of salmon 
and se^'en dogs. They were now on the Snake 
river and proceeding rapidly toward the Col- 
umbia, known to all the various Indian tribes 

in "Oregon" as the "Great River." Dangerous 
rapids crowded the stream; disasters were en- 
countered far too frequently to prove assuring 
to the voyageurs. October 14 another canoe 
was blown upon a rock sideways and narrowly 
escaped being lost. Four miles above the point 
of confluence of the Snake and Columbia rivers 
the expedition halted and conferred with the 
Indians. During the evening of October 16 
they were visited by two hundred warriors who 
tendered them a barbaric ovation, comprising' 
a procession with drums, torches and vocal 
music far more diabolical than classical. Here 
seven more dogs were purchased, together with 
some fish and "twenty pounds of fat dried 
horseflesh." At the point where the party were 
then stationed the counties of Franklin, 
Yakima and Walla Walla now come together; 
the junction of the Snake and Columbia rivers. 
The Indians called themselves Sokulks. 

Habit and experience necessarily render ex- 
plorers more far-sighted and astute than the 
ordinary citizen of civilized habitat. But the 
prescience of the former is by no means in- 
fallible. Lewis and Clarke were now about to 
set forth upon the waters of the mighty Colum- 
bia, a famous stream variously known as "The 
River of the North" and "The Oregon;" a 
great commercial artery whose convolutions 
were subsequently to be insisted upon by Great 
Britain as the northern boundary of "Oregon" 
territory. But the magnitude of this stream 
and its future importance in international poli- 
tics were, of course, unknown to Lewis and 
Clarke. These explorers had no knowledge of 
the "terminal facilities" of this stream other 
than that contributed by the legendary lore of 
Indians, dim, mythical, and altogether theoreti- 
cal. And with this absence of even a partial 
realization of the great significance of his mis- 
sion Captain Lewis writes in his journal of Oc- 
tober 17, 1805 : 

"In the course of the day Captain Clarke, 
in a small canoe, with two men. ascended the 
Columbia. At a distance of five miles he 


an island in the middle of the river, at the head 
of which was a small but dangerous rapid." 

With this simple introduction to the most 
important episode of his journey across the con- 
tinent Captain Lewis faced the Occident that 
held so much in store for thousands of the 
future. On the 19th the voyageurs began to 
drift down the Columbia. Rapids impeded 
their course, many of them dangerous. Short 
portages were made around the more difficult 
ones, and forty miles down the stream they 
landed among a tribe known as the Pishguit- 
pahs who were engaged in drying fish. Here 
they smoked the pipe of peace, exchanged pres- 
ents and entertained the Indians with the strains 
of two violins played by Cruzatte and Gibson, 
members of the exploring party. October 21 
they arrived at the confluence of a considerable 
stream, coming into the Columbia from the left, 
and named by the party Lepage, now known as 
John Day's river. Six years later, John Day, a 
Kentucky Nimrod, crossed the continent on 
the trail blazed by Lewis and Clarke, bound for 
Astoria, at the mouth of the Columbia. From 
the rapids below the mouth of this stream the 
party gained their first view of Mount Hood, 
prominent in the Cascade range, looming up 
from the southwest eleven thousand two hun- 
dred and twenty-five feet. On the day fol- 
lowing they passed a stream called by the In- 
dians Towahnahiooks ; to modern geographers 
known as the Des Chutes. This is one of the 
largest southern tributaries of the Columbia. 

Five miles below the mouth of this stream 
the party camped. Lewis and Clarke had 
learned from the Indins of the "great falls," 
and toward this point they had looked with 
some apprehension. October 23 they made the 
descent of these rapids, the height of which, in 
a distance of twelve hundred yards is thirty- 
seven feet eight inches. Around the first fall, 
twenty-five feet high, a portage was made, and 
below the canoes were led down by lines. At 
the next fall of the Columbia the expedition 
camped, among the Echeloots, a tribe of the 

Upper Chinooks, at present nearly extinct. 
They received the white men with much kind- 
ness, invited them to their huts and returned 
their visits, but the Echeloots were then at war 
with another tribe and at all times anxious con- 
cerning an expected attack by their enemies. 
Following a long talk with Lewis and Clarke, 
who were ever ready to extend their good offices 
toward making peace between hostile tribes, 
the Echeloots agreed to drop their quarrel with 
their ancient enemies. Here, too, the chiefs 
who had accompanied the expedition from the 
headwaters of the streams, bade the explorers 
farewell, and prepared to return eastward. Pur- 
chasing horses of the Echeloots they went home 
by land. 

The closing days of October were passed 
in descending the Columbia, in which portion 
of their voyage they met a number of different 
tribes of Indians, among them the Chilluckitte- 
quaws, from whom they purchased five small 
dogs, some dried berries and a white bread or 
cake, made from roots. They passed a small, 
rapid stream which they called Cataract river, 
now known as the Klickitat. Going thirty-two 
miles farther they camped on the right bank of 
a river in what is now Skamania county, Wash- 
ington, which is either the White Salmon or 
Little White Salmon. On the last day of Oc- 
tober Captain Clarke pushed on ahead to ex- 
amine the next of the more difficult rapids, 
known as "the great shoot." This obstacle was 
conquered, however, although not without a 
number of hair-breadth escapes, and on No- 
vember 2 the party were below the last of all 
the descents of the Columbia. At this point 
tidewater commences and the river widens. 

From tidewater to the sea the passage was 
enlivened with incidents sufficient to quicken 
the pulse of the enthusiastic explorers. Near 
the mouth of Sandy river they met a party of 
fifteen Indians who had recently come up from 
the mouth of the Columbia. By them they were 
told of three vessels lying at anchor below. It 
was certain that these craft must be either 


American or European, and the explorers could 
ill conceal their unbounded pleasure and antici- 
pation. A group of islands near the mouth of 
the Multnomah, or modernly, Williamette, had 
concealed this stream, upon which is now situ- 
ated the city of Portland, from view. The voy- 
ageurs had missed this important river en- 
tirely. Proceeding westward the explorers 
obtained their first sight of Mount Ranier, or 
Mount Tacoma, nine thousand seven hundred 
and fifty feet high. Nearing the coast the party 
met Indians of a nature widely divergent from 
any whom they had before seen. Captain Lewis 

These people seem to be of a different nation from 
those we have just passed; thej' are low in stature, ill- 
shaped, and all have their heads flattened. They call 
themselves Wahkiacum, and their language differs from 
that of the tribes above, with whom they trade for 
wapatoo roots. The houses are built in a different style, 
being raised entirely above ground, with the eaves about 
five feet high and the door at the corner. * * * The 
dress of the men is like that of the people above, but the 
women are clad in a peculiar manner, the robe not 
reaching lower than the hip, and the body being covered 
in cold weather by a sort of corset of fur, curiously 
plaited and reaching from the arms to the hip ; added to 
this is a sort of petticoat, or rather tissue of white cedar 
bark, bruised or broken with small strands, and woven 
into a girdle by several cords of the same material. 

These Indians, as a tribal nation, have en- 
tirely disappeared, but their name is perpetu- 
ated by a small county on the coast of Wash- 
ington, north of the Bay of Columbia. 

Practically the Lewis and Clarke expedition 
reached the end of its perilous trip across the 
continent on November 15, 1805. Of this 
achievement the Encyclopaedia Britannica 
says : "They had traveled upwards of four 
thousand miles from their starting point, had 
encountered various Indian tribes never before 
seen by whites, had made scientific collections 
and observations, and were the first explorers 

to reach the Pacific coast by crossing the con- 
tinent north of Mexico."' 

The closing statement of this article par- 
tially ignores the expeditions of Sir Alexander 
Mackenzie who, while he did not cross the 
continent from a point as far east as Washing- 
ton, D. C, made a journey, in 1789, from Fort 
Chipewyan, along the great Slave Lake, and 
down the river which now bears his name, to 
the "Frozen Ocean," and a second journey in 
1792-3 from the same initial point, up the 
Peace and across the Columbia rivers, and 
thence westward to the coast of the Pacific, at 
Cape Menzies, opposite Queen Charlotte 
Island. Only to this extent is the statement 
of the Encyclopaedia Britannica misleading, 
but it is quite evident that there is no pro- 
nounced inclination to do an injustice to the 
memory of Mackenzie. 

The Lewis and Clarge party passed the 
following winter in camp at the mouth of the 
Columbia. Before the holidays Captain Clarke 
carved on the trunk of a massive pine this 
simple inscription : 


STATES IN 1804 AND 5. 

During the return of the expedition the 
Clarke division came down the Yellowstone, 
in Montana. On a mass of saffron sandstone, 
an acre in base, and four hundred feet high, 
called Pompey's Pillar, twenty miles above the 
mouth of the Big Horn river, about half way 
up, the following is carved : 


JULY 25, 1806. 



The strugggle of five nations for possession 
of "Oregon," a domain embracing indefinite 
territory, but including the present states of 
Oregon, Washington and Idaho, and a portion 
of British Columbia, ran through a century and 
a half, and culminated in the "Oregon Contro- 
versy" between England and the United States. 
Through forty years of diplomatic sparring, 
advances, retreats, demands, concessions and 
unperfected compromises the contest was 
waged between the two remaining champions 
of the cause, the United States and Great Brit- 
ain. British parlimentary leaders came and 
went; federal administrations followed each 
other successsively, and each in turn directed 
the talents of its able secretaries of state to the 
vital point in American politics, Oregon. 

The question became all important and far 
reaching. It involved, at different periods, all 
the cunning diplomacy of the Hudson's Bay 
Company, backed by hundreds of thousands of 
pounds sterling; it brought to the front con- 
spicuously the life tragedy of a humble mis- 
sionary among the far western Indians, Dr. 
Marcus Whitman; it aroused the spirited pa- 
triotism of American citizenship from Maine to 
Astoria, and it evoked the sanguinary defi from 
American lips, "Fifty-four forty or fight." 

It closed with a compromise, quickly, yet 
effectually consummated; ratification was im- 
mediate, and the "Oregon Controversy" be- 
came as a tale that is told, and from a live and 
burning issue of the day it passed quietly into 
the sequestered nook of American history. 

To obtain a fairly comprehensive view of 
this question it becomes necessary to hark 
back to 1697, the year of the Treaty of Rys- 

wick, when Spain claimed, as her share of 
Xorth America, as stated by William Barrows : 

On the Atlantic coast from Cape Romaine on the 
Carolina shore, a few miles north of Charleston, due 
west to the Mississippi river, and all south of that line 
to the Gulf of Mexico. That line continued beyond 
the Mississippi makes the northern boundary of Louis- 
iana. In the valley of the lower Mississippi Spain 
acknowledged no rival, though France was then be- 
ginning to intrude. On the basis of discovery by the 
heroic De Soto and others, she claimed up to the head 
of the Arkansas and the present famous Leadville, and 
westward to the Pacific. On that ocean, or the South 
Sea, as it was then called, she set up the pretensions of 
sovereignty from Panama to Nootka Sound or Van- 
couver. These pretensions covered the coasts, harbors, 
islands and even over the whole Pacific Ocean as then 
limited. These stupendous claims Spain based on dis- 
covery, under the papal bull of Alexander VI, in 1493. 
This bull or decree gave to the discoverer all newly 
discovered lands and waters. In 1513 Balboa, the Span- 
iard, discovered the Pacific Ocean, as he came over the 
Isthmus of Panama, and so Spain came into the owner- 
ship of .that body of water. Good old times those were, 
when kings thrust their hands into the new world, as 
children do theirs into a grab-bag at a fair, and drew- 
out a river four thousand miles long, or an ocean, or a 
tract of wild land ten or fifteen times the size of 

Nor was France left out at the Ryswick 
partition of the world. She claimed in the 
south and in the north, and it was her proud 
boast that from the mouth of the Penobscot 
along the entire seaboard to the unknown and 
frozen Arctic, no European power divided that 
coast with her, nor the wild interior back of it. • 

At the date of this survey, 1 697, Russia was 
quiescent. She claimed no possessions. But 
at the same time Peter the Great, and his minis- 
ters, were doing some heavy thinking. Result* 
of these cogitations were afterwards seen in 


the new world, in a territory known for many 
years to school children as Russian America, 
now the Klondj'ke. Dawson, Skaguay, Bonan- 
za Creek, the Yukon and — the place where the 
gold comes from. Russia entered the lists ; she 
became the fifth competitor, with Spain, Eng- 
land, France and the United States, for Ore- 

Passing over the events of a hundred years, 
years of cruel wars ; of possession and dispos- 
session among the powers; the loss by France 
of Louisiana and the tragedy of the Plains of 
Abraham, we come to tlie first claims of Russia. 
She demanded all the Northwest Coast and is- 
lands north of latitude 51 degrees and down 
the Asiatic coast as low as 45 degrees, 50 min- 
utes, forbidding "all foreigners to approach 
within one hundred miles of these coasts ex- 
cept in cases of extremity." Our secretary of 
state, John Quincy Adams, objected to this 
presumptuous claim. Emphatically he held that 
Russia had no valid rights on that coast south 
of the 55th degree. Vigorous letters were ex- 
changed and then "the correspondence closed." 
Great -Britain took sides with the United 
States. Our protest was emphasized by pro- 
mulgation of the now famous "Monroe Doc- 
trine," the substance of which lies in these 
words : "That the American continents, by the 
free and independent condition which they 
have assumed and maintained, are henceforth 
not to be considered as subjects for coloniza- 
tion by any European power." 

Subsequently it was agreed between Russia 
and the United States, in 1824, that the latter 
country should make no new claim north of 54 
degrees, 40 minutes, and the Russians none 
south of it. With Great Britain Russia made a 
similar compact the year following, and for a 
period of ten years this agreement was to be 
binding, it being, however, understood that the 
privilege of trade and navigation should be free 
to all parties. At the expiration of this period 
the United States and Great Britain received 
notice from Russia of the discontinuance of 

their navigation and trade north of 54 degrees, 
40 minutes. 

Right here falls into line the Hudson's Bay 
Company. Between Great Britain and Russia 
a compromise was effected through a lease 
from Russia to this company of the coast and 
margin from 54 degrees, 40 minutes, to Cape 
Spencer, near 58 degrees. Matters were, also, 
satisfactorily adjusted with the United States. 

The final counting out of Russia from the 
list of competitors for Oregon dates from 1836. 
During a controversy between England and 
Russia the good offices of the United States 
were solicited, and at our suggestion Russia 
withdrew from California and relinquished all 
claims south of 54 degrees, 40 minutes. And 
now the contest for Oregon was narrowed 
down between Great Britain and the United 
States. But with the dropping of Russia it 
becomes necessary to go back a few years in 
order to preserve intact the web of this history. 

On May 16, 1670, the Hudson's Bay Com- 
pany was chartered by Charles 11. Headed by 
Prince Rupert the original incorporators num- 
bered eighteen. The announced object of the 
company was "the discovery of a passage into 
the South Sea" — the Pacific Ocean. During 
the first century of its existence the company 
really did something along the lines of geo- 
graphical discovery. Afterward its identity 
\\as purely commercial. Twelve hundred 
miles from Lake Superior, in 1 778, the eminent 
Frobisher and others had established a trading 
post, or "factory," at Athabasca. Fort Chipew- 
yan was built ten years later and Athabasca 
abandoned. From this point Mackenzie made 
his two overland trips to the Pacific, treated in 
the two preceding chapters. Commenting 
upon these expeditions, from a political \-iew 
point, William Barrows, in the "American 
Commonwealths" series, says: 

"The point reached by ^Mackenzie on the 
Pacific is within the present limits of British 
Columbia on that coast (53 degrees, 21 min- 
utes), and it was the first real, though unde- 



signed step toward the occupation of Oregon by 
Great Britain. That government was feeling 
its way, daringly and blindly, for all territory 
it might obtain, and in 1793 came thus near the 
outlying region which afterward became the 
coveted prize of our narrative." (Oregon: 
the Struggle for Possession.) 

Between the United States and possession 
of Oregon stood, like a stone wall, the Hud- 
son's Bay Company. It was the incarnation 
of England's protest against our occupancy. 
Such being the case it is a fortuitous opportu- 
nity to glance, briefly, at the complexion of 
this great commercial potentate of the North- 
west Coast. Aside from geographical discov- 
eries there was another object set forth in the 
Hudson's Bay Company's charter. This was 
"the finding of some trade for furs, minerals 
and other considerable commodities." More- 
over an exclusive right was granted by the 
charter to the "trade and commerce of all those 
seas, straits and bays, rivers, lakes, creeks and 
sounds, in whatsoever latitude they shall be, 
that lie within the entrance of the straits com- 
monly called Hudson's Straits." The charter 
extended, also, to include all lands bordering 
them not under any other civilized government. 

Such ambiguous description covered a vast 
territory — and Oregon. And of this domain, 
indefinitely bounded, the Hudson's Bay Com- 
pany became monarch, autocrat and tyrant, 
rather an unpleasant trinity to be adjacent to 
the gradually increasing and solidifying do- 
minion of the United States. Then, with the 
old company, was united the Northwestern 
Company, at one time a rival, now a compo- 
nent part of the great original "trust" of the 
Christian era. The crown granted to the new 
syndicate the exclusive right to trade with all 
Indians in British North America for a term 
of twenty years. Their hunters and trappers 
spread themselves throughout the entire north- 
west of North America. Their fur monopoly 
extended so far south as the Salt Lake basin 
of the modern L^tah. Rivals were bought out. 

undersold or crushed. The company held at 
its mercy all individual traders from New 
Foundland to Vancouver ; from the head of the 
Yellowstone to the mouth of the Mackenzie. 
With no rivals to share the field, the extent of 
territory under the consolidated company seems 
almost fabulous — one-third larger than all Eu- 
rope; larger than the United States of to-day, 
Alaska included, by, as Mr. Barrows states, 
"half a million of square miles." And it was 
preparing, backed by the throne of England, 
to swallow and assimilate "Oregon." Con- 
cerning this most powerful company Mr. Bar- 
rows has contributed the following graphic de- 
scription : 

"One contemplates their power with awe 
and fear, when he regards the even motion and 
solemn silence and unvarying sameness with 
which it has done its work through that dreary 
animal country. It has been said that a hun- 
dred years has not changed its bills of goods 
ordered from London. The company wants 
the same muskrat and beaver and seal ; the In- 
dian hunter, unimproved, and the half-breed 
European, deterioating, want the same cotton 
goods, and flint-lock guns and tobacco and 
gew-gaws. To-day as a hundred years ago the 
dog-sledge runs out from Winnipeg for its 
solitary drive of five hundred or two thousand 
or even three thousand miles. It glides silent 
as a spectre over those snow-fields and through 
the solemn, still forests, painfully wanting in 
animal life. Eifty, seventy, and hundred days it 
speeds along, and as many nights it camps 
without fire, and looks up to the same cold 
stars. At the intervening points the sledge 
makes a pause, as a ship, having rounded Cape 
Horn, heaves to before some lone Pacific is- 
land. It is the same at the trader's hut or 'fac- 
tory.' as when the sledge man's grandfather 
drove up the same dogs, the same half-breeds 
or voyageurs to welcome him, the same foul, 
lounging Indians, and the same mink-skin in 
exchange for the same trinket. The fur ani- 
mal and its purchaser and hunter, as the land- 



scape, seem to be alike under the same immut- 
able law of nature :— 

'■ 'A land where all things always seem the 
same,' as among the lotus-eaters. Human pro- 
gress and Indian civilization have scarcely- 
made more improvement than that central, 
silent partner of the Hudson's Bay Company — 
the beaver." 

Originally the capital stock of this com- 
pany, at the time the charter was granted by 
Charles II, was $50,820. Through profits 
alone it was tripled twice within fifty years, 
going as high as $457,380, without any addi- 
tional money being paid in by stockholders. 
The Northwest Company was absorbed in 
1 82 1 on a basis of valuation equal to that of 
the Hudson's Bay Company. Then the con- 
solidated capital stock was $1,916,000, of 
which $1,780,866 was from profits. And 
during all this elapsed period an annual divi- 
dend of ten per cent had been paid to stock- 
holders. One cargo of furs, leaving Fort 
George for London in 1836, was valued at 
$380,000. In 1837 the consolidated company 
organized the Puget Sound Agricultural Com- 
pany. This was intended to serve as an offset 
to encroachments of colonists from the United 
States which settled in Oregon. In 1846 the 
English government conceded United States 
claims to Oregon, and at that period the Hud- 
son's Bay Company claimed property within 
the territory said to be worth $4,990,036.67. 

With such gigantic and powerful competi- 
tion for the territory of Oregon it is surprising 
that even as determined a government as the 
United States should have succeeded in oust- 
ing it from its trespass on our property. Nor 
could this have been accomplished had it not 
been for the pluck, skill, determination and in- 
domitable energy of our hardy pioneers. While 
the sale of rabbit skins alone in London, in one 
year, ordinarily amounted to thirteen hundred 
thousand, the company found its profit also in 
the beaver, land and sea-otter, mink, fisher, 
muskrat, fox, raccoon, sable, black, brown and 

grizzly bear and buffalo. And in search for 
these fur-bearing animals the hunters of the 
company braved every danger and spread 
themselves over the wild half of North Amer- 
ica. So far from carrying out the provisions of 
its charter relating to geographical discovery, 
early in the nineteenth century the company 
threw every "obstacle possible in the way of such 
discoveries. Evidently it feared rivals. Sir 
John Barrow, in his history of Arctic Voyages, 
says : "The Northwest Passage seems to have 
been entirely forgotten, not only by the ad- 
venturers who had obtained their exclusive 
charter under this pretext, but also by the na- 
tion at large; at least nothing more appears to 
have be^n heard on the subject for more than 
half a century." 

And what of the darker deeds of this mys- 
terious, silent, yet powerful commercial aggre- 
gation? In 1719 it refused a proposal from 
Mr. Knight that two vessels be sent by him to 
look up a rumored copper mine at the mouth 
of an arctic river. In 1741 the company 
showed signs of hostility toward a Mr. Dobbs, 
engaged in the same enterprise. The failure 
of Captain Middleton, commissioned by the 
Lords of Admiralty to explore northern and 
western waters of Hudson's Bay, is attributed 
to a bribe of five thousand pounds received 
from the company. The beacon light at Fort 
York was cut down in 1 746 to insure the com- 
plete wreck of an exploring party then aground 
in that vicinity. Much of the information con- 
cerning auriferous deposits brought back by 
Mackenzie from his two journeys was sup- 
presed. The Hudson's Bay Company had set 
its face against mineral development. Even 
that industry was a rival. Following the assas- 
ination of Dr. Marcus Whitman by Indians, in 
1847, one of the suvivors of the massacre was 
refused the protection of Fort Walla Walla 
then under command of an agent of the Hud- 
son's Bay Company. On the whole this aggre- 
gation of English capital seems to have been 
as antagonistic to English enterprise as to 


American commerce, but all the time working 
Jike a mole under ground. 

Previous to the War of 1812 England had 
strenuously urged the Ohio as the western limit 
of the colonies. She seduced various Indian 
tribes to oppose western immigration. In 181 1 
General Harrison, afterward president, at- 
tempted to hold a friendly conference with the 
great Tecumseh. The meeting was disrupted by 
the latter, and it required the battle of Tippe- 
canoe to teach the warriors a bloody object les- 
son. Then followed the War of 1812. In this 
Great Britain made an effort to recover the 
northwest, but failed signally. But the Hud- 
son's Bay Company was England in North 
America. And when the nation failed the com- 
mercial syndicate succeeded — for a time. While 
the United States had legal, she had not, owing 
to the interference of this company, actual pos- 
session arid occupancy. 

Following the close of the Revolution and 
the treaty of 1783, an attempt was made to run 
a northern boundary for the United States. It 
looked well on paper. It traversed wild, unex- 
plored territory unkno^^'n to either party to the 

"Thus," says Barrows, "the northwest 
point of the Lake of the Woods was assumed 
for one bound from which the line was to run, 
to the northwestern point of the lake and thence 
'due west,' to the Mississippi. The clause in the 
treaty reads thus: 'to the said Lake of the 
Woods, and thence through the said lake to 
the most northwestern point thereof, and from 
thence on a due west course to the river Missis- 
sippi.' But the head of the river proved to be 
a hundred miles or more to the south. So that 
little prominence in our otherwise straight 
boundary is the bump of ignorance developed 
by two nations. The St. Croix was fixed by 
treaty as the boundary on the northeast, but a 
special 'Joint Commission' was required in 
1794 to determine 'what river is the St. 
Croix,' and four years afterward this commis- 
sion called for an addition to their instructions 

since their original ones were not broad enough 
to enable them to determine the true St. Croix." 

In 1 84 1 another commission ran a boun- 
dary from the head of the St. Croix, by the 
head of the Connecticut, to the St. Lawrence; 
thence through the middle of its channel and 
the rniddle of the lakes to the outlet of Lake 
Superior, occupying the whole of seven years. 
And yet the line had not been carried through 
Lake Superior to the Lake of the Woods. Fi- 
nally, in. 1 81 8, this was done and an agreement 
reached, though this line was not on the 49th 
parallel, from the Lake of the Woods, to the 
Rocky Mounmtains, the line that was offered 
by Great Britain, accepted by one administra- 
tion, refused by another, and iinally adopted in- 
stead of "Fifty-four forty or fight." Still the 
English commission was loath to part with the 
Mississippi valley. They asked for a right of 
way to the headwaters of that stream. At the 
same time the southern limits of their northern 
possessions did not come within one hundred 
miles of the source of the Mississippi from 
whence its waters flow more than three thou- 
sand miles to the Gulf of Mexico. The com- 
mission, however, abandoned this claim and 
turned, to stand resolutely on latitude 49 de- 
grees. During negotiations with England, in 
1818, a compromise was effected which pro- 
vided for a joint occupation of Oregon for ten 
years. In 1827 it was renewed, to run indefin- 
itely, with a provision that it could be termin- 
ated by either party on giving one year's notice. 
The Ashbur ton-Webster treaty of 1842 fixed 
the line between the St. Croix and St. Law- 
rence. In 1846 another commission failed to 
accomplish results in extending a line to the 
westXvard through their inability to agree on 
the "middle of the channel" between the main- 
land and Vancouver Island. 

Not until 1872 was this latter question de- 
cided. It was submitted to the Emperor of 
Germany as final arbiter. He decided favor- 
ably to the claim of the United States. Thus 
this boundary question was prolonged eighty- 



nine years, under eight treaties and fifteen spec- 
ifications, until final adjustment in its entirety. 
The Oregon toundary remained in dispute up 
to 1847. It may here be appropriately re- 
marked that the Joint Boundary Commission 
of 1818, agreeing on the 49th parallel, might 
have carried the line to a satisfactory point had 
they not been stopped by fur traders. Two 
companies were then attempting to gain pos- 
session of the territory. 

The expedition of Lewis and Clarke. 1804- 
6, opened the eyes of England. Jealous lest 
Americans should gain an advantage. Laroque 
was sent by the Northwestern Companv to 
sprinkle the Columbia river country with trad- 
ing posts. But Laroque gained no farther 
westing than the IMandan Lidian village on the 
^Missouri. Li 1806 Eraser, having crossed the 
mountains, made the first English settlement by 
erecting a post on Eraser Lake. Others soon 
followed and New Caledonia came into exist- 
ence. It had remained for daring frontiers- 
men to open the dramatic contest for posses- | 
sion of Oregon. Diplomats and ministers had I 
dallied and quibbed. Now the contest had be- 1 
come serious and earnest. A German immi- ' 
grant, John Jacob Astor, was destined to play a 
prominent part in future strategetic movements 
for this possession. At forty years of age he 
was established in the fur business on the great 
lakes. Later he had another post at the mouth 
of the Columbia river, Astoria, a freight port 1 
for furs incoming, and beads and trinkets out- 
going. In 1810 he dispatched an expedition 
of sixty men from St. Louis to the Columbia. 
Efteen months after, depleted by death, the sur- 
vivors reached Astoria. Another company of 
about the same number arrived by way of Cape 
Horn some time earlier. Other ships followed, 
and in 1813 Mr. Astor sufifered the loss of the 
Lark, shipwrecked on the Sandwich, now. the 
Hawaiian Islands. Nor was this the worst. Of 
Mr. Astor's partners, a majority had sold out 
to the Northwest Eur Company of Montreal, 
an English organization. Property which Air. 

Astor had valued at $200,000 had l)een thrown 
away for $40,000. He saw signs of treachery. 
But so far, despite these handicaps, he had out- 
witted his competitors. They had planned to 
forestall him at the mouth of the Columbia. 
The failure of Laroque had defeated this 
scheme. Another division of the Northwest 
Company, in 181 1, had attempted to reach there 
ahead of the sagacious American trader. This 
party was snowbound and compelled to winter 
in the mountains. When they eventually ar- 
rived Astoria was a reality. The importance of 
j these events is worthy of notice. Had Laroque 
I or the other parties anticipated Astor. strong 
[ and cumulative evidence would have been af- 
j forded England of prior possession, and this 
evidence would have been a powerful leverage 
during the long controversy which followed 
concerning the northern boundary of Oregon. 
I Then, too, the defection of Astor's partners 
I who had sold out to the Northwest Company 
i' led to an incident in the Oregon Controversy 
I which is significant. Mr. Barrows says : 

"The leading partner in it, and the one who 
I afterward led of? in its sale, received them 
' (■ representatives of the Northwest Company) 
in a friendly and hospitable way, and not as 
ri\als : when they returned from their vain 
expedition he supplied them, not only Avith pro- 
visions, but with goods for trading purposes 
up the river, where they established trading 
huts among the Indians and became rivals of 
the Americans, Strange to say when the ques- 
tion of priority of occupation and national sov- 
ereignty was under discussion at London, fif- 
teen years afterward, the English put in these 
huts of this returning company, as proof that 
the English were as early if not earlier in the 
Columbia than the Americans." 

Here is a case in point which eloquently il- 
lustrates the supremacy of commercialism over 
sentimental statesmanship. Astor's partners 
had turned over the post, practically, to the 
Northwestern Company. The United States 
had been solicited by Great Britain, previous to 


the War of 1812, to favor the Northwest Com- 
pany as against Mr. Astor, and this request 
had been refused. When the war opened Eng- 
land flamboyantly dispatched a naval force to 
the Columbia under orders "to take and destroy 
everything American on the Northwest Coast." 
On the arrival of this fleet in 181 3, the com- 
mander had the barren satisfaction of running 
up the English colors and naming the post St. 
George. Already it had passed into English 
hands ^'ia the Northwest Company. 

Bad faith of his partners and the chances 
of war had, temporarily defeated the plans of 
Mr. Astor. American interests on that coast 
were under a cloud. But the United States was 
destined to win out. The War of 18 12 was 
fairly on. It had been declared on June 12, 
1812: the treaty of peace was signed Decem- 
ber 14, 18 14. It contained this clause ma- 
terially affecting our interests in Oregon : "All 
territory, places and possessions whatsoever, 
taken by either party from the other during the 
^^.^j. * * * ghall be restored without de- 
lay." Did this provision cover Astoria? Ap- 
parently the English thought not, for when, in 
181 7, an American vessel was put in readiness 
to occupy that post Mr. Bagot, the English 
minister at Washington, opposed it. Two 
points are noted in his protest: The post had 
been sold to the Northwest Company prior tq 
the war: therefore never captured. Secondly, 
"the territory itself was early taken possession 
of in his majesty's name, and had since been 
considered as forming a part of his majesty's 
domains." But repossession was granted 
despite the protest. In 181 8 the Stars and 
Stripes again waved over Astoria and the name 
"St. George" was relegated to the limbo of the 

But the Oregon Question was not dead : 
only hibernating. It sprang into life at the 
behest of the eloquent Rufus Choate. From his 
seat in the senate he said : 

"Keep your eye always open, like the eye 
of your own eagle, upon the Oregon. Watch 

day and night. If any new developments or 
policy break forth, meet them. If the times 
change, do you change. New things in a new 
world. Eternal vigilance is the condition of 
empire as well as of liberty." 

For twenty-seven years the threads of dip- 
lomatic delay and circumlocution were spun out 
concerning the status of Oregon. Theoret- 
ically Astoria had been restored to us; prac- 
tically the Northwest fur traders thronged the 
land. The English company had built a stock- 
ade fort. It looked as if they intended to hold 
possession of the mouth of the Columbia vie 
et armis. Indian tribes ranged themselves on 
the side of the English. Their minds had been 
poisoned; insiduous words had been breathed 
into their ears to the effect that the Americans 
would steal their lands ; the English wanted 
only to trade with them for furs. And for more 
than ten years following the treachous sale of 
Astoria, there were scarcely any Americans in 
the country. Greenhow, in his "History of 
Oregon and California," declares that at the 
period when the Hudson's Bay Company was 
before parliament, in 1837, asking for renewal 
of its charter, they "claimed and received the 

I aid and consideration of government for their 
energy and success in expelling the Americans 
from the Columbia regions, and forming set- 
tlements there, by means of which they were 

j rapidly converting Oregon into a British 

! colony." 

! Astoria was restored to the United States 
by the Treaty of Ghent in 1814. Yet in that 

I document there is no allusion made to the 
Northwest Coast, or in fact, any territory west 
of the Lake of the Woods. Our instructions to 
the American plenipotentiaries were to concede 
nothing to Great Britain south of the forty- 
ninth parallel. Thus the question was left in 
abeyance with no defined boundary between 
English and American territorj^ west of the 
Lake of the Woods. The southern boundary 
of Oregon was, also, in doubt. It was not 
definitely fixed until the Florida Purchase. 


Then it was decided tliat parallel forty-two, on 
the Pacific, running east from that ocean to the 
Arkansas, down the river to longitude one hun- 
dred; on that meridan south till it strikes the 
Red river; down the Red river to longitude 
ninety- four; due south on it to the Sabine 
river; and down the Sabine to the Gulf of 
Mexico, should define the southern and western 
boundaries of the Louisiana Purchase of 1803. 
which up to that period had remained indefin- 
ite. This act fixed, also, the southern boundary 
of Oregon. 

Until 1820 congress remained dormant so 
far as Oregon interests were concerned. Then 
it was suggested that a marine expedition be 
dispatched to guard our interests at the mouth 
of the Columbia and aid immigration from the 
United States. Nothing resulted. In 182 1 the 
same question was revived, but again permitted 
to relapse into desuetude. Mr. Barrows does 
not use language too strong when he says : 
"There appeared to be a lack of appreciation 
of the case, and there was a skepticism and leth- 
argy concerning that half of the union, which 
have by no means disappeared." 

In 18 14 the question having been reopened 
in London Mr. Rush claimed for the United 
States from the forty-second to the fifty-first 
parallel. This section would embrace all the 
waters of the Columbia. Per contra the Eng- 
lish demanded possession of the northern half 
of the Columbia basin. This would have given 
us. as the northern boundary, of Oregon, the 
Columbia river from a point where it intersects 
the forty-ninth parallel to its mouth. It is well 
to examine, at this point, what such a boundary 
would have meant to Washington. Had it been 
accepted there would, probably, never have been 
any state of Washington, at least, not as sub- 
sequently defined. It would have meant the 
loss of the following territory, comprised in 
the counties of Klickitat, Skamia, Cowlitz, 
Clark, Wahkiakum, Pacific, Chehalis, Mason, 
Lewis, Pierce, Jefferson, Clallam, Kitsap, King, 
Snohomish. Skagit, Whatcom. Yakima, Kitti- 

tas, Chelan, Okanogan and Ferry, a territory 
comprising forty-three thousand, se^'en hun- 
dred and sixteen square miles, two-thirds of 
the area of the present state of Washington. 

Thus remained the status of the dispute un- 
til 1828. Joint occupancy had now continued 
ten years. It must be conceded that the coun- 
try, owing to this provision, was now numeri- 
cally British, And English ministers were 
eager to avail themselves of the advantages of 
this fact. They said : "In the interior of the 
territory in question the subjects of Great 
Britain have had, for many years, numerous 
settlements and trading posts — several of these 
posts on the tributary streams of the Columbia, 
several upon the Columbia itself, some to the 
northward and others to the southward of that 
river, * * * j^ (.]^g whole of the territory 
in question the citizens of the LTnited States 
have not a single settlement or trading post. 
They do not use that river, either for the pur- 
pose of transmitting or receiving any produce 
of their own to or from other parts of the 

Yet why was this the condition in Oregon 
at that period ? Simply because the aggressive- 
ness of the Northwestern Company had op- 
posed American colonization and fought each 
and every advance made by our pioneers, com- 
mercially and otherwise. Nor can it be denied 
that for many years Oregon was unappreciated 
by the east. To-day it appears, to unreflecting 
minds, an extravagant boast to say that only 
one-fifth of the domain of the United States 
lies east of the Mississippi river. And yet the 
statement is true. Only in 1854 did the initial 
railway gain the banks of the Father of Waters 
— at Rock Island. From there progress to the 
northwest was, for many years, slow, perilous 
and discouraging. Truly, it was a difficult 
matter for Oregon to assert herself. In 1828 
an "Oregon wave" had swept over congress, 
amid considerable feverish interest and pro- 
longed eloquence. Protracted debate was had 
on a bill to survev the territorv west of the 


mountains between 4J degrees and 54 degrees 
40 minutes, garrison the land and extend over 
it the laws of the United States. The measure 
was defeated, again the question slumbered. 

But the daring American pioneers of the 
west were by no means idle. Unconsciously 
they were accomplishing far more toward a 
final settlement of the "Oregon Question" than 
all the tape-bound documents sleeping in the 
pigeon-holes of English parliamentary and 
American congressional archives. Of these 
pioneers Captain Bonneville should not pass 
unnoticed. He was of the army, and with one 
hundred of his men he made a two years' hunt- 
ing, trapping and fur-trading expedition, from 
the Missouri to the Colorado, and thence to the 
Columbia. In 1832 Nathaniel J. Wyeth or- 
ganized a company of twenty-two persons, in 
^Massachusetts, for western exploration. En- 
thusiastic descriptions of Oregon, written by 
Hall J. Kelly, had contributed greatly to awak- 
en this interest among the scholarly young men 
who formed Wyeth's party. On July 4, 1832, 
they had arrived at Lewis' Fork of the Colum- 
bia. Among them were sickness, disappoint- 
ment and insubordination. Here the company 
divided. Several left to return east; among 
them Jacob and John, brothers of Captain 
Wyeth. Nathaniel Wyeth and his remaining 
companions reached Snake river, and one hun- 
dred miles north of Salt Lake, established a 
trading post. He was ruined by the ever ag- 
gressive Hudson's Bay Company, which placed 
a rival post. Fort Boise, below Fort Hall. 
British ministers had impudently declared that 
Oregon was settled by Englishmen ; that 
Americans had no trading posts within its lim- 
its. And why not? Read the following from 
Mr. Wyeth's memoir to congress : 

"Experience has satisfied me that the entire 
weight of this company (Hudson Bay) will be 
made to bear on any trader who shall attempt 
to prosecute his business within its reach. 
* * * No sooner does an American start 
in this region than one of these trading parties 

is put in motion. A few years will make the 
country west of the mountains as completely 
English as they can desire." 

To the same congressional committee Will- 
iam A. Slocum, in a report, goes on record as 
follows : "No individual enterprise can com- 
pete with this immense foreign monopoly es- 
tablished in our waters. * * * xhe In- 
dians are taught to believe that no vessels but 
the Company's ships are allowed to trade in the 
river, and most of them are afraid to sell their 
skins but at Vancouver or Fort George." 

Small wonder that at this time there were 
less than two hundred Americans west of the 
Rockies. And Canadian law, by act of par- 
liament, was extended throughout the region 
of the Columbia. Theoretically it was joint 
occupation ; practically British monopoly. So 
late as 1844 the British and Foreign Review 
said, brutally: "The interests of the company 
are of course adverse to colonization.* * * 
The fur trade has been hitherto the only chan- 
nel for the advantageous investments of capital 
in those regions." 

Truly the Hudson's Bay Company had 
adopted a policy of "multiplication, division 
and silence." Because meat and beef conduced 
to pastoral settlements, so late as 1836, the 
company opposed the introduction of catttle. 
One of the missionaries stationed at Moose 
Factory has written this : "A plan which I had 
devised for educating and training to some ac- 
quaintance with agriculture native children, 
was disallowed. * * * \ proposal made 
for forming a small Indian village near Moose 
Factory was not acceded to; and instead, per- 
mission only given to attempt the location of 
one or two old men, no longer fit for engaging 
in the chase, it being carefully and distinctly 
stated, by Sir George Simpson, that the com- 

I pany would not give them even a spade toward 
commencing this mode of life." 

] In 1836 when Dr. Marcus Whitman and his 
party were entering Oregon. J. K. Townsend. 

I a naturalist sent from Philadelphia to collect 



specimens of fauna and flora, said to him at 
Walla Walla: "The company will be glad to 
have you in the country, and your influence to 
improve their servants and their native wives 
and children. As to the Indians you have 
come to teach they do not want them to be any 
more enlightened. The company now have 
absolute control over them, and that is all 
they require." 

And right here is the crux of the differences 
between the United States and England con- 
cerning the territory of Oregon. It was the 
aim of the former to develop, improve and civil- 
ize the country ; it was the expressed determina- 
tion of the latter to keep it in darkness and sav- 
agery. For in North America the Hudson's 
Bay Company was England and English states- 
men were under the complete domination of 
this company's abject commercialism. It has 
pleased modern English writers to describe 
Americans as "a nation of shop-keepers." But 
throughout the whole Oregon controversy the 
United States stoood for progress and civili- 
zation; England for the long night of ignor- 
ance and barbarism — for profit. Summed up 
by Mr. Barrows the relations to Oregon of the 
two countries were as follows : 

"The Americans struck Oregon just where 
the English failed, in the line of settlements 
and civilization. One carried in the single man 
and the other the family; one, his traps and 
snares, the other his seed wheat and oats and 
potatoes; one counted his muskrat nests, and 
the other his hills of corn ; one shot an Indian 
for killing a wild animal out of season ; and 
the other paid bounty on the wolf and bear; 
one took his newspaper from the dog-mail 
twenty-four or thirty-six months from date, 
and the other carried in the printing press ; one 
hunt^^ and traded for what he could carry out 
of the country, the other planted and builded 
for what he could leave in it for his children. 
In short the English trader ran his birch and 
batteaux up tlie streams and around the lakes to 
bring out furs and peltries, while the American 

immigrant hauled in with his rude wagon, the 
nineteenth century and came back loaded with 
Oregon for the American union." 

In 1840 the flow of American immigration 
into Oregon, especially the missionaries, Lee, 
Whitman and Parker, alarmed the Hudson's 
Bay Company. It strenuously opposed the 
advent of wagons and carriages. Immigrants 
were lied to at Fort Hall; were told that it 
would be impossible to proceed farther on 
wheels. It is recorded that on this account 
many of them reached Dr. Whitman's mission 
in a deplorably destitute condition. But all the 
artifices of the company could not check the 
hegira from the east. It is reserved for an- 
other chapter to relate the experiences of these 
pioneers. We have to do here, mainly, with the 
final settlement of the great "Oregon Ques- 
tion" between England and the United States 
— the political struggle for sovereignty. 

In 1843 Sir George Simpson, governor of 
the Hudson's Bay Company, who had made a 
tour of the continent, challenged us in these 
words : "The United States will never possess 
more than a nominal jurisdiction, nor long 
possess even that, on the west side of the Rocky 
Mountains. And supposing the country to be 
divided tomorrow to the entire satisfaction of 
the most unscrupulous patriot in the union, I 
challenge congress to bring my prediction and 
its power to the test by imposing the Atlantic 
tariff on the ports of the Pacific." 

Thus the great international question of 
tariff was brought into the Oregon Contro- 
versy. But we must not jump to the conclusion 
that Sir George was without some foundation 
for his vaporous remarks. At that time the 
Hudson's Bay Company had twenty-three posts 
and five trading stations in the northwest ; it 
had absorbed ten rival companies, not leaving 
one American or Russian, and had been the 
means of putting to rout seven immigrant ex- 
peditions seeking homes in Oregon. 

The Oregon boundary question was still in 
dispute. But those Americans familiar with 



the subject were destined to temporary disap- 
pointment. In 1827 it had been referred, 
through a convention, to the King of the 
Netherlands as arbiter. Both parties to the dis- 
pute had rejected his decision in 1831. Five 
efforts had been made to adjust the boundary 
by President Jackson, and five failures had re- 
sulted. The administration of President Van 
Buren closed with the matter still unsettled. In 
1842 Lord Ashburton came from London to 
negotiate a boundary treaty with Daniel Web- 
ster, secretary of state. A certain boundary 
treaty was negotiated, August 9, 1842, the two 
ministers signed it; it was ratified by the sen- 
ate on the 25th: by the Queen soon after, pro- 
claimed on November 10, 1842 — and the Ore- 
gon boundary was not in it. Nothing ofificial 
whatever alluding to Oregon was found there- 
in. The only boundary touched was one "be- 
ginning at the monument at the source of the 
river St. Croix," terminating at the Rocky 
Mountains on the forty-seventh parallel. Little 
wonder that sectional feeling developed in the 
far west. 

Dr. Marcus Whitman, whose connection 
with the "Oregon Question" is treated in an- 
other chapter, had arrived in Washington too 
late for any effectual pleas for consideration of 
the matter in the treaty just signed. Still, as 
Mr. Barrows says, "The pressure of Oregon 
into the Ashburton treaty would probably have 
done one of three things, prevented the treaty 
altogether, excluded the United States from 
Oregon, or produced a war. Delay and ap- 
parent defeat were the laasis of our real success, 
and the great work of Marcus Whitman, by 
his timely presence at Washington, was in 
making the success sure." 

With Oregon left out the Ashburton treaty 
had been ratified. The outlook was, indeed, 
gloomy. As a reflex of the insiduous teachings 
of the Hudson's Bay Company the following 
extract from a speech delivered by Mr. 
McfDuffie in the United States senate is inter- 
esting. He said : 

What is the character of this country ? Why, as 
I understand it, that seven hundred miles this side of 
the Rocky Mountains is uninhabitable, where rain 
scarcely ever falls — a barren and sandy soil — mountains 
totally impassable except in certain parts, where there 
were gaps or depressions, to be reached only by going 
some hundreds of miles out of the direct course. Well, 
now, what are we going to do in a case like this? 
How are you going to apply steam? Have you made 
anything like an estimate of the cost of a railroad run- 
ning from here to the mouth of the Columbia? Why, 
the wealth of the Indies would be insufficient. You 
would have to tunnel through mountains five or six 
hundred miles in extent. * * * Of what use will 
this be for agricultural purposes? I would not, for that 
purpose, give a pinch of snuff for the whole territory. 
I wish it was an impassable barrier to secure us against 
the intrusion of others. * * * if there was an em- 
bankment of even five feet to be removed, I would not 
consent to expend five dollars to remove that embank- 
ment to enable our population to go there. I thank 
God for his mercy in placing the Rocky Mountains 

At the time this speech was being delivered 
Dr. Marcus Whitman was on his way from 
Oregon with "the facts in the case," informa- 
tion destined to shed a flood of intelligence on 
a rather benighted congress. And, in reality, 
our country was rapidly nearing the end of this 
interminable controversy. An area of terri- 
tory sixty-three times the size of Massachusetts 
and four times as large as Great Britain and 
Ireland was about to come under the protecting 
aegis of the United States government. The 
Hudson's Bay Company had declared, through 
its emissaries, that a wagon trip to Oregon was 
an impossibility. The same sentiment had been 
voiced in the United States senate. It remained 
for Dr. Whitman to prove the falsity of such an 
audacious statement. He led a party of two 
hundred wagons through to his mission on the 
mouth of the Columbia, arriving in October, 
1843. And this, too. against vigorous opposi- 
tion from the Hudson's Bay Company, at Fort 
Hall. Then the people began to manifest a 
lively interest in the question. This interest had 
been stimulated in December, 1842, by a mes- 
sage from President Tyler, in which he said: 
"The tide of population which has reclaimed 
what was so latelv an unbroken wilderness in 



more contiguous regions, is preparing to flow 
over those vast districts which stretch from the 
Rocky Mountains to the Pacific Ocean. In ad- 
vance of the acquirements of individual rights 
sound pohcy dictates that every effort should 
be resorted to by the two governments to settle 
their respective claims." January 8, 1843, con- 
gress received news that Dr. Whitman had 
made good his claim, and reached his destina- 
tion, with wagons, in Oregon. Party spirit, 
for there were two parties to the Oregon Con- 
troversy, aside from the British, ran high. Dr. 
Winthrop said: "For myself, certainly, I be- 
lieve that we have as good a title to the whole 
twelve degrees of latitude," i. e., up to 54 de- 
grees 40 minutes. Senator Thomas Benton 
voiced the prevailing sentiment of the time in 
these words: "Let the emigrants go on and 
carry their rifles. We want thirty thousand 
rifles in the valley of the Oregon; they will 
make all quiet there, in the event of a war with 
Great Britain for the dominion of that coun- 
try. The war, if it come, will not be topical ; 
it will not be confined to Oregon, but will em- 
brace the possessions of the two powers 
throughout the globe. Thirty thousand rifles on 
the Oregon will anihilate the Hudson's Bay 
Company and drive them off our continent and 
quiet the Indians." 

Rufus Choate spoke for peace. He was 
followed by pacificatory utterances from others. 
Still, there was sufficient vitality in the "Fifty- 
four forty or fight" to elect President Polk on 
such a campaign issue. The population of Ore- 
gon at the close of 1844 was estimated by Mr. 
Greenhow at more than three thousand. The 
Indian agent for the government, Mr. White, 
placed it at about four thousand; Mr. Hines 
said : "In 1845 't increased to nearly three 
thousand souls, with some two thousand to 
three thousand head of cattle." The west was 
warm with zeal and anticipation. In the house 
of representatives Mr. Owen, of Indiana, said : 
"Oregon is our land of promise. Oregon is our 
land of destination. 'The finger of nature' — 

such were once the words of the gentleman 
from Massachusetts (J. Q. Adams) in regard 
to this country, — 'points that way;' two 
thousand Americans are already dwelling in 
her valleys, five thousand more * * * ^jjj 
have crossed the mountains before another year 
rolls round." It was the opinion of the senator 
from Illinois, Mr. Semple, that ten thousand 
would cross the Rocky Mountains the follow- 
ing year. 

At last a re-okuion was introducea in con- 
gresss "affirming Oregon to be part and parcel 
of the territory of the United States from 42 
degrees to 54 degrees, 40 minutes, and that 
notice should be given at once to terminate the 
joint occupation of it." It was held on the floor 
of the house that "no doubts now remain in 
the minds of American statesmen that the gov- 
ernment of the United States held a clear and 
unquestionable title to the whole of the Oregon 

In the region at this time the Hudson's Bay 
Company had about thirty "trading posts." 
Really they were forts and powerful auxiliaries 
to an internecine war. Seven thousand citizens 
of the United States were in the same country. 
The question of another war with England had 
become a live and important issue. To have 
stood solidly for 54 degrees, 40 minutes, would 
have meant war, and as one gentleman ex- 
pressed it, "a war that might have given the 
whole of Oregon to England and Canada to the 
United States." During forty days the ques- 
tion of giving notice to England of discontinu- 
ance of joint occupancy was discussed in the 
house. It was carried by a vote of one hun- 
dred and sixty-three to fifty-four. The 
struggle in the senate was longer. An 
idea of the engrosoing nature of the 
Oregon topic may be gleaned from the 
fact that three score bills and resolutions were 
kept in abeyance on the calendar for future ac- 
tion. Daniel Webster prophesied that war 
would not result; that the incident would be 
closed by compromise and that the compromise 



would be on the boundary line of the forty- 
ninth parallel. The attitude of the two coun- 
tries was this : We had offered forty-nine de- 
grees from the mountains to the Pacific ocean, 
not once, but several times; England had of- 
fered forty-nine degrees from the mountains to 
the Columbia, and by that stream to the sea. A 
comparatively narrow triangle of land only lay 
between the demands of England and conces- 
sions of the United States. Most excellent 
grounds for a compromise. April 23, 1846, 
the notice passed the house by a vote of forty- 
two to ten, with important amendments strong- 
ly suggestive to both governments to adjust 
all differences amicably. No one longer feared 

From the point on the forty-ninth parallel of north 
latitude where the boundry laid down in existing 
treaties and conventions between the United States and 
Great Britian terminates, the line of boundary between 
the territories of the United States and those of her 
Britannic Majesty shall be continued westward along 
said forty-ninth parallel of north latitude to the middle 

of the channel which separates the continent from Van- 
couver's Island, and thence southerly through the mid- 
dle of the said channel, and of Fucca's Strait, to the 
Pacific ocean : Provided, however, that the navigation 
of the whole of the said channel and straits south of 
the forty-ninth parallel of north latitude, remain free 
and open to both parties. 

Thus reads the first article of the final 
boundary treaty between England and the Uni- 
ted States, so far as concerns Oregon. But to 
mould it into this form and sign the same, fifty- 
four years, two months and six days had been 
required by the two countries. On July 17, 
1846, the document, previously ratified, was 
exchanged in London between the two govern- 
ments. But Captain Robert Gray, of Boston, 
had discovered the Columbia river May 11, 
1792, and fully established a United States 
title to the country which it drains. It re- 
mained yet for a boundary commission, in 
1857, to run the line. The first meeting of the 
commission was held July 27, of the same 



"Who will respond to go beyond the Rocky 
Mountains and carry the Book of Heaven?" 

This was the startling question asked by 
President Fisk, of Wilbraham College. It was 
an editorial inquiry published in the Christian 
Advocate in March, 1833. Yet this ringing 
call for spiritual assistance was not initiative 
on the part of President Fisk. A Macedonian 
cry had been voiced by four Flathead Indians, 
of the tribe of Nez Perces, or Pierced-noses. 
They had come down to St. Louis from the 
headwaters of the Columbia, the Snake, Lewis 
or Clarke's rivers, far to westward of the 

Rocky Mountains. They were strangers in a 
strange land; almost as singular in dress, 
speech and accoutrements to the citizens of St. 
Louis as would be visitors to us from the 
planet Mars. Yet in their distant teepees 
among the western foothills of the Rockies, 
these four chiefs had heard of the "White 
Man's Book" from eager, pushing, tireless and 
resourceful pioneers who had followed the trail 
made by Lewis and Clarke. Alone and un- 
assisted by government appropriation, they 
had followed the same course down the Mis- 
souri and the Father of Waters three thousand 



miles to St. Louis. This was in 1832. The 
peculiar mission of these Lidians was the open- 
ing act of the Whitman tragedy. ]\Ir. Barrows 
says : "The massacre ran riot through eight 
days, and Dr. Marcus Whitman and wife, of 
the American Board, and thirteen or more as- 
sociates, were savagely killed on the 29th of 
November, 1847, ^"d days following. It was 
the bloody baptism of Oregon, by the like of 
which the most of the American states have 
come to form the union." 

At the period of the arrival of these four 
Nez Perce chiefs Indians were not an uncom- 
mon sight in St. Louis. At certain seasons the 
suburbs of the city were fringed with teepees 
and wickiups. So, at first, but little attention 
was paid to them, otherwise than to note their 
strange dress and unknown dialect. It is not 
difficult to gather how they had learned of the 
White Man's Book. Their own rude eloquence 
addressed to General William Clarke at part- 
ing conveys this information. After a long 
time passed in the city, after two of them had 
gone to the happy hunting ground, the survi- 
vors made their desires known, and it appears 
their request was, perforce, denied. Transla- 
tion of the Bible into an Indian dialect is not 
the work of a few days or months. The two 
remaining Indians decided to return home; 
their mission a failure. The pathos of their 
complaint is in the spirit, if not the words, of 
one of the chiefs in his farewell speech to Gen- 
eral Clarke : 

'T come to you over a trail of many moons 
from the setting sun. You were the friend of 
my fathers who have all gone the long way. 
I come with one eye partly opened, for more 
light for my people who sit in darkness. I go 
back with both eyes closed. How can I go 
back blind to my blind people? I made my 
way to you with strong arms, through many 
enemies and strange lands, that I might carry 
back much to them. I go back with both arms 
broken and empty. The two fathers who came 
with us — the braves of manv winters and wars 

— we leave here by your great waters and wig- 
wam. They were tired in many moons and 
their moccasins wore out. My people sent me 
to get the ^\'hite Man's Book of Heaven. You 
took me to where you allow your women to 
dance, as we do not ours, and the Book was not 
there. You took me to where they worshipped 
the great spirit with candles, and the Book was 
not there. You shewed me the images of good 
spirits and pictures of the good land beyond, 
but the Book was not amnog them to tell us 
the way. I am going back the long, sad trail 
to my people of the dark land. You make my 
feet heavy with burdens ai gifts, and my moc- 
casins will grow old in carrying them, but the 
Book is not among them. When I tell my 
poor, blind people, after one more snow, in the 
big council, that I did not bring the Book, no 
word will be spoken by our old men or by our 
young braves. One by one they will rise up 
and go out in silence. My people will die in 
darkness, and they will go on the long path to 
the other hunting grounds. No white man 
will go with them and no White Man's Book 
to make the way plain. I have no more 

Of this utter failure to secure a copy of the 
Bible, Mr. Barrows says, pertinently : 

"In what was then a Roman Catholic city 
it was not easy to do this, and officers only were 
met. It has not been the policy or practice of 
that church to give the Bible to the people, 
whether Christian or pagan. They have not 
thought it wise or right. Probably no Chris- 
tian enterprises in all the centuries have shown 
more self-sacrificing heroism, foreseen suffer- 
ing and intense religious devotion than the la- 
borers of that church, from 1520, to give its 
type of Christianity to the natives of North 
America. But it was oral, ceremonial and pic- 
torial. In the best of their judgment, and in 
the depths of their convictions, they did not 
think it best to ruduce native tongues to writ- 
ten languages and the Scriptures to the vernac- 
ular of any tribe." 



But the eloquence of this speech had fallen 
on appreciative ears. A young clerk in Gen- 
eral's Clarke's office, who had heard the sad 
plaint of the chief, wrote to George Catlin. in 
Pittsburg, historian and painter, an account of 
the scene. Thereafter events moved rapidly; 
the seed was sown and the harvest was about 
to be fulfilled. One Indian only lived to return 
to his people, without the Book, but it cannot 
be said that his mission was a failure. The edi- 
torial appeal of President Fisk produced re- 
sults. Measures were at once taken by the 
American Board of Commissioners for For- 
eign Missions, and the Methodist Board of 
Missions to send missionaries to Oregon. 
Revs. Jason and David Lee were pioneers in 
this scriptural crusade. They went under ap- 
pointment of the Methodist Board. They were 
followed the next year by Revs. Samuel Par- 
ker and Marcus Whitman, M. D., sent by the 
American Board of Commissioners. In the 
summer of 1835 the latter arrived at the Amer- 
ican rendezvous on Green river. Accompanied 
by a body of Nez Perces, from which people 
the four chiefs had gone to St. Louis, Rev. 
Mr. Parker went to Walla Walla and on to 
Vancouver. And with him he carried the 
"Book." Dr. Whitman returned to the states 
the same fall, married Narcissa Prentice, and 
organized an outfit with which he returned, 
with his bride, to Oregon, arriving at Walla 
Walla in September, 1836. 

The question as to whether or no Dr. Whit- 
man "saved Oregon to the United States" will 
remain forever a question of casuistry. Events 
might have shaped themselves as they subse- 
quently did, had Whitman not made his long 
midwinter ride to Washington, D. C, to lay 
his facts and fears before the president. Every- 
thing might have resulted in the retention by 
the United States of all of Oregon south of the 
49th parallel, had no warning crv' come from 
the far northwest, a culverin shot announcing 
the attempt of England to seize the country, 
not only by force of majority colonization, but 

through artifices of the Hudson's Bay Com- 
pany. At a dinner in Waiilatpu, attended by 
Dr. Whitman, news was received that a colony 
of English, one hundred and forty strong, were 
then near Fort Colville, three hundred and fifty 
miles up the Columbia. A young priest leaped 
to his feet, threw his cap into the air and cried : 
"Hurrah for Oregon! America is too late 
and we have got the country!" 

This is but one of the many significant 
signs witnessed by Whitman. He was a man 
of foresight; he had seen and realized the 
wealth, position and future possibilities of Ore- 
gon as had no other American at that period. 
And he rode on to Washington and told his 
story. It will be read in the preceding chapter 
that not until he had done so did the American 
congress act. Of the personality of Dr. Whit- 
man one who knew him contributes the follow- 
ing picture : 

"IMarcus Whitman once seen, and in our 
family circle, telling of his one business — he had 
but one — was a man not to be forgotten by the 
writer. He was of medium height, more com- 
pact than spare, a stout- shoulder, and large 
head not much above it, covered with stiff, 
iron gray hair, while his face carried all the 
moustache and whiskers that four months had 
beeen able to put on it. He carried himself 
awkardly, though perhaps courteously enough 
for trappers, Indians, mules and grizzlies, his 
principal company for six years. He seemed 
built as a man for whom more stock had been 
furnished than worked in symmetrically and 
gracefully. There was nothing peculiarly 
quick in his motion or speech, and no trace of a 
fanatic; but under control of a thorough 
knowledge of his business, and' with deep, ar- 
dent convictions about it, he was a profound 
enthusiast. A willful resolution and a tena- 
cious earnestness would impress you as making 
the man." 

Sordid motives have been attributed to Dr. 
Whitman's efforts in behalf of Oregon. One 
writer has assumed that his sole object was to 



secure continuance of his little mission at 
Waiilatpu. But there is abundance of evidence 
that his ideas were of broader scope than this. 
Let it be noted that efforts to depreciate Whit- 
man suddenly ceased as late as 1891. That 
year there was found in the archives of Wash- 
ington, D. C, a letter from him proposing a 
bill for a line of forts from the Kansas river to 
the Willamette. In the Walla Walla Union- 
Journal of August 15, 1891, the letter was first 
published. It has been reproduced in Dr. O. 
W. Nixon's • work, "How Marcus Whitman 
Sa\-ed Oregon :" 

To the Hon. James W. Porter, Secretary of War : 
Sir : — In compliance with the request you did me the 
honor to make last winter while at Washington, I 
herewith transmit to you the synopsis of a bill, which, 
if it could be adopted, would, according to my exper- 
ience and observation, prove highly conducive to the best 
interests of the United States generally; to Oregon, 
where I have resided for more than seven years as a 
missionary, and to the Indian tribes that inhabit the 
intermediate country. 

The government will doubtless for the first time 
be apprised through you, and by means of this communi- 
cation, of the immense migration of families to Oregon, 
which has taken place this year. I have, since our in- 
terview, been instrumental in piloting across the route 
described, in the accompanying bill, and which is the 
only eligible wagon road, no less than fam- 
ilies, consisting of one thousand persons of both sexes, 
with their wagons, amounting in all to one hundred and 
twenty-six ; six hundred and ninety-four oxen and 
seven hundred and seventj'-three loose cattle. 

Your familiarity with the government's policy, 
duties and interests, render it unnecessary for me to 
more, than hint at the several objects intended by the en- 
closed bill, and any enlargements upon the topics here 
suggested as inducements to its adoption, would be quite 
superflous, if not impertinent. The very existence of 
such a system as the one above recommended suggests 
the utility of postoffices and mail arrangements, which 
it is the wish of all who now live in Oregon to have 
granted them, and I need only add that the contracts 
for this purpose will be readily taken at reasonable rates 
for transporting the mail across from Missouri to the 
mouth of the Columbia in forty days, with fresh horses 
at each of the contemplated posts. The ruling policy 
proposed, regards the Indians as the police of the 
country, who are to be relied upon to keep the peace, 
not only for themselves, but to repel lawless white men 
and prevent banditti, under the solitary guidance of the 
superintendent of the several posts, aided by a well- 

directed system to induce the punishment of crimes. 
It will only be after the failure of these means to pro- 
cure the delivery or punishment of violent, lawless and 
savage acts of aggression, that a band or tribe should 
be regarded as conspirators against the peace, or pun- 
ished accordingly by force of arms. 

Hopmg that these suggestions may meet 3'our ap- 
probation, and conduce to the future interests of our 
growing country, I have the honor to he. Honorable 
sir, your obedient servant, 


Certainly it is reasoning from slender, un- 
substantial premises to assert that the great in- 
fluence exerted upon President Tyler and Sec- 
retary Webster by Whitman was founded on 
so slight a pretext as saving to him, personally, 
the humble mission at Waiilatpu. Whitman 
must have been a man with "an idea," larger 
than that to have commanded respect from the 
ablest statesmen of his day ; to have crystalized 
public sentiment into a desire for the whole of 
Oregon; to have smelted patriotism into the 
heraldic proclamation of defiance to England, 
"Fifty-four forty or fight." 

If Whitman were purely selfish, why should 
he have announced his intention, in 1843, of 
personally conducting a large train across the 
mountains? Security of his mission did not 
depend on this. On the contrary the advance 
of civilization, with attendant churches, would 
tend to do away entirely with missions to the 

As we approach the melancholy close of Dr. 
Whitman's varied career as explorer, mission- 
ary and statesman, one can not fail to be im- 
pressed with a feeling that less devotion to a 
patriotic sense of duty would have conduced to 
his personal safety. Two antagonists were ar- 
rayed against him and his political, as well as 
his spiritual, plans ; primarily the Hudson's Bay 
Company, and the Indians, indirectly influ- 
enced by the same commercial corporation. The 
policy of the company was to keep the country 
in the condition of a vast game preserve for the 
purpose of breeding fur-bearing animals. 
Naturally this pleased the Indians. It was di- 
rectly in line with their mode of life. The pol- 



icy of American colonization was smybolized 
by the axe and the plow ; complete demolition 
of profitable hunting grounds. And of this 
latter policy Dr. Whitman was high priest and 

Since the discovery of America Indian wars 
have been like 

"Freedom's battle, once begun, 
Bequeathed by bleeding sire to son." 

In a letter written by Washington to Jay, 
in 1794, the first president says: "There does 
not remain a doubt in the mind of any well- 
informed person in this country, not shut 
against conviction, that all the difficulties we 
encounter with the Indians, their hostilities, the 
murders of helpless women and innocent chil- 
dren along our frontiers, result from the con- 
duct of the agents of Great Britain in this 
country." Historical justice demands, how- 
ever, that we assign the primary cause of the 
Whitman massacre to the entagling circum- 
stances of the Indians on the Columbia, under 
two rival peoples and conflicting policies. Also 
the general character of the Indians as uncivil- 
ized and superstitious, must be duly considered. 
Before the tragedy, as since, many Americans 
were cruel, deceitful and aggressive in their 
treatment of the unsophisticated savage. Those 
who have philosophically watched the trend of 
current events in the past twenty-five years need 
not be told that more than one Indian outbreak 
can be directly traced to low cupidity and 
peculation among our government officials. To 
a certain extent this cruelty and deception had 
been practiced upon the Indians by lawless 
white men prior to the Whitman massacre. To- 
day we can not come into court with clean 
hands for the purpose of accusing the English 
pioneers of Oregon. If their policy was one 
designed to check the march of western civili- 
zation, it was certainly devoid of the sometimes 
Satanic cruelty shown by Americans towards 
the Indians. 

We now come to the savage details of the 

Whitman tragedy and the immediate cause of 
the outbreak. Undoubtedly this will be found 
to lie in the innate superstition of the savage, 
educated or uneducated. Following the return 
of Whitman from Washington, in 1843, the In- 
dians in the vicinity of the mission at Waiilatpu 
were restless and insurbordinate. There is evi- 
dence that at this period Whitman scented dan- 
ger. He contemplated removal to The Dalles 
for safety, and had even gone so far as to ar- 
range for the purchase of the Methodist Mis- 
sion at that point. Two personal enemies were 
arrayed against him ; Tamsuky, a Cayuse chief, 
and Joe Lewis. The latter was a sullen, re- 
\-engeful half-breed, one who had wandered to 
the mission, been befriended by the doctor, and 
secretly became the head center of a murderous 

Measles became epidemic among the In- 
dians during the summer of 1847, introduced 
among the Cayuse tribe by immigrants. It was 
Indian medical practice to treat all fevers by 
placing the patient in a sweat-house, followed 
by a bath in ice-cold water. Under such ig- 
norant ministrations many of the patients, of 
course, expired. They died, too, under the 
medical attendance of Dr. Whitman, whose ut- 
most vigilance could not save his patients from 
the sweat-house and the fatal douche. It was 
at this critical period that the treacherous Lewis 
circulated reports that the doctor was poison- 
ing instead of healing his patients. Lewis af- 
firmed that he had overheard Whitman and 
Spalding plotting to obtain possession of the 
country. It was finally decided by some of the 
mfluential chiefs of the tribe to demand of Dr. 
Whitman a test case of his professional skill. 
An Indian woman afflicted with the measles 
was given in his charge. The terrible alterna- 
tive, secretly decided upon, was this: Should 
the woman recover, all would be peace : should 
she die the Indians were to kill all the mission- 

Of this direful plot Whitman was apprised 
by Istikus, a Umatilla friend. The doctor 


treated the story with levity. Not so Mrs. 
Whitman. With the sensitive intuition of 
woman, she fully comprehended the dread sig- 
nificance of Istikus' story, and, though intrepid 
by nature, the heroine of a dangerous pioneer 
journey across the continent, she became 
alarmed, and was in tears for the first time since 
the death of her child eight years before. Dr. 
Whitman reassured her the best he could, and 
renewed his promise to move down the river. 
It was too late. On the fatal 29th of Novem- 
ber, 1847, great numbers of Tamsuky's adher- 
ents were in the vicinity of Waiilatpu. Their 
sinister presence added to the alarm of Mrs. 
Whitman. Survivors of the massacre said 
that the hills were black with Indians looking 
down upon the scene. About one o'clock in the 
afternoon of the 29th, while Dr. Whitman was 
reading, a number of Indians entered his room, 
and, having attracted his attention, one of them, 
said to have been Tamchas, buried his hatchet 
in the head of his benefactor. Another savage, 
Telaukait, one who had received nothing but 
kindness, beat the face to a pulp. Bloody work, 
thus began, was speedily followed with relent- 
less brutality. None of the white men, scat- 
tered and unsuspecting, could offer adequate 
assistance. They were quickly shot down with 
the exception of such as were remote. Five 
men escaped. After incredible suffering they 
finally reached a place of safety. Mrs. Whit- 
man was the only woman who suffered death. 
Other women were outraged, and children, boys 
and girls, held in captivity several days. Will- 
iam McBean. the Hudson's Bay Company's 
agent, at Fort Walla Walla, refused to harbor 
Mr. Hall, who had escaped as far as the fort, 
and he subsequently perished. A courier was 
despatched by McBean to Vancouver, but this 
man did not even warn the people at The Dalles 
of danger. Happily they were unmolested. So 
soon as James Douglas, then chief factor in the 
place of Dr. Whitman, heard of the massacre, 
he sent Peter Skeen Ogden, with a force, to 
rescue the survivors. Ogden exhibited a com- 

mendable zeal and efficiency, and by the expen- 
diture of several hundred dollars, ransomed 
forty-seven women and children. 

Following are the names of the victims of 
this outbreak; the people slaughtered during 
the eight days of murderous riot: Marcus 
Whitman, Narcissa Whitman, John Sager, 
Francis Sager, Crockett Brewley, Isaac Gillen, 
James Young and Rogers, Kimball, Sales, 
]\Iarsh, Saunders, Hoffman and Hall. After- 
\\ards there was found on the site of the massa- 
cre a lock of long, fair hair, which was, un- 
doubtedly taken from the head of Mrs. Whit- 
man. Among the relics of this tragedy, in 
Whitman College, it is now preserved. An ac- 
count of the escape of Mr. Osborne was pub- 
lished a number of years ago. It is a graphic 
description of the horrors of the event, and 
from it we take the following extracts : 

As the guns fired and the yells commenced I 
leaned my head upon the bed and committed myself and 
family to my maker. My wife removed the loose floor. 
I dropped under the floor with my sick family in their 
night clothes, taking only two woolen sheets, a piece 
of bread and some cold mush, and pulled the floor over 
us. In five minutes the room was full of Indians, but 
they did not discover us. The roar of guns, the yells 
of the savages, and the crash of clubs and knives, and 
the groans of the dying continued until dark. We 
distinctly heard the dying groans of Mrs. Whitman, 
Mr. Rogers and Francis, till they died away one after 
the other. We heard the last words of Mr. Rogers in 
a slow voice, calling, "Come. Lord Jesus, come quickly." 

Soon after this I removed the floor and we went out. 
We saw the white face of Francis by the door. It was 
warm, as we laid our hand upon it, but he was dead. 
I carried my two youngest children, who were sick, and 
my wife held on to my clothes in her great weakness. 
We had all been sick with measles. Two infants had 
died. She had not left her bed for six weeks till that 
day, when she stood up a few minutes. The naked, 
painted Indians were dancing a scalp dance around a 
large fire at a little distance. There seemed no hope 
for us and we knew not which way to go, but bent 
our steps toward Fort Walla Walla. A, dense, cold 
fog shut out every star and the darkness was complete. 
We could see no trail and not even the hand before the 
face. We had to feel out the trail with our feet. My 
wife almost fainted, but staggered along. Mill Creek, 
which we had to wade, was high with late rains and 
came up to the waist. My wife in her great weakness 
came night washing down, but held to my clothes. I 



braced myself with a stick, holding a child in one arm. 
I had to cross five times for the children. The water 
was icy cold and the air freezing some. Staggering 
along about two miles Mrs. Osborne fainted and could 
go no further, and we hid ourselves in the brush of 
the Walla Walla river, not far below the lodges of 
Tamsuky, a chief who was very active at the commence- 
ment of the butchery. We were thoroughly wet, and the 
cold, fog-like snow was about us. The cold mud was 
partially frozen as we crawled, feeling our way into the 
dark brush. We could see nothing the darkness was so 
extreme. I spread one wet sheet down on the frozen 
ground; wife and children crouched upon it. I covered 
the other over them. I thought they must soon perish 
as they were shaking and their teeth rattling with cold. 
I kneeled down and commended us to our Maker. The 
day finally dawned and I could see Indians riding 
furiously up and down the trail. Sometimes they would 
come close to the brush and our blood would warm and 
the shaking would stop from fear for a moment. The 
day seemed a w'eek. I expected every moment my wife 
would breathe her last. Tuesday night we felt our way 
to the trail and staggered along to Sutucks Nima 
(Dog Creek), which we waded as we did the other 
creek, and kept on about two miles, when my wife 
fainted and could go no farther. Crawled into the 
brush and frozen mud to shake and suffer on from 
hunger and cold, and without sleep. The children, too, 
wet and cold, called incessantly for food, but the shock 
of groans and yells at first so frightened them that they 
did not speak loud. Wednesday night wife was too 
weak to stand. I took our second child and started for 
Walla Walla; had to wade the Touchet; stopped fre- 
quently in the brush from weakness ; had not recovered 
from measles. Heard a horseman pass and repass as 
I lay concealed in the willows. Have since learned it 
was Mr. Spalding. Reached Fort Walla Walla after 
daylight; begged Mr. McBean for horses to go to my 
family, for food, blankets and clothing to take to them, 
and to take care of my child till I could bring my 
family in should I live to find them alive. Mr. McBean 
told me I could not bring my family to his fort. Mr. 
Hall came in on Monday night, but he could not 
have an American in his fort, and he had him put over 
the Columbia river ; that he could not let me have 
horeses or anything for my wife or children, and I must 
go on to Umatilla. I insisted on bringing my family to 
the fort, but he refused ; said he would not let us in. 
I next begged the priest to show pity, as my wife and 
children must perish and the Indians, undoubtedly, kill 
me, but with no success. 

There were many priests at the fort. Mr. McBean 
gave me breakfast but I saved most of it for my family. 
Providentially Mr. Stanley, an artist, came in from 
Colville, and narrowly escaped the Indians by telling 
them he was "Alain," H. B., meaning that his name 
was Alain and that he was a Hudson's Bay Company 
employe. He let me have his two horses, some food 
he had left from Revs. Ellis' and Walker's mission; 

also a cap, a pair of socks, a shirt and handkerchief, 
and Mr. McBean furnished an Indian who proved most 
faithful, and Thursday night we started back, taking my 
child, but with a sad heart that I could not find mercy 
at the hands of God. The Indian guided me in the thick 
darkness to where I supposed I had left my dear wife 
and children. We could see nothing and dared not call 
aloud. Daylight came and I was exposed to Indians, but 
we continued to search till I was about to give up in 
despair, when the Indian discovered one of the twigs I 
had broken as a guide in coming out to the trail. Follow- 
ing this he soon found my wife and children still alive. 
I distributed what little food and clothing I had and we 
started for the Umatilla, the guide leading the way 
to a ford. 

^Ir. Osbonie and family went to William- 
ette Valley where they lived many years, as 
honored members of the community, though 
jNIrs. Osborne never entirely regained her 
health from the dreadful experiences incident 
to the massacre and escape. 

The most ingenious casuisty will fail to 
palliate the heartlessness of Mr. McBean. At 
the present day when charity, chivalry, nay, 
self-sacrifice to aid the suffering meet with 
heartiest approval from nearly all civilized na- 
tions, it is difficult to conceive of such base mo- 
tives as appear to have actuated him. That he 
reflected the baser qualities of the Hudson's 
Bay Company's policy, no one can reasonably 
deny. It seemed necessary to him to show the 
Indians that so far from reproving their con- 
duct the representative of the company was in 
sympathy, if not in actual collusion with the 
savage conspirators. McBean's attitude on this 
occasion stands forth as one of the darkest 
chapters in the history of the Hudson's Bay 
Company's "joint occupancy" with Americans 
of the territory of Oregon. 

If further proof were wanted of the appar- 
ent understanding between the Indians and the 
company the case of the artist who gave his 
name as "Alain," representing himself as con- 
nected with the interests of the Hudson's Bay 
Company is before us. Refusal of assistance to 
Mr. Osborne by the priests at Fort Walla Walla 
is readily understood. Their tenure of spiritual 
office wag dependent on the company. Their 



heartless action was not based on theological 
antagonism. No difference of creed entered 
into the matter. They were guided simply by 
personal interest ; they were but another form 
of the abject creatures to which the Hudson's 
Bay Company sought to reduce all their de- 
pendents. But in the annals of American his- 
tory there is no more pathetic recital than the 
story of Osborne's and Hall's rejection at the 
English fort to which they had fled for shelter. 
A less distressing case of a few weeks later 
is presented in the following extract from 
some reminiscences of Mrs. Catherine Pringle, 
formerly of Colfax. Mrs. Pringle was one of 
the Sager children, adopted by Doctor and Mrs. 
Whitman. The story of the "Christmas din- 
ner" which follows was given by her to the 
Commoner, of Colfax, in 1893 : 

The Christmas of 1847 was celebrated in the midst 
of an Indian village where the .American families who 
kept the day were hostages, whose lives were in constant 
danger. There is something tragically humorous about 
that Christmas, and I laugh when I think of some things 
that I cried over on that day. 

When the survivors moved to the Indian village a 
set of guards was placed over us. and those guards were 
vagabond savages, in whose charge nobody was safe. 
Many times we thought our final hour had come. They 
ordered us around like slaves, and kept us busy cook- 
ing for them. Whenever we made a dish they compelled 
us to eat of it first, for fear there was poison in it. 
They kept up a din and noise that deprived us of peace 
by day and sleep at night. Some days before Christmas 
we complained to the chief of the village who was sup- 
posed to be a little generous in our regard, and he gave 
us a guard of good Indians under command of one 
whom we knew as "Beardy." The latter had been 
friendly to Dr. Whitman: he had taken no part in the 
massacre, and it was claimed that it was through his 
intercession that our lives were spared. 

We hailed the coming of Beardy as a providential 
thing, and so, when the holiday dawned, the elder folks 
resolved to make the children as happy as the means 
at hand would allow. Mrs. Sanders had brought across 
the plains with her some white flour and some dried 
peaches, and these had been brought to our abode in 
William Gray's mission. White flour was a luxury and 
so were dried peaches then. Mrs. Sanders made white 
bread on Christmas morning, and then she made peach 
pie. Beardy had been so kind to us that we had to in- 
vite him to our Christmas dinner. We had ever so 
many pies, it seemed, and Beardy thought he had tasted 

nothing so good in all his life. He sat in one corner 
of the kitchen and crammed piece after piece of that 
dried pie into his mouth. We were determined that he 
should have all the pie he wanted, even if some of us 
went hungry, because Beardy was a friend on whose 
fidehty probably ou-r lives depended. 

And so we had our Christmas festival, and we sang 
songs and thanked heaven that we were still alive. After 
dinner, and about an hour after Beardy went away, we 
were thrown into alarm by a series of mad yells and we 
heard Indian cries of "Kill them! Tomahawk them!" 
A band of savages started to attack the Gray residence, 
and we saw them from the windows. Our time had 
come and some of us began to pray. The day that 
opened with fair promises was about to close in despair. 
To our amazement and horror the Indian band was led 
by Beardy himself, the Indian we counted on to police us 
in just such emergencies. He was clamoring for the 
death of all the white women. Fortune favored us at 
this critical juncture for just as the Indians were enter- 
ing the house messengers arrived from Fort Walla 
Walla. The messengers knew Beardy well, and they 
advanced on him and inquired the reason for his wild 

Me poinsoned !" cried Beardy, "Me Killed. White 
squaw poisoned me. Me always white man's friend, 
now me enemy. White squaw must die." 

That would be a liberal translation of the Indian 
words. Then followed a colloquy between Beardy and 
the messengers, and from the language used we learned 
that Beardy had suffered from an overdose o' American 
pie, and not knowing about the pains that lie in wait 
after intemperate indulgence even in pie, he rushed to 
the conclusion that he had been poisoned. It required 
a long time for the messengers to convince Beardy that 
they were innocent of any intention to cause him pain, 
but that he was simply suffering from the effects of 
inordinate indulgence in an indigestible lu.xury. The 
messengers talked Beardy into a reasonable frame of 
mind ; he called off his horde of savages and peace once 
more spread her wings over the William Gray mission. 
We were all happy that night— happy that Mrs. Saun- 
dres' pie had not been the means of a wholesale 
slaughter of white families on Christmas day. 

The messengers I speak of brought good news from 
the fort. Succor was at hand, and on December 29th 
we were moved to the fort and started down the river 
to The Dalles, January 3, 1848. The Christmas of the 
year 1847, as it was celebrated in this territory, offers 
something of a contrast to the yuletide merriment in all 
the churches and homes to-day. 

We have described the AA'hitman Mission, 
Whitman's mid-winter journey, his work for 
Oregon and the massacre. It remains to speak 
of the Cayuse war which followed as a nat- 
ural sequence. 



Friends of Mr. McBean have come forward 
with an explanation of his treatment of the 
refugees from the Waiilatpu massacre. It is 
claimed tht his reluctance to do any act which 
appeared like befriending Americans was 
through fear of the Cayuse Indians and a be- 
lief that they were about to begin a war of ex- 
termination upon Americans, their friends and 
allies. Therefore it would be dangerous to 
assist such Americans as were then seeking re- 
fuge from massacre, outrage and torture. 

It was reserved for Americans, however, to 
take the initiative in this war. News of the 
Whitman tragedy stirred the hearts of genuine 
men; men in Avhose veins ran the milk of hu- 
man kindness instead of ice-water. On the day 
following the massacre Vicar General Brouillet 
visited the Waiilatpu mission. He found the 
bodies of the victims unburied; he left them 
with such hasty interment as was possible, and 
soon after met Mr. Spalding whom he warned 
against attempting to visit the mission. This 
was, indeed, a friendly act on the part of the 
Vicar General, for the horrors of this tragedy 
did not come to a close on the first day. While 
it was safe for Brouillet, in close touch with the 
Hudson's Bay Company, to repair to that sad 
scene of desolation, it was not considered safe 
for any Americans to visit the spot. On Tues- 
day Mr. Kimball, who had remained with a 
broken arm in Dr. Whitman's house, was shot 
and killed. Driven desperate by his own and 
the sufferings of three sick children with him, 
he had attempted to procure water from a 
stream near the house. The same week Mr. 
Young and Mr. Bulee were killed. Saturday 
the savages completed their fiendish work by 

carrying away the young women for wives. Of 
the final ransom of the captives F. F. Victor, in 
"The River of the West," says : 

"Late in the month of December (1847) 
there arrived in Oregon City to be delivered to 
the governor, sixty-two captives, bought from 
the Cayuses and Nez Perces by Hudson Bay 
blankets and goods ; and obtained at that price 
by Hudson's Bay influence. 'No other power 
on earth,' says Joe Meek, the American, 'could 
have rescued those prisoners from the hands of 
the Indians,' and no man better than Mr. Meek 
understood the Indian character or the Hud- 
son's Bay Company's power over them." 

On December 7, 1847, from Fort Van- 
couver, James Douglas sent the following let- 
ter to Governor Abernethy : 

SIR: — Having received intelligence last night, by- 
special express from Walla Walla, of the destruction of 
the missionary settlement at Waiilatpu, by the Cayuse 
Indians of that place, we hasten to communicate the 
particulars of that dreadful event, one of the most 
atrocious which darkens the annals of Indian crime. 

Our lamented friend. Dr. Whitman, his amiable and 
accomplished lady, with nine other persons, have fallen 
victims to the fury of these remorseless savages, who 
appear to have been instigated to this appalling crime by 
a horrible suspicion which had taken possession of their 
superstitious minds, in consequence of the number of 
deaths from dysentery and measles, that Dr. Whitman 
was silently working the destruction of their tribes by 
administering poisonous drugs, under the semblance of 
salutary medicines. 

With a goodness of heart and a benevolence truly 
his own, Dr. Whitman had been laboring incessantly 
since the appearance of the measles and dysentery 
among his Indians converts, to relieve their sufferings ; 
and such has been the regard of his generous labors. 

A copy of Mr. McBean's letter, herewith trans- 
mitted, will give you all the particulars known to us of 
this indescribably painful event. Mr. Ogden, with a 
strong party, will leave this place as soon as possible 




for Walla Walla, to endeavor to prevent further evil ; 
and we beg to suggest to you the propriety of taking 
immediate measures for the protection of the Rev. Mr. 
Spalding, who, for the sake of his family, ought to 
abandon the Clearwater mission without delay, and re- 
tire to a place of safety, as he cannot remain at the 
isolated station without imminent risk, in the present 
excited and irritable state of the Indian population. 

I have the honor to be, sir, your most obedient 
servant, JAiVIES DOUGLAS. 

The reception of this letter was followed 
by intense excitement among people in the 
Wallamet settlement. The governor was au- 
thorised to mobilize a company of riflemen, not 
exceeding fifty in number, their objective point 
being The Dalles, which they were instructed 
to garrison and hold until such time as they 
could be reinforced. Three commissioners 
were chosen to carry out such provisions. The 
commissioners addressed a circular letter to the 
superintendent of the Methodist Mission, the 
"merchants and citizens of Oregon" and the 
Hudson's Bay Company. This document is 
valuable as explaining existing conditions in 
Oregon at that date, December 17, 1847: 

Gentlemen : — You are aware that the undersigned 
have been charged by the legislature of our provisional 
government with the difficult duty of obtaining the 
necessary means to obtain full satisfaction of the Cayuse 
Indians for the late massacre at Waiilatpu, and to pro- 
tect the white population of our common country from 
further aggression. In furtherance of this subject they 
have deemed it their duty to make immediate application 
to the merchants and citizens of the country for the 
requisite assistance. 

Though clothed with the power to pledge to the 
fullest extent the faith and means of the present govern- 
ment of Oregon, they do not consider this pledge the 
only security to those, who, in this distressing emer- 
gency, may extend to the people of this country the 
means of protection and redress. 

Without claiming any special authority from the 
government of the United States to contract a debt to 
be liquidated by that power, yet from all precedents of 
like character in the history of our country, the under- 
signed feel confident that the United States government 
will regard the murder of the late Dr. Whitman and his 
lady, as a national wrong, and will fully justify the 
people of Oregon in taking active measures to obtain 
redress for that outrage, and for their protection from 
further aggression. 

The right of self defense is tacitly acknowledged 

to every body politic in the confederacy to which we 
claim to belong, and in every case similar to our own, 
within our knowledge, the general government has 
promptly assumed the payment of all liabilities growing 
out of the measures taken by the constituted authorities 
to protect the lives and property of those who reside 
within the limits of their districts. If the citizens of 
the states and territories, east of the Rocky Mountains, 
are justified in promptly acting in such emergencies, who 
are under the immediate protection of the general 
government, there appears no room for doubt that the 
lawful acts of the Oregon government will receive a 
like approval. 

Though the Indians of the Columbia have com- 
mitted a great outrage upon our fellow citizens passing 
through the country, and residing among them, and 
their punishment for these murders may, and ought to 
be, a prime object with every citizen of Oregon, yet, 
as that duty more particularly develops upon the gov- 
ernment of the United States, we do not make this the 
strongest ground upon which to found our earnest ap- 
peal to. you for pecuniary assistance. It is a fact well 
known to every person acquainted with the Indian 
character, that by passing silently over their repeated 
thefts, robberies and murders of our fellow citizens, they 
have been emboldened to the commission of the ap- 
palling massacre at Waiilatpu. They ' call us women, 
destitute of the hearts and courage of men, and if we 
allow this wholesale murder to pass by as former ag- 
gressions, who can tell how long either life or property 
will be secure in any part of the country, or what 
moment the Willamette will be the scene of blood and 

The officers of our provisional government have 
nobly performed their duty. None can doubt the readi- 
ness of the patriotic sons of the west to offer their 
personal services in defense of a cause so righteous. 
So it now rests with you, gentlemen, to say whether 
our rights and our firesides shall be defended or not. 
Hoping that none will be found to falter in so high 
and so sacred a duty, we beg leave, gentlemen, to sub- 
scribe ourselves. 

Your servants and fellow citizens, 
Jesse Applegate, 
A. L. LovEjoY, 
Geo. L. Curry, 


This patriotic communication produced a 
certain effect, though not, perhaps, financially 
commensurate with the hopes of its authors. 
The amount secured was less than five thousand 
dollars, but this sufficed to arm and equip the 
first regiment of Oregon riflemen. In the 
month of January they proceeded to the Cayuse 



We are now acquainted \Yith the agency 
tlirough which the ransomed missionaries, 
their wives and children reached the ^Villa- 
mette vahey in safety. Concerning the people 
who were brought from Lapwai and Tchima- 
kin, it may be said to the credit of the Indians 
that though one band, the Cayuses, were mur- 
derers, two bands, the Nez Perces and Spo- 
kanes, were saviors. Few narratives are more 
thrilling than that relating to Fathers Eells and 
Walker, who attended the council of the Spo- 
kanes at Tchimakin, which council was to de- 
cide whether or no to join the Cayuses. On 
their decision hung the lives of the missionaries. 
Imagine their emotions as they waited with 
bated breath in their humble mission house to 
learn the result of the Indians' deliberations. 
Hours of animated discussion followed; argu- 
ment with the Cayuses emissaries; and finally 
the Spokanes announced their conclusions in 
these words : "Go and tell the Cayuses that the 
missionaries are our friends and we will defend 
them with our lives." 

The Nez Perces arrrived at the same con- 
clusion. Bold though these Cayuses were — 
the fiercest warriors of the inland empire — 
their hearts must have sunk within them as they 
saw that the Umatillas, the Nez Perces and the 
Spokanes and, even at that particular period, 
the Hudson's Bay Company, were all against 
them, and that they must meet the infuriated 
whites from the Willamette. The provisional 
government had entered upon the work of 
equipping fourteen companies of volunteers. 
The act of the legislature providing for this had 
been passed December 9, 1847. A large ma- 
jority of these volunteers furnished their own 
horses, arms and ammunition. This, too, with- 
out thought of pecuniary gain or reimburse- 
ment. The response to the dircular letter of 
the commissioners had been prompt, open- 
handed and hearty. 

Coruelius Gilliam, father of W. S. Gilliam, 
of Walla Walla, was chosen colonel of the reg- 
iment. He was a man of superlative energy. 

brave and resourceful, and, pushing all neces- 
sary arrangements, he set forth from the ren- 
dezvous at The Dalles on February ij. 1848. 
Several battles occurred on the way into the 
Cayuse country, the most severe being at Sand 
Hollows, in the Umatilla country. Five Crows 
and War Eagle, famous fighters of the Cayuse 
tribe, had gathered their braves to dispute the 
crossing of this region with the Oregon rifle- 
men. Fi\'e Crows flamboyantly claimed that 
by his wizard powers he could stop all bullets 
while \Var Eagle's gasconade was couched 
in the boastful statement that he would 
agree to swallow all missies fired at him. 
This same spirit of braggadocio has, through- 
out all historical times, animated pagan sol- 
diers. During the war with the Filipinos the 
natives were solemnly told by their priests that 
all bullets fired by American soldiers would 
turn to water before reaching them. 

Mark the result of the engagement between 
the avengers of Dr. Whitman and the supersti- 
tious Cayuses. At the first onset the "Swallow 
Ball" was killed, and the "wizard" was so seri- 
ously wounded that he was compelled to retire 
from the war. 

Nevertheless the Indians maintained a 
plucky fight. A number of casualties were suf- 
fered by the whites. But at last the Indians 
were compelled to break, and the way for the 
first regiment of Oregon riflemen was clear to 
Waiilatpu. The desolated mission was reached 
by Colonel Gilliam's command ]\Iarch 4. Here 
the soldiers passed several days to recuperate 
from the effects of a short but arduous cam- 
paign, and give to the remains of the martyrs 
of the Whitman massacre a reverent burial. 
Some of the dead had been hastily covered with 
earth by Vicar General Brouillet, and his com- 
panions; others when Ogden ransomed the 
captives, but afterward they had been partially 
exhumed by coyotes ; hyena-like allies of the 
dastradly Cayuses. 

The Indians had now fallen back to Snake 
river. Following them thither the whites were, 



somewhat, outgeneraled by the wily savages, an 
event that has been dupHcated several times in 
Indian wars of more recent date. The Oregon 
riflemen surprised and captured a camp of 
Cayuse Indians among whom, as was afterward 
divulged, were some of the murderers of Dr. 
Whitman and his friends at Waillatpu. The 
Machiavellian Cayuses suddenly professed 
great friendship for the Oregon avengers, and, 
pointing to a large band of horses on a hill, 
declared that the hostiles had abandoned them, 
and gone across the river. This deception was 
successful. Completely deluded the whites 
surrounded the camp and, rounding up the 
horses, started on their return. It was the hour 
of temporary Cayuse triumph. The released 
captives, mounting at once, began a furious at- 
tack on the rear of the batallion of riflemen 
which proved so harrassing that the volunteers 
were compelled to retreat to the Touchet river, 
and finally, although they repelled the Indians, 
they were forced to turn loose the captured 
horses. These animals the strategetic Indians 
immediately seized and with them vanished 
over the plains. They had outwitted Gilliam's 
men. Not only had they secured life and lib- 
erty for themselves, but had actually recovered 
the bait with which they had inveigled the vol- 
unteers into a trap. 

It was soon made evident that the Cayuse 
Indians had no real desire to fight. The whites 
insisted on a surrender of the murderers of Dr. 
Whitman and his people. Finding that the vol- 
unteers were in earnest in making this demand 
the treacherous tribe scattered in different di- 
rections; Tamsuky, with his friends, going to 
the headwaters of the John Day river. There, 
despite various efforts to capture them, they re- 
mained two years. In 1850, a band of Uma- 
tillas undertook the task of securing them, for 
trial, and after fierce and desperate resistance, 
killed Tamsuky and captured a number of his 
murderous compatriots. Of these captives five 
were hanged at Oregon City, June 3, 1850. 

The Cayuse Indians, howe\er, assert that 

only one of these condemned and executed In- 
dians were really guilty of participation in the 
horrible deeds at Waiilatpu. That one, they de- 
clared, was Tamahas, who struck Dr. Whitman 
the fatal blow. The claim that the others were 
innocent may be true, so far as the actual mur- 
der of the doctor or his friends is concerned, 
but as accessories to a great — indeed, a national 
crime — they were, undoui)tedly, guilty. If they 
were not, it is but one more instance of lament- 
able failure to apply either punishment or mercy 
accurately, which has characterized all Indian 
wars on both sides. The innocent have 
home the sins of the guilty in more ways 
than one. 

In this Cayuse war many men, who after- 
ward became famous in Oregon and Washing- 
ton history took an active part. Among them 
may be named James Nesmith, who was United 
States Senator. He was the father of Mrs. Levi 
Ankeny, of Walla Walla, present United States 
senator from Washington. William Martin, of 
Pendleton, Oregon, was one of the captains in 
the corps of rifle men during this war. Joel 
Palmer, Tom ]\IcKay, J. M. Garrison and 
many others bore their part in the beginning, or 
later in the maturer development of the coun- 
try. Colonel Gilliam, who had shown himself 
to be a brave and sagacious commander, was 
accidentally killed on the return of his trooops, a 
inost melancholy close of a career full of prom- 
ise to this country, then slowly unfolding its 
wealth of varied industries. 

In taking leave of this stirring epoch in the 
history of a certain portion of the, now, state of 
Washington, pursuit, capture and punishment 
of principals and instigators of the murder of 
Dr. Whitman, and his associates in missionarj- 
work, it may be said in the way of retrospec- 
tion that, grevious as was the end of Whitman's 
career, no doubt it will ultimately be seen to 
have produced greater results for this region 
and the world than if he had survived to have 
enjoyed a well-merited rest from his labors. 
Subsequent development of this section, the 



founding of Whitman College, and the whole 
train of circumstances arising from American 
occupation of Oregon may be seen, in some 
measure, to have grown out of the tragedy at 
Waiilatpu. Here, as elsewhere, martyrdom 
appears a necessary accompainment to the most 
brilliant progress in civilization. 

While the offense of these Indians can not 
be condoned, charity compels the admission that 
the ignorant creatures were scarcely more re- 
sponsible than the wild beasts who, also, dis- 
puted this territory with civilized man. The 
very superstition which it is the duty of every 

missionary to eradicate from pagan minds as 
speedily as possible, is primarily to blame for 
the undoing of Dr. Whitman. Steeped in this 
barbaric superstition, pampered by the Hud- 
son's Bay Company, treacherously deceived by 
agents and emissaries of the great octupus of 
the Northwest Coast, we can not hold these 
savages to a higher degree of responsibility than 
the source from which they drew their grew- 
some inspiration. But in 1848 the progress of 
western civilization demanded their suppres- 
sion, if not ultimate removal, along with the 
coyote and rattlesnake. 



Previous to 1859 the territory of Oregon 
comprised the present states of Washington, 
Oregon and Idaho. It is not within the prov- 
ince of this history to follow the careers of In- 
dian "braves," Indian thieves and Indian raps- 
callions along the entire course of their devious 
warpaths throughout all of the country out- 
lined above. Of the Indian wars immediately 
affecting Washington, the territory covered by 
these annals, it becomes our duty to treat them 
in an impartial yet concise manner. 

The massacre of the Ward train, by the 
Snake Indians, occurred near Fort Boise in the 
autumn of 1854. Determined to show the In- 
dians that the government would not remain in- 
active in the face of such outrages Major Gran- 
ville O. Haller organized an expedition with 
M-hich he pushed over into the Snake country, 
from Fort Dalles. Nothing tangible resulted 
from this march other than a demonstration in 
force ; the Indians retreated into the mountains ; 
Major Haller and his soldiers returned to The 
Dalles. During the summer of 1855, however. 

he made another attempt to reach the Snake In- 
dians, and this time successfully, finally captur- 
ing and executing the murderers of the Ward 

Discovery of gold in tlie vicinity of Fort 
Colville incited a stampede to that country. 
This was in the spring of 1855. -^t that period 
Governor Stevens was making his famous east- 
ern tour through the territory engaged in treat- 
ies and agreements with the various tribes, and 
this gold discovery so excited the members of 
his escort that it was with difficulty they were 
prevented from deserting. On meeting with 
the Kettle Falls, Fend d'Oreilles, Spokanes and 
Coeuf d'Alenes Governor Stevens had told 
them that he would negotiate with them for the 
sale of their lands on his return. Offers to pur- 
chase lands by the whites had always been re- 
garded with suspicion by the Indians. To them 
it appeared the preliminary step toward sub- 
jugation and domination of the country which, 
perhaps was not an unusual view of the matter. 
The gradual but steadv increase of the white 



men was far from pleasing to the Indians ; they 
were dissatisfied with the terms of treaties al- 
ready negotiated, and one chief Peupeumox- 
mox "Yellow Bird," was on the eve of repudi- 
ating the sale of certain territory. 

The first note of defiance was sounded by 
Pierre Jerome, chief of the Kettle Falls Indians, 
about August i, 1855. He declared emphat- 
ically that no white man should pass through 
his country. This declaration was soon fol- 
lowed by rumors of murders committed by the 
Yakimas. A number of small parties had set 
forth from the Sound en route to Fort Col- 
ville, via Nisqually pass and the Ahtanahm 
Catholic mission. Such was the report com- 
municated by Chief Garry, of the Spokanes, to 
A J. Bolon, special agent for the Yakimas. It 
was Bolon's intention to meet Governor Stev- 
ens on the latter's return from Fort Benton, and 
assist at the councils and treaties. But on re- 
ceiving these sanguinary reports Bolon rashly 
deflected his course for the purpose of investi- 
gating them. He went, unattended to the Cath- 
olic mission to meet Kamiakin, and was mur- 
dered by Owhi, a nephew of Kamiakin, and 
chief of the Umatillas, who treacherously shot 
him in the back. 

Then Kamiakin declared war on the whites, 
which war, he said, he was prepared to carry 
on five years, if necessary. The gauntlet had 
been thrown down and war was inevitable. The 
Tunior of whites having been killed by the 
Yakimas was confirmed by miners returning 
frcm Fort Cloville, on September 20. A 
requisition for troops from Vancouver and 
Steilacoom was at once made by acting Gov- 
ernor Mason. Fears for the safety of Governor 
Stevens warranted sending a detachment to his 
assistance. A force of eighty-four men from 
Fort Dalles, under Major Haller, was ordered 
to proceed against Kamiakin and Peupeumox- 
mox, two chiefs most to be dreaded. Haller's 
objective point was the Catholic mission, the 
home of Kamiakin. He set forth October 3. 

Indians were discovered the third dav out. 

A sharp skirmish ensued in the afternoon of 
that day, and at nightfall the Yakimas with- 
drew. Of Haller's force eight men were killed 
and wounded. On the following day the fight 
was renewed, the whites being without water 

[ and having but very little food. The Indians 
attempted to surround Haller, and so sharp was 
their attack that at dark a messenger was des- 
patched to Major Raines, at The Dalles, asking 
for assistance. On the third day of this en- 
gagement, which was in reality a signal defeat 
for the whites, the cavalry horses and pack ani- 
mads were turned loose to find water and grass. 

i Haller determined to return to The Dalles, and 
was again attacked by the Indians who, for ten 
miles, harassed the retreating soldiers with a 
sharp, running fire. The force separated into 
two divisions, one of them being under the com- 
mand of Captain Russell. Two detachments 
of reinforcements failed to connect with Haller, 
for any effective stand against the enemy, and 
Major Haller reached The Dalles with a loss 
of five men killed, seventeen wounded and con- 
siderable government property. It was esti- 
mated that the Indians suffered a loss of forty 

The disastrous result of this initial cam- 
paign against the Yakimas inflamed both sol- 
diers and civilians. Preparations for a war of 
considerable magnitude were hastily made. It 
was reported at Forts Vancouver and Steila- 
coom that there were fifteen hundred fighting 
braves in the field against the whites. One 
company of volunteers was called on from 
Clarke, and one from Thurston county, these 
companies to consist of eighty-five men each. 
Acting Governor Mason asked for arms from 
the commanders of the revenue cutter Jefferson 
Davis and sloop of war Decatur, which were 
furnished promptly. Company B, of the Puget 
Sound Volunteers, was organized at Olympia, 
Gilmore Hays, captain, James S. Hurd, first 
lieutenant, William Martin, second lieutenant, 

j Joseph Gibson, Henry D. Cock, Thomas 

I Prathar. and Joseph White, sergeants; Joseph 


S. Taylor, \Vhitfield Kirtley, T. Wlieelock and 
John Scott, corporals. On the 20th they re- 
ported at Fort Steilacoom and on the 21st, un- 
der command of Captain Maloney, set out for 
White river to reinforce Lieutenant Slaughter, 
who had gone into the Yakima country with 
forty men. 

The history of Xesmitli's campaign against 
the Yakima Indians is uneventful. J. W. 
Nesmith was placed in command of several vol- 
unteer companies, organized by proclamation 
of Acting Governor Mason, numbering, 
all told, about seven hundred men. They 
were enrolled at Seattle. Olympia, Van- 
couver and Cathlamet. James Tilton was 
appointed adjutant-general of the volun- 
teer forces and Major Raines was in com- 
mand of the regulars to cooperate with 
Xesmith. The volunteers and regulars formed 
a junction at Simcoe Valley on November 7. 
The day following there was a sharp skirmish 
with the Indians, but the latter finding the force 
of the whites greatly augumented were timid, 
and more inclined to retreat than advance. Be- 
ing supplied with fresh horses they could escape 
easily, and were driven up the Yakima river to 
a narrow gap in the mountains where they 
made a feeble stand. Haller and Captain Augur 
charged them, upon which they retreated and 
fled down the other side of the mountain, leav- 
ing the whites in possession. On the loth they 
made another stand, and an attempt was made 
by the volunteers and regulars to surround 
them. Owing to a misunderstaftding a charge 
was made at an inopportune moment, and again 
the wily foe were enabled to retreat in compar- 
ative safety. On reaching the Ahtanahm mis- 
sion it was found deserted and, after a number 
of unimportant movements, Nesmith pushed on 
to \\'alla Walla. Major Raines reported to 
General Wool, who had recently arrived in the 
territory. The latter was supplied with four 
thousand stand of arms, a large amount of am- 
unition and had with him fifty dragoons. 

General Wool at this period appears to have 

been extremely critical and fault-finding. He 
was particularly severe on the volunteers nor 
did he spare Majors Raines and Haller. One 
of General Wool's orders, which appears to 
have given great offense to the citizens of Ore- 
gon, was to disband the company enrolled to 
proceed to the relief of Governor Stevens, and 
this order was subsequently bitterly resented 
by the governor. The result of Wool's con- 
duct was what might have been expected ; con- 
tentions between the regulars and volunteers, 
rendering void their efficiency and making it 
impossible for them to co-operate. Practically 
future campaigns against the hostiles were in 
the hands of the volunteers. January 11, 1856. 
General Wool received information of Indian 
troubles in Southern Oregon and California, 
and he left for San Francisco, having first as- 
signed command of the Columbia River Dis- 
trict to Colonel George Wright, with head- 
quarters at The Dalles. 

In the Puget Sound district the year 1855 
was punctuated with a number of Indian trag- 
edies. Lieutenant McAllister and M. McCon- 
nell, of McConnell's prairie, were killed by the 
hostiles in October of that year. Sunday, the 
28th, in the White Valley, the Indians fell upon 
the farming settlements. W. H. Braman, wife 
and child, H. H. Jones and wife, Simon Cooper 
and George E. King and wife were killed. 
Others escaped to Seattle. The death of Lieu- 
tenant Slaughter, in December, 1855, cast a 
heavy gloom over the ^•arious communities then 
in the territory. While in command of sixty- 
five men, on Brannans' prairie, Lieutenant 
Slaughter was sitting at night in a small log 
house. For the purpose of drying their wet 
clothing the soldiers had started a small fire 
near the door of the cabin, and the Indians, 
guided by this light were able to shoot Slaugh- 
ter through the heart. Without uttering a 
word he fell dead from his chair. An attack 
on Seattle, in December of the same year, was 
repulsed with heavy losses to both sides, the 
sloop of war, Decatur, taking a prominent part 


in this fight and doing good execution. Other 
United States vessels, including the Active and 
Massachusetts, were conspicuous in defense of 
the town. It was aboard the Decatur that the 
sanguinary Patkanim delivered the heads of In- 
dians for which a bounty was offered. Pat- 
kanim had entered into a contract with the ter- 
ritorial government by which he was to receive 
eighty dollars apiece for all heads of Indian 
chiefs, and twenty dollars for the heads of war- 
riors. Subsequently these ghastly trophies were 
forwarded to Olympia. In this horrible hunt 
for hostile heads Patkanim was assisted by 
eighty warriors of the Snoqualimich and' 
Skokomish tribes, and, also, a chief called John 
Taylor. The United States navy at that time 
rendered most valuable services in repulsing 
Indian attacks along the shore-line of Puget 
Sound. Working in conjunction with the land 
forces of the whites the guns of the ships at 
times did terrible execution among the painted 
savages. On the morning of October 22, 1856, 
a party of Indians surrendered to the com- 
mander of the Massachusetts and were taken 
to Victoria. It was generally supposed that the 
severe treatment accorded unfriendly Indians 
on the Sound would result in the abatidonment 
of depredations in that vicinity. But on August 
II, 1857, a party of savages landed at Whidby 
Island, killed a man named I. N. Eby, decapi- 
tated him and looted his house before an alarm 
could be given. Nor was this the extent of 
later depredations. It became necessary for 
vessels heavily armed to cruise in the sound 
and through Fuca Strait. 

Our territorial limitations demand that we 
return to the Yakima country where Indian hos- 
tilities were renewed. In October, 1855 rumors 
were rife of a combination of Oregon and 
Yakima Indians. It was reported, also, that the 
Des Chutes, Walla Wallas and Cayuses were 
inclined to be unfriendly. To prevent such a 
combination Indian Agent Olney had been sent 
from The Dalles to Walla Walla. It was con- 
strued as an unfavorable circumstance that 

Peupeumoxmox should have been found on the 
north side of the Columbia. Other signs indi- 
cated the truculency of Peupeumoxmox, and he 
even denied that he had ever sold the Walla 
Walla valley. To Olney it seemed apparent 
that the chief was preparing to join the Ya- 
kimas in a war against the whites. It was de- 
cided in conference between Agent Olney and 
McKinlay, Anderson and Sinclair, officers of 
the Hudson's Bay Company, to destroy the 
amunition in Walla Walla to prevent it from 
falling into the hands of the Indians. It was, 
therefore, thrown into the river. All whites 
were then ordered to leave the country, and this 
order included Sinclair, who abandoned prop- 
erty in the fort valued at $37,000. 

To a winter campaign against the Indians 
in the Yakima valley, Colonel Nesmith was 
stoutly opposed. He directed attention to the 
fact that his horses and men were exhausted, 
some of the latter being severely frost-bitten 
and otherwise unfit for duty. One hundred and 
twenty-five of them had been discharged. How- 
ever, Governor Curry ordered Major M. A. 
Chinn to proceed to Walla Walla and join 
Nesmith. This order was followed by a general 
uprising of the Indians. Chinn resolved to 
fortify the Umatilla agency, and await rein- 
forcements, believing it impossible to form the 
contemplated union with Nesmith. Accord- 
ingly Chinn. who had arrived at the agency 
November 18, 1855, where he found the build- 
ings destroyed, erected a stockade and named 
the same Fort Henrietta, in honor of the wife 
of Major Haller. Later Kelly arrived and suc- 
ceeding reinforcements gave him four hundred 
and seventy-five men. The first sally from 
Walla Walla was made on December 2. The 
force of three hundred and ninety-nine men 
was met by Chief Peupeumoxmox, who carried 
a white flag at the head of a band of warriors. 
Following a conference the Indians were held 
as prisoners and. during a subsequent attack 
on Waiilatpu, were killed. The truculent chief 
of the \\''a]la ^^^'tllas met his deatli earlv in the 



insurrection of which he was the instigator. 
The fight at Waiilatpu continued through the 
7th, 8th and 9th, the fortunes of war being tem- 
porarily with the Indians. Reinforcements for 
Kelly arrived on the loth, from Fort Henrietta, 
thus enabling the whites to snatch victory from 
the jaws of defeat, and Continue the pursuit of 
the Indians until nightfall. Kelly then built 
Fort Bennett, two miles above Waiilatpu. 

It is impossible to attempt a description of 
the battle between the upper and lower cascades 
of the Columbia river without being brought 
face to face with another blunder of General 
Wool. However valuable may have been his 
services during the Mexican war, and no one 
could justly censure any portion of his career 
in those campaigns, truth compels the state- 
ment that General Wool's knowledge of Indian 
warfare was limited. Undoubtedly his inten- 
tions were the best, but he appears singularly 
unfortunate in a number of his military orders 
while at the head of the troops in Washington 
and Oregon. 

About the middle of December, 1855, Kelly 
received news of the resignation of Colonel 
Nesmith. The latter was succeeded by Thomas 
R. Cornelius, and Kelly, anxious to return to 
civil duties, gave his command to Davis Layton. 
A. M. Fellows took the place of Captain Ben- 
nett, Fellows being succeeded by A. Shepard, 
and the latter by B. A. Barker. Thus was 
effected a partial reorganization of the volun- 
teer forces in the Walla Walla valley. On the 
return of Governor Stevens, who arrived in 
camp December 20, he expressed himself as 
highly gratified by the assistance rendered us 
by the Oregon trooops. During the ten days he 
remained in the Walla Walla valley, a com- 
pany of home-guards, composed of French 
Canadians, was formed and officered by Sidney 
E. Ford, captain. Green McCafferty, first lieu- 
tenant. It was decided, after discussion with 
the Oregon volunteers, to intrench Walla Walla 
and hold the same until the regular trooops 
were prepared to prosecute another campaign. 

Similar means of defense were provided for the 
Spokane and Colville. 

Before his return to Olympia Governor 
Stevens expressed his appreciation of the serv- 
ices of sixty-nine Nez Perce volunteers in a 
substantial manner. He directed that they be 
cordially thanked, mustered out of service and 
their muster rolls forwarded to Olympia for 
future payment. No one can gainsay this 
judicious measure, for it was of the utmost im- 
portance to retain the friendship of any tribe of 
Indians disposed to be at all friendly toward the 
whites. In return for the generous treatment 
by Governor Stevens the Nez Perces coven- 
anted to furnish horses with which to mount 
the Oregon volunteers. 

The return of Governor Stevens and Kelly, 
the one to Olympia, the other to Oregon City, 
was marked in each instance by a series of pub- 
lic ovations from the people. January 19, 1856, 
the governor was received with a salute of 
thirty-eight guns; Kelly was given a public 
banquet and escorted to the hall, an honor 
worthily bestowed on one who, without doubt, 
had prevented a dangerous coalition between 
the Indians of Northern Washington and 
Southern Oregon. But the praiseworthy 
efforts of Oregon were not to cease at this point. 
A proclamation was issued by Governor Curry 
on January 6, 1856, asking for five companies 
to be recruited in Yamhill, Polk, Clackamas, 
Marion and Linn counties, supplemented by 
forty men to round out the skeltonized company 
of scouts under Captain Conoyer. These troops 
arrived at Walla Walla about March i. 

Nine days later the campaign was opened by 
Colonel Cornelius who started with six hundred 
men. The plan was to proceed along the Snake 
and Columbia rivers to the Palouse and Ya- 
kima; thence to Priest's Rapids and down the 
east bank of the Columbia to the mouth of the 
Yakima. During this march a few Indians 
were found, but no heavy engagement followed, 
and the command reached the Yakima March 
30. Here ominous reports were received. Be- 



tween the two cascades of the Cokimbia were 
a number of settlements. These had been at- 
tacked by hostile Indians. 

One blunder of General Wool's, to which 
attention has been called, was made at this junc- 
ture. On his arrival from California he had 
found at Vancouver three companies of in- 
fantry. He ordered two of these to repair to 
Fort Steilacoom. The territory of the hostile 
Klikitats and Yakimas adjoined a portage be- 
tween the cascades, on which portage a large 
quantity of government stores was exposed. 
This was a strong inducement to the Indians to 
attack the point, and it should have been heav- 
ily guarded. On the contrary the company at 
the Cascades, on March 24, was sent away, 
with the exception of eight men under com- 
mand of Sergeant Matthew Kelly. The latter 
was a member of the 4th infantry. The upper 
and lower ends of the portage were connected 
by a wagon road. The stream above the port- 
age was named Rock Creek, on which was a 
saw mill. In this vicinity were a number of 
families and the trading post of Bradford & 
Company. An island in the river was con- 
nected with the mainland by a bridge. The first 
steamer to run on the Columbia, trading be- 
tween The Dalles and the Cascades, was the 
Mary. This craft was at her landing near Rock 
Creek. The block-house was? located about 
midway between the two cascades and near it 
lived the families of George Griswold and W. 
K. Kilborn. 

General Wool, after giving his orders, 
which resulted so disastrously, had returned to 
California. The force of Colonel Wright had 
moved from The Dalles; his rear left un- 
guarded. At the upper settlement of the Cas- 
cades, on the morning of March 26, a force of 
Klikitats and Yakimas appeared with hostile 
demonstrations. Some of the settlers had gone 
to their daily avocations, but the hour being 
early, the crew of the Mary had not reached 
the boat. The Indians who had taken their po- 
sition under cover of darkness opened the | 

fight, if such an attack on almost defenseless 
settlers could be termed a fight, with a rapid 
rifle fire from the brush. One of the whites was 
shot dead and a number wounded at the first 
volley. It developed into an Indian massacre 
accompanied by all the horrid features inci- 
dental to such scenes, and those who fell vic- 
tims to rifle balls were immediately toma- 
hawked and scalped. Among the first to fall 
was the family of B. W. Brown. Himself, 
wife, a young boy and his sister, eighteen years 
of age, were slain and thrown into the river. 

Bradford & Company's store, a log struc- 
ture, appeared to be the only place of refuge, 
and to this fled the workmen on the bridge and 
a number of settlers. Then began the memor- 
able siege of the Cascades. Of the forty people 
gathered in the store building eighteen were 
able to make a defensive showing, and armed 
with nine government rifles which, with some 
ammunition, had been left of the store to be for- 
warded to Vancouver, they replied to the fire of 
the enemy to the best of their ability. All ad- 
vantages of position were with the hostiles. 
They were concealed on higher ground and, ap- 
parently, had the settlers at their mercy. It was 
in the first onslaught of this savage attack that 
James Sinclair, one of the Hudson's Bay Com- 
pany's agents, was killed. He was shot through 
an open door in a manner similar to the assas- 
sination of Lieutenant Slaughter. 

Providentially the steamer Mary was not 
captured. An attack was made upon the boat 
and the fireman, James Linsay, shot through the 
shoulder. A negro cook, having been wounded, 
leaped into the stream and was drowned. One 
Indian was shot and killed by the engineer, 
Buskminister, and John Chance, son of the 
steward, killed another hostile. To effect the 
escape of the boat it became necessary for Har- 
din Chenoweth, the pilot, to manipulate the 
wheel while lying prone on the floor of the pilot 
house. The families of Sheppard and Vander- 
pool ventured from the shore in skiffs, and were 
picked up in midstream. The gallant little 


Mary was tlien off up tiie river for succor. Sev- 
eral fatalities afterward occurred among the 
settlers and a number of hairbreadth escapes 
are recorded. The Indians fired the mill and 
lumber yards and tried desperately to burn the 
log store. The absence of water was added to 
the elements of horror surrounding the be- 
seiged settlers. Within the store one man was 
dead, Sinclair, and four others severely 
wounded. A few dozen bottles of ale and whis- 
key comprised the liquids available for thirty- 
nine people, the greater number being women 
and children. 

In this dire emergency justice demands that 
credit be given to a Spokane Indian in the party 
who risked his life to procure water from the 
stream. At first he succeeded in getting water 
only sufficient for the wounded, but the suc- 
ceeding day he was enabled to fill two barrels 
and convey them inside the store. Meanwhile 
the imprisoned settlers were harassed by fears 
^ for the safety of the Mary. The capture of this 
boat meant utter failure to receive reinforce- 
ments and relief. 

The attack on the block-house below Brad- 
ford & Company's store was simultaneous with 
the assault above. The garrison comprised nine 
persons, five of whom only were inside the 
structure at the time of the unexpected attack. 
The Indians had massed themselves on an ad- 
jacent hill. One of the garrison who had been 
caught outside the block-house was shot 
through the hip, but managed to crawl to the 
door, where he was admitted. Cannon was 
brought to bear on the enemy, and soon 
afterward the neighboring settlers came 
running to the rude fort for protec- 
tion. A number of them were killed, but such 
as reached the fort alive were taken inside. Dur- 
ing four hours a heavy fire was kept up by Ixith 
sides, and an attempt to fire the block-house at 
night was repulsed. The Indians prowled about 
with horrid yells, and did what damage they 
could do to surrounding property. Some pro- 
visions were procured on the 27th from an ad- 

jacent house by three soldiers. The congres- 
sional report of "Indian Hostilities in Oregon 
and Washington Territories," 11-12, gives the 
names of the plucky garrison of this block- 
house. They were M. Kelly, Frederick Beman, 
Owen McManus, Lawrence Rooney (killed in 
the first attack). Smiley, Houser, Williams, 
Roach and Sheridan. On the second day of the 
fight the latter four went out and returned 
with the dead and wounded. 

An attack on the Lower Cascades did not 
result in loss of lives. Many of the settlers 
were warned of the assault on the block-house 
by a half-breed boy, who informed W. K. Kil- 
born and urged him to leave the neighborhood. 
Kilborn owned a Columbia river freight boat, 
and by means of this craft he saved the lives of 
his own family and those of several others. Ar- 
riving at Vancoviver Kilborn apprised the resi- 
dents of that place of the outbreak. This news 
threw the people into consternation, and they 
expected momentarily to be attacked. The dif- 
ficult problem presented was to send reinforce- 
ments to the Cascades and retain, at the same 
time, sufficient force to protect Vancouver. To 
the Hudson's Bay Company's fort, for greater 
safety. Colonel Morris removed the women and 
children of the garrison. In his "History of 
Washington, Idaho and Montana," Hubert 
Howe Bancroft states that Coloneil Alorris 
"refused arms to the captain of the volunteer 
home guards in obedience to the orders of 
General Wool." Mr. Bancroft says further : 

"I take this statement from a correspondent 
of the Olympi-a Pioneer and Democrat of April 
25, 1856, who says that Kelly, of the volun- 
teers, went to the officer in command at that 
post and requested to be furnished with arms, as 
all the arms in the country had gone to furnish 
a company in the field — Captain Maxon's. 'He 
was insulted — told to mind his own business.' 
A few days later a consignment of arms from 
the east arrived, for the use of the territory, 
and the settlers were furnished from that 



.If such was the order of General^ Wool it 
cerininly exhibits a marked degree of hostility 
toward the volunteers of Washington and Ore- 
gon, and unpleasantly emphasized one more 
blunder on the part of the veteran of the Mexi- 
can war. It will be noted in another portion of 
this chapter that the brunt of the fighting in the 
various Indian outbreaks fell upon volunteers. 
The efforts of the regulars were purely sup- 
plementary and were not conducted with the 
success worthy of the most ordinary tactician. 

Lieutenant Philip Sheridan, of whom we 
now hear for the first time in connection with 
military movements, on the morning of the 27th 
left on the steamer Belle for the Cascades. With 
him were a small detachment of one company 
assigned by General Wool for the protection of 
Vancouver. Fugiti\es were met. in the river; 
some of them on a schooner, others in a 
batteau. The men among these settlers, flying 
for their lives, immediately volunteered to re- 
turn and participate in the punishment of the 
hostiles, an exhibition of manliness which fully 
illustrates the spirit which invariably animated 
the Washington and Oregon volunteers, despite 
the severe and unwarranted strictures of Gen- 
eral Wool. A reconnoitre was made by Sheri- 
dan on arriving at the lower end of the portage, 
and the condition of affairs at the Cascades and 
the block-house was gleaned from some Cas- 
cade Indians. On the Washington side of the 
Columbia Sheridan landed his men ; the boat 
being sent back for more ammunition to Van- 
cou\'er. Two of Sheridan's^ men were shot 
down while effecting a landing. Relief of the 
block-house was not effected immediately as 
the party was unable to advance during the day. 

On the steamer Fashion another relief party 
was enroute from Portland. Thirty men had 
been recruited by Benjamin Stark and H. P. 
Dennison on the 26th, and this number was in- 
creased by other volunteers from Vancouver. 
It was midnight, the 26th, that Colonel Wright 
received news of the attack on the Cascades. 
He had remo\-ed from The Dalles with his 

troops to Five-Mile Creek, where he was en- 
camped. With two hundred and fifty men he 
went back to The Dalles, boarded the steamers 
Mary and Wasco, and reached the Cascades on 
the morning of the 28th. At the latter place 
it was the belief of the garrison that the Mary 
had been captured by the Indians. With only 
four rounds of ammunition left, and in ignor- 
ance of the arrival of Sheridan, the settlers in 
their desperation had determined to board a 
government flat-boat and go over the falls 
rather than fall into the hands of the Indians. 
The pleasure with which they caught sight of 
the Mary and Wasco rounding the bend of the 
river can be better imagined than described. 
With the timely arival of these troops the In- 
dians disappeared. Under command of Colonel 
Steptoe two companies of the 9th infantry, a 
detachment of dragoons and the 3rd artillery 
advanced to the block-house and from this point 
to the landing below. Lieutenant Sheridan's 
command coming up at the same time alarmed 
the Indians and they vanished with remarkable 
celerity. Colonel Steptoe lost one soldier and 
one hostile was killed. Subsequently nine In- 
dians who were identified as having engaged 
in the massacre at the Cascades were captured 
and executed. 

It was the opinion of Governor Stevens, 
formed after his return to Olympia, that Indian 
hostilities in the immediate future were to be 
confined to the Yakima country and Walla 
Walla valley. January 21, 1856, in a special 
message addressed to the legislative assembly, 
he dwelt with great earnestness on the desirabil- 
ity of acquiring title to the country unincum- 
bered by Indian claims. This had been the mo- 
tive of his recent trip to the country of the Nez 
Perces, Coeur d'Alenes and other tribes far to 
the eastward of the Cascade range. He said 
that nearly all the diff'erent tribes whom he had 
interviewed had laeen, apparently, quite willing 
to concede this point. But the governor added. 
that he had been deceived in this respect, and 
that it would now be necessarv to send soldiers 



from the Sound into the Indian country east of 
the Cascades. Furthermore he was opposed to 
treaties and favored extermination. 

In this conclusion Governor Stevens was, 
as events subsequently proved, greatly de- 
ceived. So far from confining their depreda- 
tions to the Walla Walla valley the Indians 
were even then making preparations to raid the 
coast of the Sound. Althogh the ensuing war 
was, for a period, confined to the country north 
of the Steilacoom, terror ran riot in other iso- 
lated and unprotected localities. Many mur- 
ders were committed and a great deal of valu- 
able property destroyed by the remorseless sav- 
ages. Then it was that Governor Stevens re- 
turned to Olympia and ordered a portion of 
the southern battalion to the Sound country, 
During the spring of 1856 a decisive engage- 
ment with the Indians was had at White river, 
resulting in the complete rout of the savages, 
although they outnumbered the whites two to 
one. Governor Ste\'ens proclaimed martial 
law. Fighting occurred on John Day river and 
in June, 1856, Major Layton captured thirty- 
four warriors. A spirited engagement between 
the Indians and Colonel Shaw took place on the 
Grand Rond, but following this the hostiles 
broke up into small bands, but sufficiently ag- 
gressive to create considerable activity among 
the troops. One of the most effective methods 
adopted to dishearten the enemy was that of 
stopping supplies and capturing the Indians' 
horses in various raids. Some of the savages 
were neutral ; nearly all of them needy ; and 
during a vigorous march through the country 
overtures made by the United States were, in a 
large number of cases, accepted. Of the 
Wasco, Des Chutes, Tyghe and John Day 
tribes, nine hundred and twenty-three surren- 
dered, and four hundred of the more truculent 
Yakimas and Klikitats surrendered to Colonel 
Wright. Following this they received gov- 
ernment aid. 

While these scenes were being enacted on i 
the Sound it had been impossible for Governor ! 

Stevens to deploy troops east of the Cascade 
range. Of this fact the Indians in that country 
took advantage. It required the best diplomatic 
efforts of Lieutenant-Colonel Graig to hold the 
Nez Perces and Spokanes to their allegiance, 
and finally, July 24, Captain Robie informed 
Colonel Shaw that the Nez Perces had become 
recalcitrant, declared hostile intentions and re- 
fused all ofifers of government supplies. It was 
at this annoying juncture of affairs that Gov- 
ernor Stevens decided to go to Walla Walla 
and hold a council. He found conditions de- 
cidedly worse than had been reported. Al- 
though Colonel Wright had been pressed to 
join the council he declined, urging that it 
would be better to establish at Walla Walla a 
strong military post with Stepoe in command. 

This council was not crowned with the 
most satisfactory results. The Cayuses, Des 
Chutes and Tyghes, although they arrived in 
the vicinity of the meeting place, were disposed 
to be sullen and unfriendly. They refused to 
pay a visit to Governor Stevens, exhibited signs 
of hostility by firing the grass and otherwise 
gave evidence of malevolence. Kamiakin and 
Owhi, Yakimas and Oualchin, of the Cceur 
d'Alenes, also refused to attend and passed their 
time sowing seeds of dissension whenever and 
wherever opportunity offered. On the nth of 
September the council opened and closed dis- 
mally on the 17th. It became necessary for 
Governor Stevens to remove to the immediate 
vicinity of Steptoe's camp through fear of vio- 
lence from the Indians. No pipe of peace was 
smoked and no satisfactory results achieved. 
The Indians demanded to be left in peaceful 
possession of all the country claimed by them 
as "domains," and declared most emphatically 
that no other terms would be accepted. It was 
with no little difficulty that Governor Stevens 
succeeeded in getting out of the country alive. 
His train was attacked on its way back to The 
Dalles and two of the escort killed. Following 
this humiliating repulse of the governor, and 
after his return to the Sound, Colonel Wright 



marched to Walla Walla and ordered all the 
chiefs to meet him in council. It was, evident- 
ly, the intention of Wright to adopt drastic 
measures, but few Indians attended the coun- 
cil, and, like the preceding one, it bore no 
fruit. Those who came said, sullenly, that they 
were opposed to confirmation of the Walla 
Walla treaty. Troops were at once thrown 
into the various posts, including Mill Creek, 
Fort Dalles and the Cascades settlement, and 
preparations made to secure all from invasion 
during the approaching winter. 

Throughout this summer and while at- 
tempts were being made to pacify the Indians 
east of the Cascade range, hostilities continued 
on the Sound. The Puyallups and Nisquallies, 
at a council held at Fox Island, August 4th, 
convinced Governor Stevens that an injustice 
had been done them through the limitations of 
their reservation. An enlargement was recom- 
mended by the governor, and a resurvey or- 
dered, which absorbed thirteen donation claims. 
Subsequently congress appropriated $5,000 to- 
ward improvements. 

The story of the capture and execution of 
Leschi is, perhaps, one of the most sensational 
Indian episodes in the career of Governor Ste- 
vens. Leschi, together with Nelson, Stahi, 
Quiemuth and the younger Kitsap, had been 
ringleaders in the attack on the Decatur, in the 
Sound, and now Governor Stevens desired to 
try them for murder. These Indians had at- 
tended the council with Colonel Wright, in the 
Yakima country, and Wright had paroled them. 
At that period an attempt was being made to 
quiet the Indians east of the Cascade range. 
In the opinion of Wright, of whom these five 
savages had been demanded, it would be unwise 
at this juncture to give them over to certain ex- 
ecution, but the governor was insistent in his 
demands, and again made requisition for the 
hostiles. To this demand nearly all the army 
officers were opposed, believing the policy to be 

In November Leschi was arrested. Slug- 

gia and Elikukah, two of his own people, be- 
trayed him into the hands of the whites. At 
that period Leschi was an outcast and, practi- 
cally, outlawed by both Yakimas and whites. 
The traitorous Sluggia and Elikukah found him 
and handed him over to Sydney S. Ford who 
forwarded him on to Olympia. Leschi was 
now t6 stand trial for the killing of A. B. 
Moses. At the first trial, November 14, the 
jury failed to agree. March 18, 1857, a sec- 
ond trial was had, resulting in conviction 
June 10 was the day set for his execution. 
The attorneys engaged for Leschi' s defense 
appealed the case to the supreme court, and this 
appeal served as a stay of proceedings and de- 
ferred execution beyond the day assigned. 
However, the verdict of the lower court was 
sustained and January 22, 1858, was set as the 
day for the hanging of Leschi. McMullin, 
who had succeeded Stevens, was now governor 
of Washington. Friends of Leschi appealed to 
him for pardon ; seven hundred settlers vigor- 
ously protested. The execution was to be at 
Steilacoom and on the day set there was a large 
audience. This time, however, the death pen- 
j alty was delayed by friends of the condemned 
by a most peculiar legal manipulation. Shortly 
before the time for the execution the sherifif and 
his deput}- were placed under arrest by a Uni- 
ted States marshal. The charge against the 
prisoners was that of selHng liquor to Indians. 
In vain an attempt was made to reach the 
sherifif and secure the death warrant, without 
which it would be impossible to strangle Leschi 
legally. But that officer was retained in close 
custody until the period set for Leschi's hang- 
ing had passed. The "United States marshall" 
in these proceedings was Lieutenant McKibben, 
stationed at Fort Steilacoom, who had been ap- 
pointed for that express purpose. All in all 
this coup was in the nature of a ruse on the 
part of the regular army, between whom and 
the citizens of the territory there was at all 
times considerable friction. 

Indignation at this perversion of justice and 



palpable miscarriage of law ran high among the 
people. Public meetmgs of protest were held 
and the legislature appealed to. This body pro- 
ceeded to adjust matters in a most strenuous 
manner, repealing certain laws and enacting 
new ones until the legal coils around Leschi 
were deemed sufficiently strong to insure his 
punishment. Again the prisoner was tried and, 
although his counsel demurred to the jurisdic- 
tion of the court, he was overruled and Febru- 
ary 19. 1858, the Indian who had so success- 
fully fought off the hounds of law was hanged. 
It is a matter of historical record that fe\v of 
the more active Indian participants in the vari- 
ous outbreaks on the Sound escaped. Three 
of them were assassinated by white men in re- 
venge for the murder of friends; a number 
were hanged at Fort Steilacoom; one of his 
own people killed Kitsap in June, 1857, on 
Muckleshoot prairie, and Leschi's friends re- 
venged themselves by taking the life of the 
treacherous Sluggia. Comparative peace was 
restored to the Sound country, yet the horrors 
of the outbreak were long remembered. To 
the Puyallup and upper White River valley 
many of the settlers did not return until 1859. 

Patkanim, the horrible blood-hunter, who, 
for American gold, trafficked in human heads 
as nonchalantly as he would deal in wolf-pelts, 
did not long survive the war. The following 
estimation of this barbarian is given by the 
Pioneer and Democrat under date, January 21, 
1859: "It is just as well that he is out of the 
way, as, in spite of everything, we never be- 
lieved in his friendship." 

Indemnity claims following Indian troubles 
on the Sound amounted to some twelve thous- 
and dollars, which sum was appropriated by 
congress. But the actual expenses incidental 
to the conduct of this war, a war in behalf of 
the peace and prosperity of ^Vashington and 
Oregon, approached quite nearly six million 
dollars, or exactly $5,931,424.78, divided as 
follows: Washington, $1,481,475.45; Ore- 
gon. $4,449,949.33. Payment of $1,409,- 

604.53 ^'^'^s made to the Oregon, and $519,- 
593.06 to the Washington volunteers. At that 
period the eminent editor and publicist, Horace 
Greeley, had not advised the young men of the 
country to "go west," and he was unkind 
enough to say, in the New York Tribune: 
"The enterprising territories of Oregon and 
Washington have handed into congress their 
little bill for scalping Indians and violating 
squaws two years ago. After these (the 
French spoliation claims) shall have been paid 
half a century or so, we trust the claims of the 
Oregon and Washington Indian fighters will 
come up for consideration." 

The scene of Indian troubles now removes 
itself to a point in eastern Washington more 
immediately identified with the limitations of 
this history. In April, 1858, the mines in the 
vicinity of Colville had become attractive to 
"stampeders," and two white men pushing on 
into the "gold country," had been slain by a 
party of savages belonging to the Palouse tribe. 
A petition for troops, signed by forty residents 
of Colville, had been forwarded to Colonel 
Steptoe. The latter informed General Clarke 
of the fact and advised that an expedition be 
sent north to punish the savages and protect 
the settlers. Adding to the crime of murder 
the Palouses had gone down into the Walla 
Walla country and driven away a band of gov- 
ernment cattle. The Palouses who, it was 
claimed, had killed the Colville miners, were 
found by Colonel Steptoe at the Alpowah. 
Steptoe had left Walla Walla May 6, 1858, 
with one hundred and tliirty dragoons cji route 
for the country of the Nez Perces. On ap- 
proach of the whites the Indians fled. Because 
Steptoe placed no confidence in a report he re- 
ceived on the 1 6th that the Spokanes were 
making arrangements to attack him he, unfor- 
tunately, found himself surrounded with a force 
of six hundred miscellaneous "braves," includ- 
ing warriors of the Cceur d'Alenes, Palouses, 
Spokanes and Nez Perces. They were attired 
in war'paint and had chosen a position where 



from three sides they could assault Steptoe's 
detachment of troops. During a short parley 
the Spokanes confirmed the reports that they 
were on the war path, and announced that they 
purposed to do considerable fighting before the 
whites would be permitted to ford the Spokane 
river. Doubtless the Indians were emboldened 
in their conduct by the fact that these dragoons 
of Steptoe's were without other means of de- 
fense than their small arms. For this inexcus- 
able blunder no reason has ever been assigned, 
and none could be that would, at this day, be 
acceptable to a military man. The savages 
rode along side by side with the troops and 
hurled at them insults and cries of defiance. 
At nightfall the chiefs demanded to know the 
reason for this invasion of their country. 

No explanation was made that in any way 
pacified the chiefs, although Steptoe said that, 
having learned of trouble near Colville he was 
on his way thither to inquire into the cause of 
it. The chiefs pointed out the fact that he was 
not on the Colville road at all. Unfortunately 
he had been led astray by a guide, Timothy, by 
name. Without suitable arms, and otherwise 
unprepared for fighting, Steptoe decided to re- 
treat. He began his return to the Palouse on 
the 17th. A few miles away a party of Coeeur 
d'Alenes were gathering roots, and to them the 
Spokanes appealed asking their assistance in 
bagging an enemy whom the Spokanes, par- 
ticularly, did not intend to allow to leave the 
country alive. A Cceeur d'Alene chief, named 
Vincent, attempted to hold a parley with Colo- 
nel Steptoe, but firing was commenced by the 
Palouses and the skirmish soon resolved itself 
into a general engagement. Encumbered by a 
pack train, which it was necessary to guard; 
passing over ground rough and most favorable 
for Indians and their mode of warfare Step- 
toe's command labored under a serious disad- 
vantage, and were in no condition for any 
effective fighting. The savages charged a com- 
pany commanded by Lieutenant Gregg, but 
the prompt support given by Lieutenant Gas- 

ton repulsed the Indians and they suffered se- 
verely at this point. Twelve of them were 
killed, including Jacques Zachary, brother-in- 
law of Vincent: James and Victor, the latter 
one of the powerful chiefs of the Cceur d' 
Alenes. Later on, while attemping to reach a 
stream of water. Lieutenant William Gaston 
and Captain Oliver H. P. Taylor were killed. 
The result of this "Battle of Steptoe Butte,"" 
fought at a place seven miles from the present 
town of Colfax, must be, impartially, recorded 
as a defeat for the whites. On the morning of 
the 19th the retreating troops reached Snake 
river and from this point continued on to Walla 

The animosity of the Indians exhibited in- 
this disaster has been variously explained. The 
most plausible reason for it lies, probably, in the 
fact that the Cceur d' Alenes had been told of 
the proposed government road through their 
country, from the Missouri to the Columbia 
river. This was subsequently completed by 
Lieutenant Mullan, from Fort Walla Walla 
to Fort Benton. 

In June, 1858, active preparations were 
made to avenge the defeat of Steptoe. Quite a 
large body of troops were mobilized at Fort 
Walla Walla, some of them being brought 
from San Francisco and other California 
points; some from the Sound. Here for a 
period of time they were industriously drilled 
in the tactics of Indian warfare. This was to 
be an expedition against the Cceur d' Alenes 
and Spokanes ; another was being put in motion 
against the Yakimas. The campaign plan was 
to have Major Garnett move toward Colville 
with three hundred men, co-operate with Cap- 
tain Keyes, and "round up" the tribes of In- 
dians. Major Garnett was to leave August 
15; Captain Keyes left Walla Walla on the 
7th. Fort Taylor was built at the junction of 
Tucannon and Snake rivers, which, with its 
six hundred and forty acres of reservation, was 
intended as a permanent post. Here Colonel 
Wright arrived August 18. The expedition 



consisted of one hundred and ninety dragoons, 
four hundred artillery and ninety infantry, the 
latter armed with Sharpe's rifles. Seventy-six 
miles north from Fort Taylor Indians appeared 
on the hills and fired on a company of Nez 
Perces Indians who had been enlisted as volun- 
teers by the whites and uniformed as regular 
soldiers. Soon afterward the hostiles retreated. 
They reappeared on September i, in force, 
and one of the most important battles of this 
particular Indian war was fought. The victon,^ 
was plainly with the whites, the savages losing 
twenty killed and many wounded. 

But the Indians were desperate. Colonel ' 

\\'right resumed his march September 5th, and 
was again attacked by the enemy. Shells from 
the howitzers burst among them ; the fire of the 
whites was deadly, and defeat of the Indians 
complete. On September 10 the Cceur 
d'Alenes surrrendered, and the redoubtable 
Vincent was not the least active in inducing 
this submission. They had attempted to stay 
the progress of civilization through their wil- 
derness and civilization would not be stayed. 
Whatever of home or country they once had 
was gone. Henceforth enterprise, industry and 
intelligence were to supplant barbaric ignorance 
and Indian squalor. 



"The West" of the days of the Revolution 
was embraced within the limits of the Atlantic 
coast and longitude 89 degrees west from 
Greenwich, or 12 degrees west from Washing- 
ton, D. C. Compare this narrow strip of terri- 
tory with the magnitude of the Northwest of to- 
day and remember, also, that the geographical 
center of the United States, from east to west, 
lies at a point in the Pacific Ocean six hundred 
miles west from San Francisco, California. 
From the latter fact we are enabled to obtain a 
fair comprehension of the extreme western ex- 
tension of our Alaskan possessions. 

States have increased, territorially, since the 
surrender of Lord Cornwallis. The "midgets," 
smaller than many western counties, lie along 
the Atlantic shore. Washington, the "Ever- 
green State," of whose stirring and romantic 
past this history treats, is more than three- 
fourths the size of New York and Pennsyl- 
vania, combined, or more than equalling the 
size of all Kentucky, Connecticut, Massachu- 

setts, Delaware and Maryland. Its area is 
69,994 square miles. Its entire western boun- 
dary is washed by the waves of the Pacific ; the 
great "ill-tasting lake" of the Indians; discov- 
ered by Balboa and once claimed in all its sub- 
lime immensity by Spain as her own national 
property. From British Columbia it is sep- 
arated by the Strait of Juan de Fuca, which 
forms its boundary until it reaches a point where 
the 49th degree of north latitude crosses the 
strait. Thence the northern boundary line of 
Washington runs east on the 49th parallel two 
hundred and fifty miles nearly to the 1 1 7th de- 
gree of longitude west from Greenwich, and 
thence south to the 46th degree of latitude; 
thence west on that degree until the Columbia 
river is reached, where Klickitat, Walla Walla 
and Yakima counties converge, the Columbia 
river then forming its southern boundary on to 
the coast. 

The Puget Sound Basin and the great val- 
ley of the Upper Columbia combine to greatly 


diversify the topography of Washington. Be- 
tween these two distinctively marked territor- 
ies runs the Cascade Range of mountains, north 
and south, separating "The Inland Empire" 
from "The Coast," or variably, "The Sound 
Country." This mountain range is, in its en- 
tirety, one of the most imposing on the North 
American continent. Creeping upward from 
the far south, for hundreds of miles but a suc- 
cession of low hills, or chain of buttes, the range 
grows bolder in contour and height until to the 
far north Mount St. Elias accentuates its most 
imposing altitude. Volcanic, snow-capped 
cones rise to heights of fifteen and twenty 
thousand feet, and a number of the highest of 
these are within the boundaries of Washington. 
In a preceding chapter outlining the "Ore- 
gon Controversy," it was noted that in 1846, 
when the southern line of British Columbia was 
finally determined, all that remained south of 
that boundary to the 42d parallel was called 
Oregon. In 1849 ^ territorial government was 
granted covering all the original Oregon. It 
was then an indefinite region embracing the 
lands lying between the Rock_\- Mountains and 
the Pacific Ocean, and north of the 42d parallel. 
In 185 1 steps were taken toward dividing Ore- 
gon. All that portion north and west of the 
•Columbia river was thrown into a new territory, 
supplied with a distinct territorial government. 
No opposition having appeared either from the 
Oregon legislature or from congress the con- 
summation of this division was effected in 
1853. Then Washington embraced the rather 
indefinite territory of Idaho. Oregon became a 
state in 1859. Washington, then including 
Idaho, was under territorial government, re- 
maining thus until March 3, 1863, when the 
territory of Idaho was set off by congress. The 
eastern portion of Washington, from a line 
near the 117th degree of west longitude, and 
portions of Montana, Dakota and Nebraska 
combined to form the creation of Idaho at that 

Of the first inroads of civilization, aside 1 

from the Hudson's Bay Company, into the ter- 
ritory of Oregon, then including Washington, 
Archibald M'Vickar writes: 

The earliest emigration from the United States 
for the purpose of settlement in this territory was in 
1832. Three years afterward a small party went out 
by land with Nathaniel Wyeth, of the Boston Fishing 
and Trading Company under the direction of Rev. 
James Lee and David Lee, who established a mission 
settlement among the Callopoewah Indians, on the 
Willamette river. This colony afterward received some 
small accessions, and in November, 1839, Rev. James 
Lee sailed from the United States for the Columbia 
river with a party of fifty-four persons, among them six 
missionaries and a physician, with their families. This 
party arrived safely out, and the annual report of the 
missionary society of the Methodist Episcopal church, 
in May, 1841, presents a favorable account of their 
labors among the Indians. Some parties of young men 
had started for the Columbia from states bordering on 
the Mississippi. The whole number directly attached to 
the mission is only sixty-eight, including men, women 
and children. The first settlers along the river, accord- 
ing to Mr. Parker, who visited the country in 1835, 
consisted of Canadian Frenchmen formerly in the em- 
ployment of the Hudson's Bay Company. 

"The Oregon Controversy," and "Tragedy 
of \Vhitman's Mission," preceding chapters, 
have traced in outline the more important de- 
tails of this early settlement. Western W^ash- 
ington, on the coast, was the first portion of the 
torritory settled. The advantages of sea coast 
fishing and fur-trading, of course, account for 
this fact, together with its accessibility by voy- 
ages around the Horn, and proximity to the 
more fully developed settlements of California. 
The name, "Puget Sound" was much more 
familiar to eastern people and students than the 
coasts of Oregon or Washington. Thus, in a 
general way, the resources of western Wash- 
ington became gradually known to a certain 
limited number of the inhabitants of the ex- 
treme east. Concerning the various enterprises 
of these pioneers of Washington Hubert Howe 
Bancroft has pertinently said in his "History of 
Washingtoti, Idaho and Montana:" "In the 
previous chapters I have made the reader ac- 
quainted with the earlier American residents of 



the territory north of the Columbia, and the 
methods by which the}- secured themselves 
homes and laid the foundation for fortunes by 
making shingles, bricks and cradling machines, 
by building mills, loading vessels with timber, 
laying out towns, establishing fisheries, explor- 
ing for gold and mining for coal. But these 
were private enterprises concerning only indi- 
viduals, or small groups of men at most, and I 
now come to consider them as a body politic, 
with relations to the government of Oregon 
and to the general government." 

The plan of this history demands that we 
pursue the same course in the treatment of our 
subject, and also to show how narrowly Wash- 
ington escaped being called "Columbia." The 
provisional government of Oregon adopted in 
1843 did not include the terrritory north of the 
Columbia river. So late as 1845, at the time of 
the Hudson's Bay Company made a compact 
with this provisional governm,ent, there existed 
no county organizations north of that river with 
the exception of Tualatin and Clackamas "dis- 
tricts," which claimed to extend northward as 
far as 54 degrees 40 minutes. But these dis- 
tricts were not peopled by American citizens, 
and not until the compact went into efifect was 
there established an American settlement in the 
region of Puget Sound, and a new district 
created called Vancouver. The first judges 
were M. T. Simmons, James Douglas, and 
Charles Forrest. John R. Jackson was 

Lewis county was created December 19, 
1845. Primarily its northern limit extended to 
54 degrees, 40 minutes, or was supposed to, 
comprising territory north of the Columbia, 
and west of the Cowlitz, rivers. In 1846 it was 
represented in the legislature by W. F. Tolmie ; 
Vancouver county by Henry N. Peers, the lat- 
ter described as "a good versifier and fair leg- 
islator." He was an attache of the Hudson's 
Bay Company. The initial agitation for a new 
territory north of the Columbia was made July 
4, 1 85 1. At Olympia a number of American 

citizens of the Sound had assembled to appro- 
priately celebrate the day. In his oration Mr. 
Chapman alluded eloquently to "the future 
state of Columbia." His remarks awakened an 
enthusiastic response, and the same evening a 
meeting was held, the avowed object of which 
was to procure a separate territorial govern- 
ment. Of this meeting Clanrick Crosby was 
chairman ; A. M. Poe, secretary. H. A. Golds- 
borough, I. N. Eby, J. B. Chapman and C. 
Crosby addressed the audience. Their speeches 
were followed by the appointment of a commit- 
tee on resolutions which recommended that a 
meeting to be held August 29 at Cowlitz land- 
ing, the object of which "to take into care- 
ful consideration the present peculiar position 
of the northern portion of the territory, its 
wants, the best methods of supplying those 
wants, and the propriety of an early appeal to 
congress for a division of the territory." The 
convention thus called was attended by twenty- 
six delegates. It adjourned the following day, 
having defined the limits of twelve intended 
counties, requested the benefits of donation 
lands, petitioned congress for a plank road 
from the Sound to the mouth of the Cowlitz, 
and a territorial road from some point on 
Puget Sound to Walla Walla, and otherwise 
memorializing congress on the important sub- 
ject of division. It was the expressed inten- 
tion of the delegates to move, should their re- 
quest be denied, for immediate admission into 
the union as a state. It is needless to say that 
enthusiasm ran high at this meeting on the 
Cowlitz. At that period the population of 
the territory under consideration was less than 
four thousand souls. 

Nothing tangible resulted from this meet- 
ing, although The Columbian, a weekly news- 
paper, published at Olympia, continued the agi- 
tation for territorial division and independent 
organization. November 25, 1852, a conven- 
tion was held at Monticello, on the Cowlitz 
river, at that period an enterprising munici- 
pality of Northern Oregon. Congress was 



again memorialized and the document for- 
warded to Hon. Joseph Lane, territorial dele- 
gate. This memorial contains so concise and 
graphic a description of early territorial condi- 
tions that it is deemed best to reproduce it in 
full : 

To the Honorable, the Senate and House of Repre- 
sentatives of the United States, in Congress assembled: 

The memorial of the undersigned, delegates of the 
■citizens of Northern Oregon, in convention assembled, 
respectfully represent to your honorable bodies that it 
is the earnest desire of your petitioners, and of said 
citizens, that all that portion of Oregon Territory lying 
north of the Columbia river and west of the great 
northern branch thereof, should be organized as a 
saparate territory under the name and style of the Terri- 
tory of Columbia, urging these reasons : In support of 
the prayer of this memorial, your petitioners would 
respectfully urge the following, among many other 
reasons, viz. : 

First: That the present Territory of Oregon con- 
tains an area of 341,000 square miles, and is entirely too 
large an extent of territory to be embraced within the 
limits of one state. 

Second: That said territory possesses a sea coast 
of 650 miles in extent, the country east of the Cascade 
mountains is bound to that on the coast by the strongest 
ties of interest ; and, inasmuch as your petitioners be- 
lieve that 'the territory must inevitably be divided at 
no very distant day, they are of the opinion that it would 
be unjust that one state should possess so large a sea- 
board to the exclusion of that of the interior. 

Third: The territory embraced within the bound- 
aries of the proposed "'Territory of Columbia," contain- 
ing an area of about 32,000 square miles, is, in the 
opinion of your petitioners, about a fair and just medium 
of territorial extent to form one state. 

Fourth : The proposed "Territory of Columbia" 
presents natural resources capable of supporting a popu- 
lation at least as large as that of any state in the union 
possessing an equal extent of territory. 

Fifth : Those portions of Oregon Territory lying 
respectively north and south of the Columbia river must, 
from their geographical position, always rival each 
other in commercial advantages, and their respective 
citizens must, as they now and always have been, be 
actuated by a spirit of opposition. 

Sixth: The southern part of Oregon Territory, hav- 
ing a majority of voters, have controlled the territorial 
legislature, and benefit from the appropriations made 
by congress for said territory, which were subject to the 
disposition of said legislature. 

Seventh : The seat of the territorial legislature is 
now situated, by the nearest practicable route, at a dis- 
tance of four hundred miles from a large portion of the 
citizens of Northern Oregon. 

Eighth : A great part of the legislation suitable to 
the south, is, for local reasons, opposed to the interests 
of the north, inasmuch as the south has a majority of 
votes, and representatives are always bound to reflect 
the will of their constituents, your petitioners can enter- 
tain no reasonable hopes that their legislative wants will 
ever be properly regarded under the present organiza- 

Ninth : Exprience has, in the opinion of your 
petitioners, well established the principle that in states 
having a moderate sized territory, the wants of the 
people are more easily made known to their representa- 
tives there is less danger of a conflict between sectional 
interests, and more prompt and adequate legislation can 
always be obtained. 

In conclusion your petitioners would respectfully 
represent that Northern Oregon, with its great natural 
resources, presenting such unparalleled inducements to 
immigrants, and with its present large population, and 
rapidly increasing by immigration, is of sufficient im- 
portance, in a national point of view, to merit the foster- 
ing care of congress, and its interests are so numerous 
and so entirely distinct in their character, as to demand 
the attention of a separate and independent legislature. 

Wherefore your petitioners pray your honorable 
bodies will at an early day pass a law organizing the 
district of country above described under a territorial 
government, to be named "The Territory of Columbia." 

Done in convention assembled at the town of Monti- 
cello, Oregon Territory, this 25th day of November, 
A. D., 1852. 

G. M. McC0N.A.HA, President. 
R. V. White, Secretary. 

This memorial was signed by forty-one 
other delegates. Congressional Delegate 
Joseph Lane earnestly supported the bill for 
the formation of Columbia Territory subse- 
quently introduced. February 10, 1853, the 
bill, amended by Mr. Stanton, of Kentucky, 
striking out the word "Columbia"' and insert- 
ing in lieu thereof "Washington," passed the 
house by a vote of 128 to 29, and on March 2, 
without further amendment, it was passed by 
the senate. It should be taken into considera- 
tion that the bill, as passed by both houses, did 
not liinit the new Territory to the boundaries 
prescribed by the memorial of the Monticello 
convention. Our national legislators took a 
broader view of the matter, and continued the 
line of partition from a point near Walla 
Walla, east along the 46th parallel to the Rocky 
Moimtains. This was a far more equal di- 



vision, and included what is now the "Pan- 
handle" of Idaho, an area considerably larger 
than the present state of Washington. At that 
period, according to a census taken in 1853 by 
Marshal Anderson, the counties in the new 
Washington Territory contained the following 
population: Clarke, 1,134, Island, 195, Lewis, 
616, Jefferson, 189, King, 170, Pierce, 513, 
Thurston, 996, Pacific, 152; total, 3,965. Of 
these 1,682 were voters. 

The first Territorial governor of Washing- 
ton was Isaac Ingalls Stevens, who was ap- 
pointed to this office and-, also, made ex officio 
Superintendent of Indian Affairs of Washing- 
ton Territory, and by the secretary of war was 
given charge of an exploration and survey of a 
railroad from the headwaters of the Mississippi 
to Puget Sound. In a communication to A. A. 
Denny, dated at Washington, D. C, April 18, 
1853, Governor Stevens said: 

"Herewith you will find a printed copy of 
my instructions from the secretary of war, by 
which you will see an exploration and survey 
of a railroad from the headwaters of the Mis- 
sissippi to Puget Sound is entrusted to me 
* * * A military road is to be built from 
Fort Walla Walla to Puget Sound. Captain 
McClellan, an officer distinguished for his gal- 
lantry in Mexico, has command of the party 
who will make the exploration of the Cascade 
range and the construction of the military road. 
His undertaking of the task is a sure guarantee 
of its accomplishment. I expect to pierce the 
Rocky Mountains, and this road is to be done 
in time for the fall's immigration, so that an 
open line of communication between the states 
and Sound will be made this year." 

Isaac Ingalls Stevens was born in the his- 
toric and classic town of Andover, Massachu- 
setts, and educated at West Point, from which 
military institution he was graduated with hon- 
ors in 1837. For several years the young of- 
ficer was in charge of the New England coast 
fortifications. During the war with Mexico 
he was attached to the staff of General Scott. 

Four years preceding his appointment as Ter- 
ritorial Governor of Washington he was asso- 
ciated with Professor Bache in the coast sur- 
vey. It will be seen that the duties assigned to 
Governor Stevens were manifold and ardu- 
ous. Aside from the appointive office of gov- 
ernor of a young, though important Territory, 
he was to superintend the construction of a mil- 
itary road from the Sound to the Rockies ; sur- 
vey the line of what eventually became the 
great transcontinental highway, the Northern 
Pacific Railroad, and at the same time superin- 
tend the complicated affairs of the savage and 
turbulent Indian tribes between the coast and 
the Rocky Mountains. Certainly a heavy re- 
sponsibility to be placed upon the shoulders of 
one man. The sagacity and efficiency with 
:' which he met these heavy responsibilities have 
j Ireen recardecl in preceding chapters of this 
work. It was his destiny to be called higher. 
In May, 1861, news was received at Olympia 
of the surrender by Major Anderson of Fort 
Sumter. "The Irrepressible Conflict" be- 
tween North and South had for years worn 
heavily on the patriotic spirit of Governor Stev- 
ens. He was a pro-slavery democrat, yet he 
loved his country and placed her national and 
indisoluble interests above party or purely 
sectional benefits. In reply to a speech wel- 
coming him home from his perilous expedition 
among hostile tribes of Indians he said : "I con- 
ceive my duty to be to stop disunion." These 
were brave words, for at this period the Terri- 
tory of which he was chief executive was 
thickly populated with avowed secessionists. 

Dissensions were rife in his own party. 
Assaults were made by the press upon his pa- 
triotism and even his personal character was 
assailed. He was accused of attempting a coali- 
tion with Lane and Grim for the purpose of 
forming an independent Pacific republic. Vis- 
ionary and chimerical as was this scheme; im- 
possible for one of the sterling patriotism of 
Governor Stevens to cherish for a moment, the 
charge found many professed lielievers among 



his opponents. With the darkening of war 
clouds Stevens, who had intended to stand for 
re-election, renounced the project and hastened 
to Washington to offer his services to the gov- 
ernment. July 31, 1861, he was appointed col- 
onel of the 79th New York Infantry, and was 
among the first of the defenders of Washington 
and Arlington Heights. In March, 1862, he 
received a commission as brigadier general, and 
on July 4, was made a Major General of vol- 
unteers. Such was his rapid rise by promotion 
in the army. His death was a fitting close of a 
heroic life. At the battle of Chantilly he seized 
the flag which had fallen from the dead hand of 
a color sergeant, and was shot in the forehead, 
dying upon the field. Sudden was the revul- 
sion of feeling in Washington Territory when 
news of his death was received. The legisla- 
ture passed resolutions in his honor, and crape 
was worn by the members ten days. He died 
at forty-four years of age. In a letter touching 
upon the character of Governor Stevens, writ- 
ten by Professor Bache, of the coast-survey, 
he said : 

"He was not one who led by looking on but 
by example. As we knew him in the coast- 
survey office, so he was in every position of life. 
* * * This place he filled, and more than 
filled, for four years, with a devotion, an en- 
ergy, a knowledge not to be surpassed, and 
which left its beneficient mark upon our organ- 
ization. * * * Generous and noble in im- 
pulses, he left our office with our enthusiastic 
admiration of his character, appreciation of his 
sendees, and hope for his success." 

The apportionment for the first Washing- 
ton Territorial legislature was made by Gov- 
ernor Stevens soon after his arrival from the 
east. The proclamation concerning the same 
was made November 28, 1853, designating 
January 30, 1854, as the day for election of 
legislati\<e members. February 27 was the 
time set for the meeting of the legislature and 
Olympia the place. Nine members composed 
the original council : Clarke county, D.- F. 

Bradford, William H. Tappan ; Lewis and 
Pacific counties. Seth Catlin, Henry Miles; 
Thurston county, D. R. Bigelow, B. F. Yantis; 
Pierce and King counties, Lafayette Balch, G. 
N. McConaha; Jefferson and Island counties, 
William P. Sayward. 

Twice this number of members composed 
the house, viz : Clarke county, F. A. Chenow- 
eth, A. J. Bolan, Henry R. Crosbie, A. C. 
Lewis and John D. Biles : Thurston county. C. 
H. Hall, L. D. Durgin, David Shelton and Ira 
Ward. Jr. ; Island county, Samuel D. Howe ; 
Pierce county, H. C. Moseley, L. F. Thompson 
and John M. Chapman ; Jefferson county, Dan- 
iel F. Brownfield ; King county, A. A. Denny ; 
Lewis county, H. D. Huntington and John R. 
Jackson ; Pacific county, John Scudder. 

In this legislative membership we have a 
fair roster of the pioneer statesmen of Wash- 
ington Territory. The most of them have been 
stricken by the hand of death, but the work 
they did in laying the foundation of Washing- 
ton's future territorial and commonwealth im- 
provement can never be stricken from the pages 
of history. One of these members, Hon. A. A. 
Denny, representative from King county, in a 
paper read before the Historical Society, at 
Tacoma, said : 

At the time of the Monticello convention, Thurston 
county embraced all the territory north of Lewis county 
to the British line, and the session of the Oregon legis- 
lature, just prior to the division of the territory, formed 
out of Thurston county Pierce, King, Island and Jeffer- 
son counties, making a total of eight counties in Wash- 
ington Territory when organized, Clarke county at that 
time extending to the summit of the Rocky Mountains. 
The first session of the legislature formed eight new 
counties. Walla Walla was formed at this session, em- 
bracing all the territory east of the mouth of the Des 
Chutes river and running to the forty-ninth parallel on 
the north and the parallel of forty-si.x degrees thirty 
minutes eastward to the summit of the Rocky Moun- 
tains, and I well remember that a board of county officers 
was appointed and representation in the legislature pro- 
vided for, but when the succeeding legislature convened, 
no members from Walla Walla appeared, and it was 
found that no organization of the county had been made 
for want of population, and the widely scattered condi- 
tion of the few who then inhabited that vast territory. 



It will be recalled that so early as 1852 the 
impetuous members of the Monticello conven- 
tion were determined to demand admission to 
the union as a state should congress deny terri- 
torial division. But thirty-seven years were 
destined to pass before the culmination of such 
an event. And yet, during a large portion of 
the last half of this period Washington was a 
state in all but name. Her statesmen and poli- 
ticians indulged in commonwealthian struggles 
much the same as those at present exploited by 
older states in the union. In 1859-60 a cer- 
tain faction plotted for the removal of the Ter- 
ritorial capital from Olympia to Vancouver. It 
was secretely arranged by legislative manipu- 
lation to apportion Territorial institutions as 
follows: to Vancauver the capital; to Seattle 
the university ; to Port Townsend the peniten- 
tiary. An act to this effect passed both bodies 
of the legislature. It carried, however, two 
fatal defects; no enacting clause was inserted, 
and it violated the terms of the organic act by 
attempting a permanent location of the capital. 
Consequently the law fell to the ground of its 
own legal impotence. As in Louisiana, in 
1872, two legislatures were in session in Wash- 
ington, or rather the regular body at Olympia 
and a "rump" organizing at Vancouver. The 
supreme court's decision on the removal law 
brought the factions again together at Olympia. 
In 1 86 1 the corner stone of a university was 
laid at Seattle, A. A. Denny donating eight, 
and Edward Lander two, acres of land for that 
purpose. In this circumstance, also, the Ter- 
ritory of Washington assumed many of the ef- 
fects of modern statehood, through subsequent 
"mismanagement" of university funds. Truly 
a state in all but name! 

Quite similar in point of contention for the 
capital was the strugle for the possession of the 
custom-house between Port Townsend and 
Port Angeles. In August, 1861, Victor Smith 
arrived from Washington, D. C, with creden- 
tials as collector of United States revenue. 
Possessing the confidence of the national ad- 

ministration he was accused of utilizing it to 
further an intrigue for removal of the custom- 
house. It was openly charged that he was 
speculating in Port Angeles real estate and 
working for his personal financial interests. Be- 
sides this Smith was one of the original "car- 
pet-baggers," even at that early day detested 
by the democracy in Washington Territory, 
which party was, numerically, quite powerful. 
Removal of the custom-house from Port 
Townsend to Port Angeles was recommended 
by Secretary Salmon Portland Chase, and in 
June, 1862, congress passed a bill making the 
change. A subsequent act of congress was in 
the nature of "a bill for increasing revenue by 
reservation and sale of townsites." It was at 
this point that the crux of Smith's real estate 
enterprises became apparent. Port Townsend 
citizens were wild with excitement. They ac- 
cused Smith of a defalcation of $15,000, but he 
promptly repaired to the national capital and 
showed conclusively that the alleged crime was 
nothing more than the transference of one 
fund to another. This custom-house imbroglio 
continued for some time, in the course of which 
the guns of the revenue cutter Shubrick were 
shotted and brought to bear on the town of 
Port Townsend. Finally, after many serious 
complications, involving numerous arrests and 
much ill-feeling, the custom-house was re- 
moved from Port Townsend to Port Angeles. 
George B. McClellan. afterwards general 
commanding the army of the Potomac, had re- 
ported favorably upon the change of location. 
Here the institution remained until December 
16, 1863, when the town of Port Angeles was 
washed away, causing the death of Inspector 
William B. Goodell and Deputy Collector J. 
W. Anderson. In 1865 the custom-house was 
taken back to Port Townsend, and the same 
year Victor Smith was lost in the wreck of the 
steamship Brother Jonathan, wrecked near 
Crescent City, involving the loss of three hun- 
dred lives. 

For a number of vears the residents of 



Washington had been engaged in various wars 
with Indians. Therefore it was not unusual 
that some most excellent fighting material was 
to be found among the ex-volunteers of the 
Cayuse war, Steptoe's invasion and the im- 
portant battle of White River. In May, 1861, 
news of President Lincoln's call for volunteers 
was received at Olympia. Henry M. McGill 
was acting-governor; Frank Matthias adju- 
tant-general. The latter appointed enrolling 
officers in each county in the Territory, at this 
period comprising twenty-two, east and west 
of the Cascades. The same summer Wright, 
now brigadier general, was placed in command 
of the department of the Pacific, and Colonel 
Albermarle Cady of the district of the Colum- 
bia. Colonel Justin Steinberger came to the 
coast in January, 1862, and enlisted four in- 
fantry companies, one each from Port Madi- 
son, Walla Walla, Port Townsend and What- 
com. From the Olympia Standard, of July 20, 
1 86 1, it is learned that a company had prev- 
iously, in May, been enlisted at Port Madison, 
designated at the Union Guards, consisting of 
seventy men, officered as follows: William 
Fowler, captain; H. B. Manchester, first lieu- 
tenant; E. D. Kromer, second lieutenant; non- 
commissioned officers, A. J. Tuttle, Noah Falk, 
William Clendennin, Edgar Brown, S. F. 
Coombs, R. J. May, J. M. Grindon, John Tay- 
lor. The Lewis County Rangers, mounted, 
were organized in June, 1861, Henry Miles, 
captain; L. L. Dubeau, first lieutenant; S. B. 
Smith, second lieutenant. To the four com- 
panies enlisted by Colonel Steinberger four 
more were added from California, General Al- 
vord assumed command in July, and Colonel 
Steinberger went to Fort Walla \Valla, where 
he relieved Colonel Cornelius, of the Oregon 
cavalry. These troops were stationed at Walla 
Walla and Fort Pickett. 

In i860 the discovery of valuable aurifer- 
ous deposits at Pierce City, Oro Fino, Oro 
Grande and other points along the Clearwater, 
in what is now Idaho, but was then included in 

Washington Territory, created a stampede 
which his seldon been equalled in the history 
of gold discoveries in the territory. At that 
period a treaty with the Nez Perces existed 
which, theoretically, estopped travel across the 
Indian country. Practically it did nothing of 
the sort. From a few hundred the number of 
miners increased to thousands. On the Colum- 
bia river lines of steamers plied between the 
western portions of the Territory to old Fort 
Walla Walla, conveying men and freight as 
near as possible to these seductive placer mines, 
where pay dirt was found averaging one hun- 
dred dollars a day to the miner. In May the 
steamer Colonel Wright came up the Columbia 
and Clearwater to within forty miles of Pierce 
City. At this landing was founded the "spas- 
modic" mining town of Slaterville, with its 
canvas saloons and rough board shanties. In 
July five thousand men were prospecting the 
country, or washing from ten to one hundred 
and fifty dollars a day from the earth. "Town 
lot" people and merchants reaped a substantial 
reward for their industry. It is stated that the 
weekly receipts of gold dust at Portland from 
the Clearwater district was $100,000. Deady's 
"History of Oregon" says : "The Colville and 
Oro Fino mines helped Portland greatly; and 
in 1861 built up the Oregon Steam Navigation 
Company. Loaded drays used to stand in line 
half a mile long, unloading at night freight to 
go in the morning, that involved a fortune." 

It was but natural that the steadily increas- 
ing tide of immigration to this district should 
materially affect the political status of the Ter- 
ritory. From west of the Cascades the pendu- 
lum of political power swung to the east; to 
the vicinity of Shoshone and Walla Walla 
counties. More judges were required east of 
the mountains. District courts were estab- 
lished at the county seats. It was, however, the 
destiny of Washington Territory to lose the 
richest portions of these mining districts. Con- 
gress passed an act, which was approved by 
President Lincoln, March 3, 1863, organizing 



the Territory of Idaho out of all such territory 
of Washington lying east of Oregon and the 
117th meridian of west longitude. The popu- 
lation of the remaining Territory of Washing- 
ton was then only 12,519. Yet in i860 it had 
been less than half this number. 

Twelve years before the admission of 
Washington into the union agitation concern- 
ing this subject was precipitated. Congres- 
sional Delegate Jacobs in December, 1877, in- 
troduced a bill for admission, and when it was 
fully realized that a constitutional convention 
was to be ordered, the old question of 1852 
sprung to the front. "Washington" or "Col- 
umbia"? June II, 1878, the convention as- 
sembled at Walla Walla. By the constitution 
then adopted a new eastern boundary was 
marked for the proposed state, including the 
Idaho "Panhandle" and much of the mineral 
territory lost in 1863. Twenty- four days were 
passed in "concentrating" and "smelting" the 
various provisions of this document, and, al- 
though no enabling act had been passed by 
Congress, the constitution was adopted bj^ the 
people at the succeeding November election for 
delegates. As the entire proceedings of this 
convention were void and nugatory, it is need- 
less to devote space to their consideration. As 
illustrative of patriotic zeal and alert progres- 
siveness, however, the attitude of the people at 
this period is worthy of record. 

The administration of Governor Watson C. 
Squire was one especially worthy of commen- 
dation. He was appointed in 1884, succeeding 
William A. Newell. Squire was a man of rare 
executive ability, a veteran of the Civil war, 
and became one of the most prominent factors 
in advancing the interests of the Territory and 
promoting its progress toward statehood. He 
was bom May 18. 1838, at Cape Vincent. New 
York, and in 1861 enlisted in the 19th New 
York Infantry as a private, rising to the rank 
of first lieutenant. He then resigned, was 
graduated from the Qeveland law school, in 
1862, and then recruited a company of sharp- 

shooters of which he was given the command, 
being assigned to the Army of the Cumberland. 
He served on the staffs of both Generals Rose- 
cranz and Thomas and was, after the war, 
agent for the Remington Arms Company. In 
1879 he located in Seattle, and ten years there- 
after was elected president of the statehood 
committee, holding its meeting in Ellensburg 
in January of 1889. In framing memorials 
afterward presented to congress in behalf of 
statehood he was most assiduously employed 
and his efforts met with cordial appreciation 
from the people of the Territory. 

During the administration of Governor 
Squire occurred the "Chinese Riots," on the 
coast, opinion of his policy in the Territory be- 
ing at that time divided. But it is certain that 
his courageous attitude in behalf of law and 
order won the approval of a large majority of 
the most influential and intelligent citizens of 
the nation at large. It was at this period, 1885, 
that the first attempts, under auspices of the 
Knights of Labor, were made to expel China- 
men from the Territory. Riots occurred; 
Chinese were killed and bloodshed and dis- 
order ensued at Seattle among the coal miners. 
Governor Squire, November 5, 1885, issued a 
proclamation commanding the establishment of 
peace, and to this so little attention was paid 
that disorder increased rather than subsided, 
and several Chinese houses were fired and the 
occupants driven away. Troops were promptly 
forwarded from Vancouver and. the secretary 
of war being informed of the conditions. Pres- 
ident Cleveland issued a proclamation couched 
in more drastic terms than had been that of 
Governor Squire. Its effect was temporary; 
in Februan,^ 1886, other outbreaks took place 
and in efforts to protect the "celestials" a num- 
ber of lives were sacrificed and conditions re- 
solved themselves into o\'ert rebellion. Gov- 
ernor Squire declared martial law. Its pro- 
visions were carried out with firmness, if not 
severity. Order was restored, but the execu- 
tive found himself placed between the hostile 



attacks of the proletariat, and the hearty com- 
mendation of President Cleveland, his. cabinet 
and the members of the Territorial legislature. 

Squire's administration was marked by 
healthy progress and steady improvement in 
the various industries and material welfare of 
the Territory. During his incumbency the 
penitentiary was built at Walla Walla, an addi- 
tion made to the penitentiary at Seatco, and an 
insane asylum erected at Steilacoom. At the 
close of 1885 the Territory was free from debt 
and with a surplus of $100,000. That his best 
efforts were ever directed to further the inter- 
ests of Washington is amply proven, not only 
by gratifying results, but by his carefully pre- 
pared and luminously written official reports. 
The one forwarded to the secretary of the in- 
terior in 1884 was a concise and valuable his- 
tory of the Territory for several years ante- 
rior to his administration, embracing much in- 
formation that had been ignored by preceding 
executives. In explaining his object in thus 
voluminously presenting these valuable statis- 
tics Governor Squire said : 

"I have diligently corresponded with the 
auditors and assessors of all the counties of the 
Territory, furnishing them with printed blanks 
to be returned, and with all the managers of 
various educational and business institutions. 
Besides drawing on my own knowledge of the 
Territory, gleaned during a residence here dur- 
ing the past five or six years, I have gathered 
and compiled a variety of important facts from 
leading specialists in reference to the geo- 
graphical, geologic, and climatic characteris- 
tics, the coal and iron mining, horticultural, 
agricultural, and manufacturing interests, the 
fisheries and the flora and fauna of the Terri- 
tory. The data thus offered, together with the 
summary reports of our charitable and penal 
institutions, and an exhibit of the financial con- 
dition of the Territory, if published, will not 
only be of great service in encouraging and 
stimulating our people, but will furnish re- 
liable information to the intending immigrant. 

and will indicate to congress the rightful basis 
of our claim for admission into the union of 

In the last paragraph of this quotation may 
be traced the central thought which appears to 
have actuated Governor Squire in his untiring 
efforts. To accomplish the admission of Wash- 
ington he spared no labor in collecting an ar- 
ray of statistical information that could be 
molded into powerful arguments for state- 
hood. And to these reports is due largely the 
great volume of immigration which flowed into 
the Territory on the wheels of the Northern 
Pacific railway. From 75,000 in 1880, the 
population increased to 210.000 in 1886. In 
the latter year this pioneer railroad company 
operated four hundred and fifty-five miles of 
railway within the boundaries of Washington ; 
the Oregon Railroad and Navigation Company 
two hundred and ninety-five miles ; the Colum- 
bia and Puget Sound Company forty-four 
miles, and the Olympia and Chehalis Company 
fifteen miles, which, together with other com- 
pleted lines, gave to the Territory eight hun- 
dred and sixty-six miles of railroad. The ef- 
fect on all industries may be easily conceived. 
The building of shipping tonnage was stimu- 
lated on the coast ; the output of produce east- 
ward increased wonderfully. The wheat mar- 
ket was, at that period, still in the east, and in 
1886 the Northern Pacific Company trans- 
ported 4,161 tone of wheat and 1,600 tons of 
other grains to the Mississippi river ; the Ore- 
gon Railroad and Navigation Company took 
out 250,000 tons of wheat, flour and barley to 
southeastern points. These appear, at this 
date, insignificant figures compared with the 
present volume of grain business, but eighteen 
years ago they gave indubitable proof to the 
people of the eastern states of the remarkable 
fertility of the soil of Washington Territory. 

Associated with Governor Squire in the 
Territorial offices were R. S. Greene, chief jus- 
tice; J. P. Hoyt, S. C. \\'^ingard and George 
Turner, associate justices: N. H. Owings, sec- 



retary. Tlie delegate to congress was Thomas 
H. Brents. The federal officers were John B. 
Allen, United States district attorney; Jesse 
George, United States marshal; C. Bash, cus- 
toms collector ; C. B. Bagley and E. L. Heriff, 
internal revenue collectors ; William McMicken, 
surveyor-general; John F. Gowley, registrar, 
and J. R. Hayden, receiver of the United States 
land office at Olympia ; F. W. Sparling, regis- 
trar, and A. G. Marsh, receiver, of the Van- 
couver land office ; Joseph Jorgensen, registrar, 
and James Baden, receiver, at Walla Walla ; J. 
M. Armstrong, registrar, and John L. Wilson, 
receiver, at Spokane, and R. R. Kinne, reg- 
istrar, and J. M. Adams, receiver, at Yakima. 

Governor Squire was succeeded in 1887 by 
Eugene Semple. Although a republican, he 
had won the confidence of a democratic admin- 
istration at Washington, D. C, and was re- 
tained in office long after his place could have 
lieen conveniently supplied with a democratic 
partisan. His attitude during the Chinese riots 
had done much to establish him in the estima- 
tion of President Cleveland. At the time of 
Semple's accession the questions of statehood 
and woman suffrage were agitating the people. 
Affairs were somewhat disquieted. The suff- 
rage question had been defeated by popular vote 
in 1878, but the legislature of 1883-4 had 
passed an act conferring this privilege upon 
women, and the act had been declared unconsti- 
tutional by the courts, but not until the women 
of the Territory had enjoyed the benefits of 
voting, holding office and serving on juries for 
two years, were they disfranchised. In 1886 
woman suffrage became an exceedingly lively 
party issue ; the republicans favoring, the dem- 
ocrats opposing the same. There had, also, 
been a "capital removal" scheme injected into 
the campaign, and strong "North Yakima" and 
"Ellensburg" factions developed in the "In- 
land Empire." A large number of those favor- 
ing statehood had assumed, upon what logical 
grounds is rather obscure, that with admission 

into the union the "panhandle of Idaho, lost 
in 1863, would be restored to the state. This 
remote probability was, however, employed as 
an argument in favor of capital removal, but 
the strenuous "coasters" of the extreme west 
stoutly opposed a location of the seat of gov- 
ernment east of the Cascades, and the hopes of 
the Yakima Valley people were doomed to dis- 
appointment. During the second term of Gov- 
ernor Semple, Charles S. Voorhees succeeded 
Congressional Delegate Brents, and James 
Shields succeeded Hayden in the Olympia land 
office. N. H. Owings continued as secretary, 
R. A, Jones was chief justice, Frank Allyn, 
George Turner and W. G. Langford associate 

The fight for admission continued bravely. 
In 1886 the Tacoma board of trade resolved 
that "The commercial independence of Wash- 
1 ington Territory acompanying the completion 
j of the Northern Pacific railroad to tide-water 
should be supplemented by its political inde- 
pendence as a state of the American union. Ad- 
mission can not in decency be delayed many 
years longer, whatever party influences may 
j sway congress. The census of 1890 will show 
I a population within the present limits of the 
Territory exceeding 200,000, and a property 
valuation of at least $200,000,000." Prev- 
iously the claims of Washington for admis- 
sion had been urged by Governor Squire in one 
of his reports, in forceful language, assigning 
among other reasons "the sterling, patriotic, 
and enterprising character of its citizens; its 
present and prospective maritime relations with 
the world : its position as a border state on the 
confines of the dominion of Canada, the most 
powerful province of Great Britain; its wealth 
of natural resources and growing wealth of its 
people; the efficiency of its educational system, 
requiring that its school lands should be allotted 
j and utilized : its riparian rights should be set- 
tled, capital and immigration encouraged, and 
the full management and control of municipal 



and county affairs should be assumed by the 
legislature, which is not allowed during the 
Territorial condition." 

According to the report of Governor 
Semple for 1888 the population of Washington 
Territory was 167,982; the taxable property 
was $84,621,182; the revenue produced by a 
tax of two and one-half mills, $212,734.92 ; the 
amount of coal mined, 1,133,801 tons; the lum- 
ber output 320,848,203 ; the estimated capacity 
of the combined mills 1,043,796,000 feet; the 
total railway mileage 1,157.3, broad-gauge, 
and 40 miles narrow-gauge. The same year an 
insane asylum at Steilacoom was completed at a 
cost of $100,000 and $60,000 appropriated for 
a hospital for the insane at Medical Lake. The 
citizens of Vancouver donated land, and the 
legislature appropriated money for the erection 
at that point of a school for defective youth. 
The national guard consisted of two regiments 
of infantry and one troop of cavalry. 

Such, in rough outline, was the material 
condition of the Territory of Washington on 
the eve of statehood. On the anniversary of 
President Washington's birthday, February 
22, 1889, congress passed an enabling act pro- 
posing the terms on which the Territory might 
be admitted into the union. By these pro- 
visions the governor was, on April 15, 1889, 
to call for the election of seventy-five delegates 
on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in 
May, to meet in constitutional convention at 
Olympia on July 4, 1889, for organization and 
formulation of a state constitution. The en- 
abling act by virtue of which W^ashington Ter- 
ritory was permitted to call a constitutional 
convention embraced other territories. Its title 
was as follows : "An act to provide for the 
division of Dakota into two states and to en- 
able the people of North Dakota, South Da- 
kota, Montana and Washington to form con- 
stitutions and state governments, and to be ad- 
mitted into the union on an equal footing with 
the original states, and to make donations of 
public lands to such states." The land grant to 

Washington was: "For the establishment and 
maintenance of a scientific school, one hundred 
thousand acres; for state normal schools, one 
hundred thousand acres ; for public buildings at 
the state capital, in addition to the grant here- 
inbefore made, for that purpose, one hundred 
thousand acres; for state charitable, educa- 
tional and reformatory institutions, two hun- 
dred thousand acres." 

To defray the expenses of the constitutional 
convention the sum of $20,000 was appropri- 
ated by congress. It was further provided that 
there should be appointed one district judge, 
United States attorney, and United States 
marshal; the state to constitute one judicial dis- 
trict to be attached to the ninth judicial dis- 
trict; the regular terms of court to commence 
in April and November ; the clerks of the courts 
to have their offices at the state capital; the 
judge to reside in the district and receive a 
salary of $3,500 per annum, and the courts of 
the state to become the successors of the terri- 
torial courts. 

On July 4, 1889, the delegates elected to 
the constitutional convention proceeded to bus- 
iness at Olympia. Following is the represen- 
tation of the several counties : 

Stevens, S. H. Manley, J. J. Travis; 
Spokane, C. P. Coey, George Turner, J. Z. 
Moore, J. J. Browne, T. C. Griffitts, H. F. 
Suksdor, Hiram E. Allen ; Lincoln, H. W. 
Fairweather, B. B. Glascock, Frank M. Dal- 
lam; Kititas, J. A. Shoudy, \. Mires, J. T. 
McDonald ; Whitman, J. P. T. McCloskey, C. 
H. Warner, E. H. Sullivan, J. M. Reed, James 
Hungate, George Comegys; Adams, D. 
Buchanan; Garfield, S. C. Cosgrove; Franklin, 
W. B. Gray ; Columbia, M. M. Goodman, R. F. 
Sturvedant; Walla Walla, Lewis Neace, D. J. 
Crowley, B. L. Sharpstein, N. G. Blalock; 
Yakima, W. F. Prosser; Clarke, Louis Johns, 
A. A. Lindsley; Skamania, G. H. Stevenson; 
Pacific, J. A. Burk ; Wahiakum, O. A. Bowen ; 
Cowlitz, Jesse Van Name: Mason, Henry 
Winsor, John McReaw: Chehalis, A. J. West; 



Jefferson, Allen Weir, George H. Jones, H. 
C. Wilson; Skagit, James Power, Thomas 
Hayton, H. Clothier; Whatcom, J. J. Weisen- 
berger, E. Eldridge; Snohomish, A. Schooley; 
Island, J. C. Kellogg; Kitsap, S. A. Dickey; 
King, R. Jeff's, T. T. Minor, T. P. Dyer, D. 
E. Dwrie, John P. Kinnear, John P. Hoyt, M. 
J. McElroy, Morgan Morgans, George W. 
Tibbetts, W. L. Newton; Pierce. T. L. Stiles, 
P. C. Sullivan; Gwin Hicks, H. U. Lillis, C. T. 
Fay, R. S. Moore, Robert Jamison ; Thurston, 
John T. Gowey, T. M. Reed, Francis Henry; 
Lewis, O. H. Joy, S. H. Berry. 

J. Z. Moore, of Spokane Falls, was elected 
temporary chairman of the convention, and Al- 
len Weir, of Port Townsend, was chosen tem- 
porary secretary. Permanent organization was 
effected by the election of John P. Hoyt, of 
Seattle, president, John I. Booge, Spokane 
Falls, chief clerk, and Clarence M. Bartin, 
Tacoma, reading clerk. The deliberations of 
the session occupied fifty days. At the election 
of October i, 1889, the constitution framed by 
these seventy-five delegates, representing twen- 
ty-eight counties, was adopted by the people. 
All in all it was an instrument fairly well 
adapted to the requirements of the people of 
Washington. Although not extravagant the 
salaries allowed state oflficers were liberal; the 
corporations were treated impartially; it pro- 
vided for five supreme judges and ordained su- 
perior courts in all the counties ; fixed the num- 
ber of representatives at not less than sixty- 
three nor more than ninety-nine ; and the senate 
at nor more than half nor less than a third of 
that number; and claimed all tide-lands except 
such as had been patented by the United States. 
The question of woman suffrage, prohibition 
and capital removal were voted upon separately. 
Of the votes cast 40,152 were for adoption of 
the constitution and 11,879 against it. Pro- 
hibition was defeated by a vote of 31,487 to 
19,546; woman suffrage was again laid aside 
by 34,513 votes against, and 16,527 for, that 
question, and for location of the state capital 

Olympia received 25,490 votes; North Yakima, 
14,718; Ellensburg. 12,833; Centralia, 607; 
Yakima, 314; Pasco, 120; scattering, 1,088. 

At this initial state election John L. Wilson 
was chosen for congressman and Elisha Pyre 
Ferry for governor. The other state officers 
elected were Charles E. Laughton, lieutenant 
governor; Allen Weir, secretary of state; A. 
A. Lindsley, treasurer; T. M. Reed, auditor; 
William C. Jones, attorney general ; Robert B. 
Bryan, superintendent of public instruction ; 
W. T. Forrest, commissioner of public lands. 
Ralph O. Dunbar, Theodore L. Stiles, John P. 
Hoyt, Thomas J. Anders and Elman Scott 
were elected to the supreme brench. All of these 
succeessful candidates were republicans. Of 
the one hundred and five members of the legis- 
lature elected one senator and six representa- 
tives were democrats. Following is the per- 
sonnel of the first Washington state senate and 
house of representatives 

Senate — F. H. Luce, Adams, Franklin and 
Okanogan; C. G. Austin, Asotin and Garfield; 

C. T. Wooding, Chehalis; Henry Landes, 
Clallam, Jefferson and San Juan; L. B. Clough, 
Clarke; H. H. Wolfe, Columbia; C. E. For- 
sythe, Cowlitz; J. M. Snow. Douglas and Ya- 
kima ; Thomas Paine, Island and Skagit ; W. 

D. Wood, J. H. Jones, O. D. Gilfoil, John R. 
Kinnear, W. V. Reinhart, Iving; W. H. Knee- 
land, Kitsap and Mason; E. T. Wilson, 
Kittitas: Jacob Hunsaker, Klickitat and Ska- 
mania; J. H. Long, Lewis: H. W. Fair- 
weather, Lincoln; B. A. Seaborg, Pacific and 
Wahkiakum; John S. Baker. L. F. Thompson, 
Henry Drum, Pierce; Henry \'estal, Snoho- 
mish : Alexander Watt, E. B. Hyde, B. C. Van 
Houton, Spokane; H. E. Houghton, Spokane 
and Stevens; N. H. Owings, Thurston; Piatt 
A. Preston, George T. Thompson, Walla 
Walla; W. J. Parkinson, Whatcom: John C. 
Lawrence, J. T. Whaley, A. T. Farris, Whit- 

House — W. K. Kennedy, Adams ; Will- 
iam Farrish, Asotin : L. B. Nims, T- D. Med- 



calf, Chehalis; Amos F. Shaw, John D. 
Geoghegan, S. S. Cook, Clarke; A. B. Luce, 
Clallam; A. H. Weatherford, H. B. Day, Col- 
umbia; Chandler Huntington, Jr., Cowlitz; E. 

D. Nash, Douglas ; C. H. Flummerfell, Frank- 
lin; W. S. Oliphant, Garfield; George W. 
Morse, Island; Joseph Kuhn, Jefferson; J. T. 
Blackburn, W. C. Rutter, W. H. Hughes, 
Alex. Allen, W. J. Shinn, George Bothwell, F. 
W. Bird, F. B. Grant, King: ]\I. S. Drew, Kit- 
sap ; J. N. Power, J. P. Sharp, Kittitas ; Bruce 

F. Purdy, R. H. Blair, Klickitat; S. C. Herren, 
Charles Gilchrist, Lewis ; P. R. Spencer, T. C. 
Blackfan, Lincoln ; John McReavy, Mason ; 
Henry Hamilton, Okanogan; Charles Foster, 
Pacific ; George Browne, A. Hewitt. George B. 
Kandle, Oliff Peterson, James Knox, Stephen 
Judson, Pierce ; J. E. Tucker, San Juan ; J. E. 
Edens, B. D. Minkler, Skagit; George H. Stev- 
enson, Skamania; Alexander Robertson, A. H. 
Eddy, Snohomish; J. W. Feighan, J. E. 
Gandy, S. C. Grubb, J. S. Brown, A. K. Clarke, 

E. B. Dean, Spokane; M. A. Randall, Stevens; 
W. G. Bush, Francis Rotch, Thurston; Joseph 

G. Megler, Wahkiakum; Joseph Painter, Z. K. 
Straight, James Cornwall, Walla Walla: R. 
W. Montray. George Judson. Whatcom; J. C. 
Turner, E. R. Pickerell, J. T. Peterson. R. H. 
Hutchinson, B. R. Ostrander. Whitman; John 
Cleman, Yakima. 

On joint ballot the republican majority of 
the legislature was ninety-six, thus insuring the 
election of two United States senators. Wat- 
son C. Squire and John B. Allen were elected, 
their respective votes on joint ballot being sev- 
enty-six and seventy-one. In the United States 
senate Mr. Squire drew the short term, expiring 
March 4, 1891, and Mr. Allen served the long 

term, expiring March 4, 1893. In January, 
1891, Mr. Squire was re-elected for six years. 
The omission of the signiture of Governor 
Mason to a certificate accompanying a copy of 
the constitution adopted, caused a delay in the 
proclamation of President Harrison, and in 
consequence of this the legislature had assem- 
bled before Washington was actualy a state. 
On November 11, 1889, the proclamation was 
issued by the President, attested by James G. 
Blaine, secretary of state, and Washington 
stepped into the ranks of that sisterhood at 
whom she had long looked with rather envious 
eyes. During the past fifteen years her course 
as a state has been one fulfilling the most san- 
guine expectations of her sponcors. Indeed, a 
retrospective glance shows scarcely one unwise 
step taken by the leading factors in her political 
and industrial history from the first agitation 
for territorial division until to-day. 

At the date of admission into the union 
Washington had, approximately, a population 
of 200,000. The census of 1900 accords the 
state 518,103, and the past four years have ma- 
terially increased these figures. From twenty- 
eight counties at the period of admission the 
state now has thirty-six, and Indian reserva- 
tions to the number of fourteen. We can not 
more fittingly close this portion of our history 
than with the words of the late Julian Ralph, 
written ten years ago : 

"Washington is in every material way a 
grand addition to the sisterhood of states. With 
the easy and rich fancy of the west, her people 
say that if you build a Chinese wall around 
Washington, the state will yield all that her 
inhabitants need without contributions from 
the outer world." 





Facts supplying the context of preceding 
chapters lead to one definite conclusion : Had 
the Hudson's Bay Company retained its power 
north of the Columbia — an insidious power 
constantly encroaching on the territory to the 
south — industrial development in Stevens coun- 
ty would have been greatly retarded. Instead 
of being one of the oldest localities in Washing- 
ton in point of historical interest, it would have 
lingered in the shadow of primeval wilderness 
many years longer — steeped in the fatal policy 
of industrial stagnation — a mere game preserve 
for the wolf, bear, elk, muskrat and beaver. To 
that dire destiny it was surely doomed had not 
international events accumulated an impetus 
that rolled enterprise into the country on the 
wheels of Wyeth's and Whitman's wagons; 
infused life into an otherwise moribund domain. 
The seacoast of Washington would have been 
British possessions; civilization in that direc- 
tion would have been smothered; the enervat- 
ing reflex of sloth and ignorance would, un- 
doubtedly have exerted a most depressing influ- 
ence on all contiguous territory, and a powerful 
opiate would have been administered instead of 
a tonic. Mining exploitation would have been 
estopped on the threshold of discovery; agri- 
culture would have been stifled in infancy : per- 
sonal ambition immolated on the altar of Brit- 


ish greed. Such vi^as certainly, the baleful trend 
of the Hudson's Bay Company's policy. 

True, the claim of England for all territory 
north of the Columbia river, had it been al- 
lowed, would still have left the greater portion 
of modern Stevens county to the Americans; 
all but a small triangle bounded by the Columbia 
and Kettle rivers, and the 49th parallel. But 
modern Stevens county is only a fraction of the 
immmense district once designated by that 
name. Let us examine it. Originally its 
boundary commenced at the mouth of Snake 
river; along this river to the 46th degree of 
north latitude; thence east along this parallel 
to the summit of the Rocky mountains, includ- 
mg the present "panhandle" of Idaho; thence 
north to the 49th parallel ; thence west to the 
Columbia river, and down the mid-channnel of 
this stream to the place of beginning. This 
district embraced, aside from the Idaho "pan- 
handle," Franklin, Adams, Whitman, Spokane. 
Lincoln, Douglas and the major portion of the 
present Stevens county. To this domain were 
subsequently added what are now Ferry, Okan- 
ogan and a part of Chelan counties; the latter 
three all originally claimed as British posses- 
sions, together with all other territory westward 
to the coast. One school district in Stevens 
county embraced all the territory between Col- 



ville and Spangle, and between Idaho and the 
Columbia river; not merely a missionary field 
for Indian tribes, but a legally apportioned 
school district for white settlers. Mr. Swift, an 
attorney-at-law, residing near Spokane Falls, 
was clerk of this Gargantuan district; M. M. 
Cowley, Yeaton and Poole, directors, and Mrs. 
Swift teacher. 

Thus, it will be seen, the Stevens county of 
to-day is the result of a long period of territorial 
concentration ; a gradual narrowing of unwield- 
ly and, at times, indefinite boundaries. Origin- 
ally the name of Stevens county was Spokane. 
From the territorial statutes of 1858-9 it is 
learned that on January 28, 1858, the Wash- 
ington Territorial legislature passed a bill creat- 
ing the county of Spokane, the boundaries of 
which are defined in the act of January 17, 
i860, which follows later in this chapter. The 
county seat was located on the place of Angus 
McLeod, w^ith Lafayette Alexander, auditor; 
Patrick McKenzie, sheriff; Robert Douglas, 
John Owen and William McCreany, commis- 
sioners. These officials do not appear to have 
accomplished anything and, taking note of this 
f?ct, the legislature on January 18, 1859, nearly 
one year later, made a second attempt to orga- 
nize the county, and revived the bill which had, 
through the neglect of the officers named, be- 
come nugatory. Officers apppointed were Rob- 
ert Douglas, John McDougald and Angus Mc- 
Leod, commissioners: Thomas Brown, sheriff; 
Patrick McKenzie, auditor; Thomas Stensgar, 
probate judge, and Solomon Pelky. justice of 
the peace. These men were empowered to hold 
their respective offices until the next regular 
election, or until their successors were elected 
and qualified. But the new officers, also, re- 
mained inactive, and up to January 17, i860, 
Spokane county remained in an inchoate and 
unorganized condition. On January 11, i860, 
the house passed "An act to creat and orga- 
nize the county of Spokane," as follows : 

Section i. Be it enacted by the legislative assembly 
of the Territory of Washington that all that part of the 

Walla Walla country embraced within the following 
boundaries, to-wit : Commencing at the mouth of 
Snake river, following up said river mid-channel to 
(,46th) forty-si.xth parallel of north latitude; thence east 
along said parallel to the summit of the Rocky 
mountains ; thence north following said summit to the 
(49th) forty-ninth parallel of north latitude; thence 
west along said parallel to the Columbia river; thence 
down mid-channel of said river to the place of begin- 
ning : The same is hereby constituted and organized 
into a separate county to be known and called Spokane 

Sec. 2. That said territory shall compose a county 
for civil and military purposes and shall be under the 
same laws, rules, regulations and restrictions as all 
other counties in the Territory of Washington, and en- 
titled to elect the same officers as other counties are 
entitled to elect. 

Sec. 3. That the county seat of said county be, 
and the same is hereby temporarily located on the land 
claim of Dr. Bates. 

Sec 4. The following named persons are hereby 
appointed officers for said county, namely: Seaman, 
James Hoyt, and Jacques Demers, county commis- 
sioners : John Winn, sheriff, R. H. Rogers, treasurer, 
Douglas, auditor, J. R. Bates, justice of the peace, and 
F. Wolf, coroner, who shall hold their respective offices 
until the next annual election, and until their successors 
are elected or appointed and qualified. Before entering 
upon the discharge of the duties of their offices they 
shall comply with all existing laws relating to qualify- 
ing by giving bond and taking an official oath ; said 
bonds may be approved by the persons named as county 
commissioners, or a majority of them, and the several 
persons named herein as officers may administer the 
oath of office to each other. 

Sec. 5. Said county of Spokane shall constitute 
a part of -the first judicial district, but for the purpose 
of hearing and determining all matters and causes in 
the district court, except those in which the United 
States is a party, it shall remain attached to the county 
of Walla iWalla. 

Sec. 6. All vacancies which may occur by the non- 
acceptance, death, removal or resignation of any of the 
persons above named, may be filled by the board of 
county commissioners, and they may also appoint such 
other officers as may be required for said county to hold 
their offices until the next general election and until 
their successors are elected or appointed and qualified. 
Sec. 7. At the next general election the qualified 
voters of said county shall elect their county commis- 
sioners and all other county officers in the same manner 
as by law provided for other counties. 

Sec. 8. Said county commissioners, when elected, 
as is in preceding section provided, shall hold their 
respective offices, one for one year, one for two years 
and one for three years, as shall at their first meeting 
after election be determined by lot. 

Sec. 9. The persons appointed county commission- 



ers may any time after the passage of this act, and be- 
fore the day appointed for the next general election, 
upon posting up suitable notices signed by a majority 
of them, hold a meeting of the board of county commis- 
ioners, at which they may transact any business which 
could be done at a regular meeting of the board. 

Sec. 10. All acts and parts of acts inconsistent 
herewith are hereby repealed. 

Passed the house of representatives January 11, 
i860. (Signed) John D. Biles, Speaker of the House 
of Representatives. 

Passed the Council January 17, i860. (Signed) 
H. J. G. Macon, President of the Council. 

In pursuance of this act the commissioners 
named were sworn into office at "Pinkney 
Cit}'," three miles northeast of the present coun- 
ty seat of Stevens county, Colville, on May 7, 
i860, and individually executed the bonds re- 
quired by law. To these proceedings the new 
county auditor attested as follows : "In witness 
whereof I ha\'e hereunto set my hand and pri- 
vate seal, (there being no official seal provided) , 
this 7th day of May, A. D., i860. R. H.,Rogers, 
auditor in and for Spokane county, W. T." 

January 20, 1863, the legislative assembly 
passed an act subdividing this vast territory 
and organizing the county of Stevens "for civil 
and military purposes, to be attached to the 
county of Spokane for judicial purposes." But 
one year thereafter, January 19, 1864, an act 
was passed re-annnexing the county of Spokane 
to Stevens, practically obliterating the former, 
and providing that the county officers of Spo- 
kane should remain the county officers of Ste- 
vens until the expiration of their terms ; Stevens 
county to be entitled to representatives and 
councilmen of the two counties formerly exist- 
ing. This was in the nature of a political com- 
promise, and thus the original Spokane county 
was absorbed in Stevens county, which fell heir 
to all the territory and, also, that of Ferry, 
Okanogan and a part of Chelan counties. No- 
vember 21, 1 87 1, Whitman county was estab- 
lished by setting off the southern portion of Ste- 
vens county, and in 1879 a new Spokane county 
was set off from the remaining portion of Ste- 
vens. The former then had a population of 

4,262. It is not within the province of this his- 
tory of Stevens, to trace the gradual subdi- 
visions of Ferry, Okanogan and Chelan coun- 
ties, which subjects will be treated in their 
proper places. We must now revent to the ear- 
lier years of settlement, and lead up from the 
original trade in peltries to political recognition 
and the privilege of the elective franchise under 
purely American government. 

Tlie county whose history we are now to 
consider was named in honor of Isaac Ingalls 
Stevens, first territorial governor of Washing- 
ton, appointed by President Franklin Pierce in 
1853. Yet the dawn of its historical interest 
opens thirty-one years before that period, even 
before Marcus Whitman, the Lees, John Day or 
Wyeth had fought their way across the conti- 
nent and made their most sanguine promises 
to the United States government a certainty. 
Only seventeen years after Lewis and Clarke 
had turned their faces eastward on their return 
trip from the mouth of the Columbia, John Mc- 
Leod \\-as in charge of what was known as the 
"Thompson River district," superintending the 
distribution of supplies for the region between 
the Rocky mountain's and the Pacific ; from the 
mouth of the Columbia river to the Russian 
boundary line. April 26, 1826, McLeod found 
himself at Spokane Falls whither he had ar- 
rived from the coast, and he started for Fort 
Edmonton, arriving two months later. May 
17th. During his progress he encountered snow 
so deep that he was compelled to cut his leath- 
ern trousers into strips to make snowshoes. At 
that period the Hudson's Bay Company had 
thirty posts, "factories" or forts, within the ter- 
ritory then jointly occupied by Americans and 
Englishmen, and called "Oregon." One of 
these was named Fort Colville, near Kettle 
Falls on the Columbia river. This was not the 
Fort Colville subsequently established by the 
United States government at "Pinkney City," 
three miles northeast from Colville, the present 
capital of Stevens county. Yet considerable 
confusion has arisen, even among otherwise 



well-informed people concerning the identity of 
these two "forts." The older one was a Hud- 
son's Bay Company's trading post; the other 
was established by the United States in May. 
1859. Pinkney City was named after Major 
Pinkney Lugebeel. With him McLeod had a 
band of calves which he was transporting from 
Fort ■Vancouver to Fort Colville, on the Colum- 
bia. Some of these adolescent bovines were 
killed by the Indians who regarded them only 
in the light of so much "fresh meat." and Mc- 
Leod and his force .experienced no small diffi- 
culty in protecting them. The quickness of 
James Douglas saved :\IcLeod"s life, when the 
former struck up a gun with which a savage 
was about to shoot McLeod in the back. Ac- 
cording to Bancroft, "Through all these dan- 
gers the precious calves nevertheless passed in 
safety to Fort Colville, (at Kettle Falls), where 
they fulfilled their mission, multiplying rapid- 
ly." This was the initial introduction of "live 
stock" into Stevens county. 

A short time previous to this a Hudson's 
Bay Company's post, or "fort," had been re- 
moved from its location on Spokane river to 
Kettle Falls, and named Fort Colville in honor 
of the then governor of the company. Work's 
Journal says that "the exact time of removal is 
obscure, but in July, 1826. we find a party em- 
barking at Fort Vancouver with '72 pieces for 
Fort Colville," which shows that the establish- 
ment was then in operation." The "History 
of Oregon." by Evans, gives the founding of 
the Kettle Falls Fort Colville as in 1825, while 
Anderson's "Northwest Coast" places it in 
1826. But \Mlkes' "Narrative of U. S. Ex- 
plorations" agrees with Evans, claiming 1825 
as the date. It was at the Kettle Falls Fort Col- 
ville, a trading post of the Hudson's Bay Com- 
pany, that the accounts of the other posts in 
eastern Oregon centered, thereby saving a trip 
to Vancouver. Other tading posts were at this 
period located at Walla Walla, Fort Okanogan, 
a stockade above the mouth of the Okanogan 
river: one nn the Kootenais. one mi Lake Pend 

d'Oreille and one on the Flathead river. Of 
these, however. Fort Colville was considered 
the most important, situated one hundred miles 
northeast of Fort Okanogan, in the midst of a 
good agricultural country, and with a fine cli- 
mate, good fishing and other advantages. Es- 
tablished shortly after the location of Fort Va.i- 
couver, with the customary allotment of two 
cows and a bull, it had, in 1834, like Vancouver,. 
its lowing herds furnishing beef, butter and 
milk. It had, also, other stock, including fairly 
bred horses, and a small grist mill. Many varie- 
ties of garden produce matured in the climate in 

The zealous fur hunters in the employment 
of the Hudson's Bay Company were the pio- 
neers of Stevens county. In no sense of the 
word were they settlers. In habits, character- 
istics and pursuits they were but few removes 
from the swarthy savage who shared with them 
the spoils of the chase and the trap. As the bus- 
iness of the monopolistic British syndicate in- 
creased these voyageurs, English, French on 
half-breeds, multiplied, as a natural sequence, 
yet for all their efiforts the country would have 
remained as wild and virginal as it was the first 
day they encroached upon the soil. Actual set- 
tlement of the once extensive domain of Ste- 
vens county was given its initial impetus by 
Catholic missionaries. 

Of these spiritual pioneers Father De Smet 
was not the first. In the fall of 1838 F. N. Blan- 
chet and Rev. IModest Demers came into the 
country in response to reiterated requests from 
the French Canadians, a large majority of 
whom were Catholics. Many of them had in- 
termarried with the Indians, and their rude 
"settlements" assumed much of the barbaric 
etYect of actual Indian camps. Fathers Blan- 
chet and Demers were sent out to these people 
by the ecclesiastical authorities of eastern Can- 
ada. They first came to Fort Colville. and 
thence down the Columbia ri\er on one of the 
boats belonging to the Hudson's Bay Company. 
Subsequently Father Blanchet became the first 



archbishop of Oregon. Fort Colville was revis- 
ited by Father Demers in 1839. He was then 
on his way to New Caledonia. At this period 
Father De Smet was pursuing his spiritual avo- 
cations in the Flathead country of Montana, 
near what is now the town of Kalispell. From 
this point, by the aid of Indian couriers, he 
opened communication witli Fathers Blanchet 
and Demers, and in 1841, he, too, came to Fort 
Colville, having first laid the foundation of St. 
Mary's Mission. Montana. It does not appear 
that Father De Smet went so far south as Spo- 
kane Falls. The primary object of his visit 
was to procure seed, and at that time the vicin- 
ity of Colville was the only country agricultur- 
ally developed. From Colville (Kettle Falls), 
Father,. De Smet returned to Montana with a 
few bushels of wheat, oats and potatoes with 
which, it is said, he began the first farming ever 
prosecuted in that territory. To Father Demers 
Stevens county owes much for his untiring zeal 
and industry, not only in spiritual, but in the 
practical affairs of life. He is more closely 
identified with the early history of this section, 
as Father Blanchet's field was farther south, in 
Oregon. In the "History of Spokane County" 
the Very Reverend Leopold Van Gorp, General 
Superior of Indian Missions, Gongaza College, 

"The Colville Indians, after meeting with 
the missionaries (in Montana), were accus- 
tomed to frequently visit them at their place 
among the Kalispells. But at the earnest solic- 
itation of their chief, Martin Ilemuxsolix, 
Father Anthony Ravalli went to visit them in 
1845, ^nd built the first chapel in their midst, 
on the hill between the fishery and the Hudson's 
Bay Company's fort, on the banks of the Col- 
umbia, near Kettle Falls. It may perhaps serve 
to relieve my dull narrative to insert here a 
little incident which happened to Father Ravalli 
while among the Colvilles. News was brought 
to him one day that an Indian woman had quar- 
reled with her husband, and, driven to despera- 
tion by jealousy, had just hanged herself with 

a lariat to a tree. Father Ravalli hastened to 
the spot and cutting asunder the lariat, quickly 
freed the woman's neck, which, upon exami- 
nation, he found not broken. Although the 
body was still warm, pulsation at the wrists, as 
well as the heart, had already ceased, and to 
all appearances life was extinct. Father Ra- 
valli stretched, what everybody supposed her to 
be, the dead woman, upon the ground, and com- 
menced now to breathe into her mouth, now to 
move her arrrts up and down, so as to impart ar- 
tificially to her lungs the movement of natural 
respiration, and thus quicken into action the 
spark of vitality still there, perhaps, only latent 
and dormant. He kept working in this manner 
for about three-quarters of an hour, when all at 
once a slight change of color appeared on the 
lips and face of the woman. Encouraged by 
the sign he continued, and soon after clearer 
indications of returning life became noticable. 
A little while yet and the woman, to the aston- 
ishment of all. commenced to breathe, first faint- 
ly and at broken intervals, then more freely and 
more regularly. A while later she opened her 
eyes, and from a seeming corpse, she was soon 
after up and moving around, living to be'on aid 
woman. This unusual and yet simple occur- 
rence won to Father Ravalli with all the In- 
dians the name of the 'Great Medicine Man." 

"But in 1845 Father Ravalli did no more 
than erect a little chapel, neither did he remain 
here for any length of time. Other mission- 
aries, however, frequently visited the chapel and 
held services for the Indians. In 1847 Father 
Devos opened a mission here, retaining the 
name of St. Paul, already given to the chapel. 
He spent several years among these Indians, 
and while he had to labor hard and endure 
many hardships, still his work was lightened by 
the great success that attended it. as he con- 
verted not only the greater part of the Colville 
Indians, but many of the Sinatchsti tribe as 
well. However, in 1851, broken in health from 
his great exertions among the Colville Indians, 
he was obliged to go to the residence on the 


^^'iIlamette to recuperate. Another station, 
that of the Immaculate Conception, was estab- 
lished at Fort Colville, about two miles from 
the present town of Colville. It was estab- 
lished for the whites and half-breeds in and 
around the fort. At times this station, like that 
at the fishery, had a resident priest, while at 
other times, both places were attended by Fath- 
ers from the other missions. Some years later 
both these places were abandoned, as the fort 
was no longer used and the fishery had lost its 
importance, as the Indians no longer gathered 
here to fish, owing to the fact that large fisheries 
had been established by the whites at the mouth 
of the Columbia, preventing the salmon from 
making their way up the river. The mission- 
aries then established themselves in the Colville 
valley, about seven and one-half miles from the 
town of Colville. Here they opened the resi- 
der.ce of St. Francis Regis, which has since 
grown into the flourishing mission of the same 
name. To-day it has its school for boys, taught 
by the Jesuits, and a school for girls, taught by 
the sisters of Providence. It can boast of a 
splendid farm, of a mill and many modern im- 
provements. The mission is now outside the 
reservation, though it continues to be the center 
to which the adjoining Indian tribes come, espe- 
cially for the great feats. Besides there are 
quite a number of whites and half-breeds who 
come to the mission for their religious duties." 
Following the introduction of missions and 
chapels came actual settlement of the county. 
At one period, in March, 1903, there was 
among the residents of Colville, the county 
seat, considerable speculation concerning the 
number of citizens of eastern Washington who 
had resided within the state and territory fifty 
years. It will be remembered by all who ha-\-e 
followed the preceding chapters that on March 
2, 1853, the bill forming the territory of Wash- 
ington, as distinct from Oregon, passed the 
United States senate, having previously run the 
gauntlet of the house with but nominal opposi- 

tion. Hence the interest among Colville resi- 
dents, regarding the matter, March 2, 1903, 
the fiftieth annniversary of the forming of the 
Territory. There was extended inquiry with 
the result that it was at last reluctantly conced- 
ed that there was none in Stevens county who 
has been a resident therein fifty years. This, 
however, was found to be an erroneous conclu- 
sion. As the Reveille (Colville) said: 

"Stevens county comes to the front with at 
least three men who ha\e weathered the stormy 
times; who have made history for this part of 
the state for more than fifty years, and they 
promise to live out a score or more years yet. 
One of them is Andrew Hughson, who lives 
on his farm just two miles south of town. 
(Colville.) Mr. Hughson crossed the Rocky 
mountains in the Crows Nest region in 1851, 
and in November of that year established his 
residence at what was known as the Hudson's 
Bay Company's fort, near ]\Iarcus. Shortly 
before his arrival Donald McDonald, now a 
gray-haired man of fifty-threee years, born in 
Montana, came to Marcus and still lives there. 
John Inkster, of Valley, is perhaps the oldest 
living settler of the state. His residence dates 
from 1848, fifty-five years ago, and he is still 
in good health. Mr. Hughson has lived forty- 
four years on his farm, which is his home, and 
his review of his past history is truly interest- 
ing. There are many here who date their resi- 
dence as far back as 1855 and i860, but these 
three men mentioned are the first settlers." 

In this connection the following interview 
with Mr. F. Wolfif, residing at Colville, is apro- 
pos. To the writer he said : 

"I came to Stevens county in 1856 from 
Montana, where I had been employed in Gov- 
ernor Stevens' party. The first attempt at orga- 
nization of the county was made in 1858, but 
was unsuccessful, and some of the officers who 
had received appointments did not, at the time, 
know of the honor that had been thrust upon 
them. But in i860 a permanent organization 



was established by the Territorial legislature, 
and officers were appointed and served until 
the first election was held in that year. 

"In June, 1859, George B. McClellan, then 
a captain of engineers of the regular army, but 
a few years afterward the commanding general 
of the Army of the Potomac, accompanied by 
two companies of infantry under Captains Fra- 
zer and Archer, left The Dalles, Oregon, on a 
trip through this northern country. They came 
up through the Okanogan country and were on 
duty at the boundary line between the United 
States and the British possessions, which was 
then in dispute. For some reason which I 
never learned they did not long remain here, 
but returned to the post at The Dalles. While 
in the north country they were engaged in 
marking" the boundary line between the two 
countries. This was done by cutting a wide 
swath through the timber. Where there was 
no timber they built mounds and piled up em- 
bankments. While the swaths through the 
timber which they cut have partly grown up 
to timber again, the boundary line can be easily 
noticed to this day. A coincidence of this trip 
is found in the fact that all three of these offi- 
cers but a short time afterward became gen- 
erals in the War of the Rebellion — McClellan 
on the union side and Frazer and Archer in 
the Confederate Army. 

"In the fall of 1862 the regular troops sta- 
tioned at Fort Colville (Pinkney City, not Ket- 
tle Falls), were called east to take part in the 
War of the Rebellion. To take their places two 
companies of volunteers were recruited at San 
Francisco and came to the post at Fort Colville. 
These companies were in command of Major 
Curtis. These companies were recruited mostly 
from convicts from California, who were thus 
offered pardon on condition that ihey enlist. 
Major Curtis did not remain long, his place be- 
ing taken by Major Rumelles. These troops 
were on duty here until after the war, when 
regular troops again took charge of the fort." 

Fort Colville, at Pinknev Citv. three miles 

northeast of Colville, in contradistinction to the 
Hudson's Bay Company's "Fort" Colville, near 
Kettle Falls, was established in June, 1859, by 
the government of the United States. It was 
built for the protection of widely separated 
groups of American settlers. There had been 
a large overflow of population on opening of 
the transmontane country, east of the Cascades, 
in 1858. Reputed gold discoveries on the Col- 
umbia, Malheur and other streams accounts for 
this sudden hegira. Gold was also discovered 
on the Wenatchee river, in the latitude of the 
Snoqualimich Pass, and near Colville. Some 
of the earliest settlers in Stevens county were 
e.x-miners who found both soil and climate fa- 
vorable and concluded to establish homes in 
this locality. Again, the completion of a mili- 
tar)' road between Forts Benton, in Montana, 
and Walla Walla, in Washington, attracted 
quite a number from the valley of the Bitter 
Root, which at that period was a portion of the 
vast area known as Spokane county. Military 
officers, soldiers, freighters became gold seek- 
ers, and they flocked in from the Fraser River 
country, their stories adding materially to the 
stock of information in possession of mining 
prospectors. The writer has seen a letter writ- 
ten by Lieutenant John Mullan, who had 
charge of the construction of the military road, 
in which he says he discovered valuable ore 
showings along his route, but was afraid to 
divulge the same through fear of desertions 
among his rather small force of road builders. 
Few are the biographies of Washington pio- 
neers that do not contain episodes of mining 
exploitations, of greater or less range, in the 
careers of the subjects. Companies were orga- 
nized in Portland, and from that city capitalists 
sent out "grub-staked" prospectors by the hun- 
dreds. The quality of the gold in this vicinity 
was coarse, equal in coin to seventeen or eigh- 
teen dollars, and superior to the gold of the 
Similkameen. In February, 1859, a party led 
by J. N. Bell, of The Dalles, set out for Colville. 
This contingent, together with fifty others who 


had wintered at that point, were among the first 
in the new "diggings." In March the floating 
population of the Walla Walla valley swarmed 
up into this vicinity, while others came from 
far off Yreka, California. A wagon road was 
opened between the Similkameen and Priest 
Rapids. Parties came in from the Willamette 
in small boats, and the steamer Colonel Wright 
brought up sixty tons of freight. It was still 
early spring when these "stampeders" arrived, 
and much of the placer ground was under 
water. Those who could work could not pay 
expenses. Some returned westward; others 
pushed on to Quesnell river, and others, more 
fortunate, discovered gold on Rock Creek, one 
of the headwaters of the Kettle River, and on 
the Pend d'Oreille. Suddenly it was discov- 
ered that the most productive mines, those on 
Rock Creek and the Similkameen, were in Brit- 
ish territory, north of the 49th parallel. A tax 
of $100 was levied on American traders who 
wished to sell goods to the miners, and in i86r 
there were 20,000 of them, mostly Americans, 
in British Columbia. Later discoveries of gold 
at Pierce City and Oro Fino attracted the atten- 
tion of the Colville miners, and their number, 
from that period, i860, dwindled materially. 

Of the Fraser River stampede the States- 
man-Index, (Colville), of October 8, 1897, 

"This Fraser River excitement, while it ter- 
minated like most 'rushes' in disaster, or ill- 
luck to the many, had its influence on Stevens 
county. In the autumn of 1859 about forty 
prospectors, full of the strength of youth and a 
determination to get a share of the wealth that 
was free to men of pluck, were making their 
way through the Colville valley well equipped 
for an undertaking that might have made less 
experienced men falter. Arrived thus far on 
the trip they began to meet miners who told of 
their own folly and fruitless errand to Fraser 
river. As the days passed other men were 
spoken who had. practically, the same tale to 
tell. This settled it with our party of prospec- 

tors; the meadow lands of the Colville valley 
seemed likely to yield greater returns in gold 
than would the gold fields of the north, and ac- 
cordingly they decided to go no farther, but 
returned and settled here. These men formed 
the nucleus of civilization in Stevens county. 
Some are still among our most honored citi- 
zens; others have passed over the great divide 
into the vale beyond. But each had his part in 
the early history of Stevens county." 

The honor of being the oldest settled por- 
tion of the state of Washington, east of the 
Cascades cannot justly be denied Stevens coun- 
ty. This distinction, however, cannot be ac- 
corded "Fort" Colville, of the Kettle Falls loca- 
tion, nor the later Fort Colville, of Pinkney 
City. At Meyers Falls, on the Colville river, 
the Hudson's Bay Company erected a grist 
mill in 1816, only eleven years after Lewis and 
Clarke had completed their memorable expedi- 
tion. The old burrs of this mill are yet on the 
ground. Agents of the company, however, 
were in this vicinity as early as 1809, but mere- 
ly for the purpose of purchasing furs of the 
Indians, and making no attempt at settlement. 
Whether this original mill was torn down or 
destroyed by fire is not definitely known, but 
another milll was crested on the same spot, 
which was standing in 1865-6. At this period 
L. W. Meyers, for whom the falls were named, 
a Canadian and the pioneer of Stevens county, 
took a lease upon the building pending a settle- 
ment of the old company with the United States 
government for relinquishment of their 
lands. Mr. Meyers afterward secured posses- 
sion of the water power, a fall of 135 feet in a 
distance of three-eigths of a mile, and one of 
the most valuable water powers in eastern 
Washington. The roof of this mill was cov- 
ered with cedar bark and although far from 
being supplied with modern milling appliances 
its product was eaten with keen relish for many 
years. New buildings were erected in inSya. 
Mr. Meyers, being in a reminiscent mood in 
August. 1899, wrote as follows: 



"One would scarcely believe in passing 
through the Colville valley that its quiet soli- 
tude had once been rudely shaken by war's 
alarm. On the site of the town many, many 
moons ago there was a terrible fight between 
the Spokane and Colville Indians. The story 
goes that for three days the battle raged, first 
the victory seeming to perch upon the banners 
of the Spokanes, and then the terrific onslaught 
of the Colvilles, who were defending their 
homes, would turn the tide of battle, and finally 
the Spokanes were driven from the field. In 
this terrific battle the casualties were two In- 
dians wounded, who were artistically decorated 
with arrows in various parts of the anatomy. 
In this battle there were 2,000 warriors en- 
gaged. This skirmish is not recorded in any 
history of Stevens county, but it is well authen- 
ticated. So it would seem that the quiet of Col- 
ville valley has not escaped war." 

In tracing the history of Stevens county it 
again becomes necessary to revert to the period 
when it enjoyed a commonwealth existence 
imder the name of Spokane county. The first 
meeting of the board of county commissioners 
was held May 8, i860. The records show that 
all members of the board and the auditor, R. 
H. Rogers, were present. It will be remem- 
bered that the bill providing for the formation 
of Spokane county named one Douglas as 
county auditor, and R. H. Rogers as treasurer. 
It appears that a change, or transposition of 
these officers was made whereby Mr. Rogers 
assumed the duties of auditor and Mr. Doug- 
las became treasurer. At this initial meeting 
the board established an election precinct at 
Pinkney City, the place where the county com- 
missioners first met, and which was supposed at 
the time to be the county seat. Of this elec- 
tion precinct Charles Miller and Cyrus Hall 
were appointed inspectors, E. Averill and C. 
L. Thomas, judges, and Henry Lafleur, clerk. 
An election precinct was also established at the 
mouth of the Pend d'Oreille river, of which 
John Bolonge and James Smith were appointed 

inspectors, and Richard Frye, Rich and Rouse, 
judges and clerk. Notices of election were 
ordered posted, and Joseph L. Houck was 
named as a road supervisor. This is all that 
appears of record at the first meeting of the 
Spokane county commissioners, and the pro- 
ceedings were signed by R. H. Rogers as clerk 
of the board. 

On August 4, i860, another meeting was 
held which adjourned to meet on the 8th inst. 
There appears to have been an election previous 
to this meeting, but there is no record of it other 
than is shown in the board proceedings. The 
meeting is dated Pinkney City, August 8, i860, 
and shows that there were present I. W. Sea- 
man, James Hayes and George Taylor, as com- 
missioners, and Taylor was elected chairman of 
the board. The following officials, supposed to 
have been elected at the interregnum election, 
presented their bonds which were accepted : R. 
H. Douglass, treasurer; Cyrus Hall, justice of 
the peace ; John Gunn, assessor. The board es- 
tablished grocery licenses (properly saloon li- 
censes) at $200 per annum, and for billiard 
tables and bowling alleys, when conducted in 
connection with the "groceries" at $30 per 
annum. By application licenses were then 
granted to Messrs. Chamberlain & Walker, 
Seaman & Company, James Hayes, and Bige- 
low & Lynch to retail ardent spirits in Pinkney 
City; also license was granted to Bigelow & 
Lynch to keep a billiard saloon. The record is 
signed I. W. Seaman, chairman. 

At the following meeting of November 6, 
i860, George Taylor appears as chairman and 
J. R. Bates, clerk. The principal business 
transacted was the granting of licenses as fol- 
lows: John Nelson, P. Stergenacker & Com- 
pany and R. H. Rogers to retail ardent spirits 
in Pinkney City for six months : J. W. Crow 
and Wheelock & Company to conduct the same 
business near old Fort Colville, for six months, 
and to Seaman & Company to keep a bowling 
alley in Pinkney City for six months. The fol- 
lowing day the commissioners proceeded to bal- 



lot for their respective terms of office. George 
Taylor drew the one-year term, James Hayes 
two years, and I. W. Seaman three years. 

At the following meeting of the board, 
December 8, i860. Commissioner James Hayes 
reported to his colleagues on the board that 
Messrs. Allen & Juet had been guilty of retail- 
ing liquors without passing through the for- 
mality of securing a license. L. Hilbord ap- 
peared as a witness, and having been duly 
sworn testified that he had been in the establish- 
ment of the parties complained of, and drank 
liquor ; the last time being on the day on which 
he testified before the board. He added that the 
house was quite disorderly owing to the many 
men within who were drinking and carousing. 
Allen & Juet at that period resided in the lower 
part of Pinkney City. No action appears to 
have been taken in regard to this matter. A 
license was granted to Joseph Ladoux to con- 
duct a ferry on the Columbia river, opposite 
the mouth of Kettle river, for the term of one 
year. The rates of ferryage prescribed were: 
Pack animal, $1.25; man and horse, $2; loose 
animals, $1 each; footman, 75 cents; freight, 
per ton, $5. Thomas Ferrill was recommended 
to the board for constable of Pinkney precinct, 
and appointed as such. 

December 15, i860, the county commis- 
sioners assembled at Pinkney City and pro- 
ceeded to locate the first county road, after they 
had appointed B. F. Coppage as road super- 
visor. It is described as follows : Commencing 
at the ferry on the Columbia river opposite the 
mouth of Kettle river ; running thence to Peter 
Gurrie's, at the foot of the hill in as near a 
straight line as practicable; thence following 
the present wagon road, as near as convenient, 
to Pinkney City ; thence following the govern- 
ment road to the bridge at "old Pears," leaving 
the present wagon road at, or near, the bridge, 
and following an old Indian trail bearing to the 
right and intersecting the old road running up 
the valley near George Muce's claim; running 
up the old road as near as practicable to where 

the old pack trail leaves the wagon road to cross 
Mill river ; turning to the right ; following said 
pack-trail, or as near to it as convenient to 
strangers; running from thence along the pack- 
trail to the Spokane. 

A branch road, located at the same meeting 
is described thus : "Leaving the county road 
near Louise Matt's house, down the side of his 
field to the southeast corner of his fence ; thence 
running through the swamp to old Marcus' 
house; thence down the lane from Marcus'; 
running below Alexander Muriejoe's field; 
thence along the old road to George Taylor's ; 
thence up the side hill, leaving the old road to 
the right, to F. Muriejoe's; thence following up 
the old road, intersecting the county road where 
it comes dovra the hill near George Muce's 

At the same meeting, on application by peti- 
tion of the citizens of Pinkney City, the com- 
missioners appropriated $100 for the construc- 
tion of a public well in Pinkney City, to be paid 
on completion of the well. The board appointed 
James Hayes to superintend the digging of 
this public improvement. 

April 10, 1861, it appears that James Hayes 
had left the county and the commissioners ap- 
pointed in his place Robert Bruce to ser^-e as 
county commissioner until the next general 
election. The board, also, purchased of C. R. 
Allen, for $500, a house and lot to serve as a 
court house. The following day T. J. Demerce 
was appointed assessor for Spokane county, in 
place of John Gunn who, it appears, had been 
elected but failed to qualify, I, W. Seaman 
tendered his resignation as commissioner, and 
the same was accepted. At the meeting of Maj'' 
6, W. D. Bigelow was appointed commissioner 
j to succeed Mr. Seamon. For county purposes 
! a tax of four mills on the dollar was levied. The 
, board then proceeded to divide the county into 
election precincts, as follows : Precinct No. i — 
Pinkney City, including all that portion of 
Spokane county east of a line running due 
I north and south from the west side of F. Mar- 



cus' claim, "and that the place of voting shall 
be Pinkney City, at the court house." Precinct 
No. 2 — Kettle Falls precinct: All that portion 
of Spokane county west of the west boundary 
of Precinct No. i. The judges of the next 
election shall be, for Precinct No. i, as follows : 
T. J. Demerce, Thos. Stranger and Thomas 
Ferrill. For Precinct No. 2, Wheelock, Don- 
ald McLoud and J. W. Crow. The board di- 
vided the county into road districts as follows : 
Road district No. i — All that portion of Spo- 
kane county lying north of a line running east 
and west through the government brick-yard. 
Road district No. 2 — All that portion 01 
Spokane county lying south of said division 
line. John Duplissis was appointed super- 
visor of road district No. i, and Charles Mont- 
gomery of No. 2. 

July 8, 1 86 1, a general election was held, 
but the result was not made a matter of official 
record. July 18, 1861, two of the new board 
of county commissioners met, L. Richardson 
and Thomas Stranger, and adjourned to meet 
July 20, at which time we find the two commis- 
sioners mentioned in session with J. R. Bates, 
as clerk. Richardson drew the one year, and 
Stranger the two year, term. 

At the meeting of November 21, 1861, R. 
H. Rogers presented a bill for $128.92 for fees 
as deputy treasurer, which was accepted and 
ordered paid. The books of R. H. Rogers were 
examined and found correct. Then the board 
declared the office of county treasurer vacant, 
owing to a defalcation of $565.50, county 
money, and requested R. H. Rogers to serve as 
county treasurer, which he did. No other 
meeting of the commissioners appears to have 
been held until May 5, 1862, when voting pre- 
cinct No. 3 was established, comprising all that 
portion of precinct No. i lying south of a line 

running east and west, one mile south of 

Hubbard's house, to be known as the Spokane 
precinct; the election to be held at some con- 
venient place at the mouth of the Spokane river. 
Julv 24 we find John U. Hofstetter and Robert 

Bruce taking the oath of office as county com- 
missioners, Bruce being selected as chairman. 
The following day the late treasurer, R. H. 
Douglas, appeared before the board for final 
settlement. He presented order No. 2, which 
had appeared on the treasurer's books as hav- 
ing been returned while the treasurer's books 
were in the hands of R. H. Rogers, deputy 
treasurer, and paid twice, through a mistake. 
Douglas was credited with the amount of the 
order, $21.50, and he then presented an order 
approved by the district judge for services as 
grand juror, for $59.60, with which additional 
amount he was credited. In the final settlement 
with Douglas there was found to be a balance 
of $394.12 due from him to the county, for 
which sum the commissioners made a formal 
demand, through the new treasurer, as follows : 

R. H. Douglas, 

Sir: — In behalf of the county I demand of you the 
sum of $394.12, the balance due from you to county as 
per treasurer's and auditor's books. By order of the 
Board of County Commissioners. 

J. R. BATES, Treasurer. 
Pinkney City, W. T., July 2S, 1862. 

The treasurer was instructed by the board 
that no interest should be charged Mr. Douglas 
should he make settlement with the county, 
which he did, August 2, 1862. 

In the year i860 the first election was held 
in the original Spokane, afterward Stevens, 
count)-. County officers were chosen, but for 
some reason a representative to the Territorial 
legislature was not selected. Concerning a 
tragical event connected with this matter Mr. 
F. Wolff says : 

"Desiring to have a representative some of 
the settlers got together and named Mr. H. W. 
Watson, (who was commonly called Judge 
Watson) for our representative. We made up 
a purse to pay his expenses, and late in the fall 
of i860 Mr. Watson, who was a carpenter in 
the government's employ, started out on a 
cayuse for Olympia. The irregularity of his 
selection as representative restrained him from 



serving in this capacity, but he was given a po- 
sition as door-keeper in the lower house, which 
position he retained during the session. In 
the spring of 1861 Judge Watson started on his 
return trip to Pinkney City. Weeks passed, 
but the judge failed to put in an appearance. 
At that period I was sheriff of the county, and 
becoming alarmed at the non-appearance of 
Judge Watson I wrote to parties at Walla 
Walla in regard to his whereabouts. I received 
word that he had left Walla Walla several 
weeks before on his return home. 

"I then suspected foul play. Accompanied 
by my deputy. George \Vaet, and my inter- 
preter, Thomas Stranger, I set out on the trail 
to the south country. As I went along the 
trail I made inquiries, and from some French 
settlers I learned that Indians in the neighbor- 
hood had a horse which they believed to be 
Watson's. At a place where Chewelah is now 
situated I found Watson's horse and saddle in 
possession of the Indians as the Frenchmen had 
told me. These natives said that they had won 
the horse and saddle from a Spokane Indian by 
gambling, and gave me a description of him. 
We then proceeded to the camp of the 
Spokanes, a short distance this side of Spokane 
Falls, but were unable to find the Indian for 
whom we were looking. We saw ihe chief, 
however, and laid the matter before him. From 
our description of the suspected man the chief 
recognized one of his subjects whom he had, 
before, suspected of crime. He said the man in 
question was keeping company with a young 
girl of the tribe, and had made her a present of 
a piece of chain, and that he had refused to 
state where he had secured it. I interviewed 
the girl and saw the piece of chain, which I at 
once recognized as having been Watson's. I 
again laid the matter before the chief, and he 
called the suspected man up before us. At first 
the Indian denied knowledge of everything, but 
finally owned up that he had murdered Watson 
for his watch and chain .and pony. He said 
that he had thrown the rest of the chain and 

the watch into the brush along the Spokane 
river, and after a short search we found them. 

"This was in May, 1861. Accompanied by 
one of the chiefs of the tribe and a number of 
braves, we started on the return trip to Pink- 
ney City with the self-confessed murderer. At 
a point between what is now Springdale and 
Walker's Prairie, the culprit pointed out the 
spot where the murder had been committed. 
We had no trouble in finding the body of Judge 
Watson, which was in a bad state of decomposi- 
tion. We dug a grave, buried our friend and 
marked the spot with a slab. Then we left 
the Indians and pushed on with our prisoner. 
I well remember our arrival home. It was 
about five o'clock in the afternoon, and we im- 
mediately gave the prisoner a preliminary hear- 
ing before Judge Hall, who was then justice of 
the peace. The whole settlement was present 
at the trial. The Indian admitted the crime, 
and was bound over to the higher court, which 
in those days convened only once a year. As- 
sisted by the deputies I was about to take the 
prisoner to jail, when we were seized by the 
crowd who had gathered to witness the trial. 
While a few of them held us the remainder 
took our prisoner and hanged him at Hof- 
stetter's gate, opposite the court house, in what 
was then Pinkney City, near old Fort Colville. 

"Watson was between fifty and fifty-five 
years old, and came here from Massachusetts. 
Although we made inquiry we were unable to 
learn anything of his past history, nor were 
there any papers in his possession which gave 
any information of relatives." 

While Colville, or more properly Fort Col- 
ville. was recognized as the capital of Spokane 
county, under the old regime, Pinkney City was 
the county seat de facto. All proceedings of 
the county commissioners were dated at Pink- 
ne}'' City. The Territorial act of January 17. 
i860, located the county seat "temporarily on 
the land claim of Dr. Bates." Subsequent acts 
of the Territorial assembly made mention of 
"Colville" as the countv seat, and thus it be- 



came recognized throughout the judicial dis- 
trict. But there was no "Colville" in existence. 
In view of this fact Mr. John U. Hofstetter 
and others, in 1880, platted a townsite three 
miles southwest of Pinkney City, named it Col- 
ville, and thus it became the county seat, ac- 
cording to the recognition of certain Territorial 
acts, abolishing Spokane, and organizing Stev- 
ens county. The county records were brought 
to Colville from Pinkney City, and since that 
time the former place has remained the capital. 

The first term of the district, later called the 
superior court, was held in Pinkney City in 
June, 1862. .Hon. J. J. McGilvra, now a resi- 
dent of Seattle, was at that period United 
States district attorney, and in company with 
Judge Oliphant, Salucius Garfielde, Shell 
Fargo and Charles Allen, he left the Walla 
Walla military post and started for Pinkney 
City to hold court. The equipage of the party 
comprised a pair of ponies, a wagon and two 
riding mules. The only residents, aside from 
nomadic Indians, along the two hundred and 
ten miles were one ferryman at the crossing of 
the Snake river, and another at the Spokane 
crossing, eighteen miles below the present east- 
ern metropolis of Washington, Spokane. 

Two small fly tents which the judicial party 
carried along with them, and traveling commis- 
sary stores, furnished forth hotel accommoda- 
tions along the entire route. To a limited ex- 
tent Garfielde understood the mysteries of the 
cuisine, and he was chosen cook, supplied only 
with the meagre culinary utensils of a frying 
pan and coffee pot. Garfielde broiled bacon on 
sharpened sticks before the fire and baked bread 
in the frying pan. Buffalo chips were em- 
ployed for fuel, and the coffee was settled with 
cold water. It is the published testimony of 
Mr. McGilvra that the "bread, bacon and coffee 
on that trip had a relish that has seldom been 
the good fortune of the writer to enjoy." At 
that period the regular garrison of Fort Col- 
ville, mentioned elsewhere, was en route for 
the seat of war in the south, its place having 

l;een supplied by two companies of volunteers 
recruited from the California, Oregon and 
Washington penitentiaries. The party met 
these troops at Medical Lake. Mr. McGilvra 
says that the officers had with them some good 
commissary whiskey, and the judicial party 
were invited to partake of the same, which they 
did, "unanimously." The teamster of the out- 
fit. Shell Fargo, managed to imbibe rather 
more than his just proportion of the whiskey, 
and soon after parting with the soldiers he up- 
set the wagon, depositing two of his passengers. 
Judge Oliphant and Salucius Garefielde on the 
ground. It is stoutly maintained by Fargo that 
Garfielde, who was smoking at the time, never 
lost his hold of the pipe, nor missed a puff dur- 
ing the whole catastrophe. The case was other- 
wise with Judge Oliphant; although not seri- 
ously injured he was badly shaken up and his 
nerves considerably unstrung. 

The military post at Fort Colville furnished 
quarters for the "court." The pro tern clerk of 
court, appointed by Judge Oliphant. was Park 
Winnans, and on the spur of the moment the 
sheriff of Spokane county summoned grand 
and petit juries. The impromptu "term" com- 
menced. The fact that any court at all was to 
be held had not been extensively advertised, 
and in consequence of this oversight there was 
not a case on the docket, in short, there was no 
calendar in which to enter a case. So the 
community good-naturedly began to manufac- 
ture cases. It is a well-known fact in legal 
practice that a community of lawyers will al- 
ways brew business ; that it takes two lawyers 
to impart an impetus to litigation in any place ; 
that where there an abundance of legal advice 
there will, invariably, be found clients to pay 
for the same. Thus it was at Pinkney City. 
It appeared to be the disposition of the people 
to make the best showing possible — as litiga- 
tion was a rarity, in short, a luxury — and so 
encourage other visitations of the "court." 
The grand jury immediately "got busy" and 
proceeded to indict everyone suspected of a 



crime and, it might be said, almost 
every one capable of committing a crime 
against the peace and dignity of the 
Territory of Washington. So anxious were 
the people to keep the wheels of justice moving 
that they came freely into court, waived pro- 
cess of service, made up their issues on the 
spot, and jumped head foremost into trial. 
The grist of this judicial mill was the settling 
of a number of civil cases, several convictions 
under the criminal law, three divorces, and the 
accumulation by McGilvra and Gariielde of 
$750 apiece. Shell Fargo carried off his re- 
ward in the shape of an appointment as United 
States marshal. 

During this initial term of court the party 
v^isited the Hudson's Bay Company's "Fort" 
Colville, fifteen miles north, then in charge of 
Angus McDonald. At this period the principal 
fisheries of the Columbia river were at this 
point, and here the Indians came to lay in their 
season's supply of salmon. At the time of the 
visit of this party several acres of ground were 
occupied in drying out the fish. 

The reader must not jump to the hasty con- 
clusion that this primitive method of conducting 
law courts was stii genesis in the various states 
of the union. Far from it. There was good 
faith shown in every legal procedure in Spo- 
kane county, and force of circumstances alone 
prevented a more elaborate and technical pro- 
cess of executing the law of the land. Over 
in Montana, at the same period, law had been 
abandoned, or rather never inaugurated. The 
vigilance committee reigned supreme, and no 
less than fifty-five desperadoes, outlaws and 
"road agents" were lynched under the rude 
semblance of law instituted by the Vigilantes. 
So far as jurisprudence was concerned the set- 
tlers of Spokane county kept themselves within 
the Territorial statutes to the fullest extent 
compatible with the spirit of the times, the 
long intervals between terms of court and the 
vast distances between the municipal and coun- 
ty jurisdictions. The majesty of the white 

man's law, as will be seen from Sheriff Wolff's 
account of his capture of the murderer of Judge 
Watson, appears to have been recognized by 
the Indians, more especially by the Spokanes. 
Accompanied by one deputy and an inter- 
preter, Wolff went down into the midst of that 
tribe, and brought the prisoner to punishment, 
if not to strict legal justice. The Indian mur- 
derer had confessed; the next term of court 
was a long ways off; expense to the county 
could be saved by summary proceedings, and 
the Indian was lynched. But consider the 
thousands of whites and negroes who have 
suffered from this kind of lawlessness since that 
time in various portions of the United States, 
surrounded by all the adjuncts necessary for 
swift retribution at the hands of legally con- 
stituted authorities! We make no plea in be- 
half of lynch law, but the surrounding circum- 
stances should be given due weight by the can- 
did and impartial reader. The fact that this 
Indian murderer was so readily given up to 
Sheriff Wolff by the chief and other members 
of the tribe of Spokanes, naturally awakens 
comment. For this credit must be given to the 
methods of the Hudson's Bay Company. It 
had inculcated in the simple minds of these sav- 
age Indian tribes a wholesome respect for the 
white man's law. Dr. McLaughlin says ; 

"A strict discipline was imposed upon the 
officers and servants of the Hudson's Bay Com- 
pany. The officer in charge of a post or party 
was alone authorized to deal with the natives. 
Interference with their women f the so frequent 
cause of trouble between the Indians and the 
whites) was stictly forbidden and rigorously 
punished. Spirituous liquor, that curse alike 
to civilized and savage, was never taken into 
the Indian country, save the one gallon of brandy 
and two gallons of wine annually furnished 
each post for medicinal purposes. By a judi- 
cious system of penalties and rewards the In- 
dians were taught to speak the truth and re- 
spect their promises. Theft or murder was 
never suffered to go unpunished. Tribes as 



well as individuals were stimulated to industry 
and good behavior by suitable presents and 
distinctions. If a theft or murder was com- 
mitted the tribe to which the offender belonged 
was held responsible and required to deliver 
him up for punishment. If the tribe hesitated 
or delayed, trade was withdrawn until the 
thief w-as surrendered. If the tribe refused to 
give up a murderer, war at whatever cost was 
waged until full satisfaction was obtained." 

The question of roads was one of the most 
important which came before the board of 
county commissioners of Spokane county in 
these early days. Reference to local laws of 
1861-2 shows that J- R- Bates, who was a 
member of the Territorial assembly, was au- 
thorized to construct a bridge across the Spo- 
kane river, at the crossing of the road from 
Walla Walla to Colville. The following were 
also appointed as ferry-keepers : D. W. Litchen- 
thaler and John C. Smith, across Snake, op- 
posite Powder river ; to Green White and C. R. 
Driggs, across Snake, at the mouth of Grand 
Ronde river; to John Messenger and Walter 
H. Manley, across Salmon river on the Nez 
Perce trail to Fort Boise. Rates were generally 
fifty cents for individual foot passengers, loose 
cattle fifty cents a head; two-horse wagons 
$2.50; four-horse wagons $3.50; six-horse 
wagons $4.50; horse and buggy $2.25; pack 
animals seventy-five cents. To the writer ex- 
Sheriff Francis Wolff said : 

"In the spring of 1853 a party of one hun- 
dred and twenty men under the command of 
Lieutenant Saxon started out from The Dalles, 
and of this party I was a member. We were to 
join forces with Governor Stevens, who was 
then in Montana with his surveying party. In 
the fall of that year we met Governor Stevens' 
party at Benton, Montana. Then in the sum- 
mer of 1853 the whole party crossed the Rocky 
Mountains and went into camp at Missoula. 
The first wagon was brought over in the winter 
of 1854 by Captain John Mullan. 

"At Missoula a consultation was held. 

[ Governor Stevens was anxious to get to the 
capital of the new Territory to enter upon his 
duties as governor, but he did not want to give 
up his surveying project. Provisions were 
running low, and to leave a great number of 
his force behind was out of the question. 
Stevens called for volunteers to remain be- 
hind and proceed with the survey to Puget 
Sound, while the main body proceeded directly 
to Olympia. Captain John Mullan, to whom, 
the greatest credit is due for the surveying of 
the route, was given command of these volun- 
teers. Those who responded and formed the 
company were Captain John Mullan, James 
Doty, Tom Adams, Fred Burr, C. Williams, 
John Farnsworth, William Simpson, Richard 
Osgood, Henry Pearson, George Simpson, 
Tom Osgood, F. M. Ruby, Corporal Richard 
Rose, W. Gates, Albert Sohon, I. Thuhill, E. 
Williamson, Francis Wolff. For fourteen 
months this party conducted the surveying op- 
erations and suffered untold hardships, finally 
arriving at Fort Owens in the Bitter Root 
valley and going into camp at Camp Stevens, 
one and one-half miles north of Fort Owens." 
To Mr. Wolff undoubtedly belongs the dis- 
tinction of having brought the first wagons to 
the Colville country. In 1856 he came from 
The Dalles, Oregon, bringing with him three 
wagons and a number of horses. In those 
days there were no roads — only a trail — and 
considerable difficulty was experienced by Mr. 
Wolff in getting the wagons here safely. At 
the Snake and Spokane rivers the crossing was 
made by lashing two Indian canoes together 
and placing a wagon on them. The horses, of 
course, swam across the streams. In 1877 Mr. 
Wolff made a trip to Walla Walla. In passing 
through the country south of here, he says, he 
found it in a very unsettled condition, and 
while on this trip he witnessed a stampede to 
Walla Walla from what are now the counties 
of Lincoln and Douglas, on account of an In- 
dian scare. He says the fears of the stampeders 
were unfounded, and the excitement due to the 



fact that most of the settlers were new arrivals 
from the east and totally unacquainted with 
conditions. A few cattle had been killed by 
the Indians in the "coulee country, ' but so far 
as he could learn these were the only depreda- 
tions committed. Many sections of the Big 
Bend country were depopulated by this mad 
stampede to Walla Walla. 

At the time of the present writing there 
have been three legal executions in Stevens 
county. In 1872 an Indian named Standist 
Law was hanged in Pinkney City for the mur- 
der of a miner, across the Columbia river. His 
apprehension was brought about through in- 
formation furnished by some of his putative 
friends. In 1879 ^" Indian named Andrew 
was executed for the murder of George 
Reemer, a farmer. living at Garrison Flat, only 
sixty or seventy yards from the military post. 
In 1 88 1 one Michael, an Indian, murdered a 
man named Shaffer, who conducted a grocery 
store in Pinkney City, the same place where 
Reemer was killed. For this crime he paid the 
penalty on the gallows. 

The subject of roads has always been an 
important one with the commissioners of Stev- 
ens county, and it is but just to say that within 
the present boundaries of the county there are 
as good roads as can be found anywhere in the 
state. At the meeting of the board July 10, 
1865, the report of C. H. Montgomery, road 
supervisor, was read and ordered filed. The 
report contained many wholesome recommen- 
dations, and the following action was taken 
by the commissioners on the dififerent roads of 
the county : 

"That the road from Pinkney City to the 
Spokane vWer stand as recorded in the road 
book, June 2. 1864, and the old military road 
to be kept in passable repair until the super- 
visor shall locate the route from Francis 
Uback's but from that point to Walker's prairie, 
shall be located and opened by him, so soon as 
he can do so, Joseph P. Null. J. J. Murphy, C. 
H. ]\Iontgomery, to go with him and view the 

portion of the road from Francis Uback's to 
the old government pack bridge, on both sides 
of the valley ; the viewers to report to the audi- 
tor and their decision to be final, and on being 
recorded by the auditor shall be the county 

Action was deferred on the Little Dalles 
wagon road, but the commissioners decided 
that should it become necessary they would call 
an extra session to pass upon it. It was de- 
cided at this meeting that the trail to the Pend 
d'Oreille river should be cut, and that the road 
supervisor should be authorized to advertise for 
proposals for cutting the same, the contract to 
be let to the lowest bidder, with a proviso that 
no bid shall exceed $500 for the entire distance. 
The same course was ordered to be pursued 
with the Pack Creek as with the Pend d'Oreille 
trail. On November 28, 1865, C. H. Mont- 
gomery was ordered to make a new road lead- 
ing from the "Bruce place" to the Little Dalles, 
and he was authorized to enter into contract for 
the construction of the same at any sum not 
exceeding $2,000. At the same session a peti- 
tion was drawn addressed to the representative 
from Stevens county asking him to oppose all 
appropriations for toll roads in the county, as 
the people were fully able to make all necessary 
roads in this section. 

April 16, 1866, the commissioners organ- 
ized the following road districts : 

No. I — From old Fort Colville to Marcus 
Openheimer's up 'the valley on both sides of 
the river ; G. B. Wannacott. Supervisor. 

No. 2 — From Marcus Openheimer's to Jo- 
seph Roberts' house, at Stranger's bridge, on 
both sides of the river: John Genick. super- 

No. 3 — From Joseph Roberts' to Spokane 
river, on both sides of the river : Magnus Flett. 

No. 4 — From Pinkney City to Little 
Dalles; Robert Bruce, supervisor. Three new 
election precincts were also created, at Pinkney 
City, Little Dalles and Old Fort Colville. On 



June 28, 1866, the board enacted that road 
district No. 3 should extend from the house of 
Joseph Roberts (including his house) to Snake 
river, and across the White Bluffs, and the 
super\asor was empowered to appoint some 
suitable person in any part of the district to 
oversee the labor thereon. August 13, 1866, a 
road was ordered built from Solomon Pelter's 
house through White Mud valley to "H. La- 
fleur's grocery stand." 

Concerning the finances of Stevens county 
in these early days the following will prove of 
interest : At the meeting of the commissioners 
of June 16, 1863, J. R. Bates, treasurer, came 
before the board for the purpose of settlement. 
He presented a statement of his various ac- 
counts for 1862. showing that he had received 
$2,587.58, and that he had expended: County 
orders redeemed, $1,881.98; interest fees to R. 
H. Douglas, $8.12; school fund of 1861, cash 
in hands of treasurer, $277.02 ; school fund of 
1862, cash in hands of treasurer, $122.26; 
Territorial tax of 1861, $116.01; Territorial 
tax of 1862, $56.22; war tax of 1862, $50; 
cash on hand $0.79; county order, fees 
for recording and disbursing $85.18; total 

May 4, 1863, the commissioners ordered 
that the value of grain in Stevens county should 
be assessed as follows: Wheat, $1.50 per 
bushel; oats, barley and potatoes, $1 : flour, $8 
per hundred pounds. The taxes levied for 
county purposes were four mills on the dollar. 

At the meeting of the commissioners of 
November 20, 1863, the auditor was instructed 
to write Dr. Toby, representing the county in 
the Territorial assembly, to secure the immedi- 
ate passage of a bill taxing Chinamen, the tax 
to be $1.50 per month, or $4.50 per quarter, 
the tax to be collected by the sheriff, that officer 
to be allowed 20 per cent of such collections, 
and the treasurer and auditor their usual fees, 
as in the case of other public moneys. A reso- 
lution was also passed to the effect "that Stev- 

ens county be annexed to this, the citizens hav- 
ing failed to organize." In the commissioners' 
proceedings of January 23, 1864, the county is 
referred to as Spokane. At the succeeding 
meeting, May 2, 1864, it is called Stevens 

January 23, 1864, the jail specifications 
were taken up and examined, following which 
the new jail was inspected and found to have 
been erected according to contract, upon which 
it was formally accepted. At this meeting the 
jail building was discussed at length, the com- 
missioners finally ordering the county auditor 
to settle with the contractor, George M. Daven- 
dorf, and to pay him the balance of the con- 
tract price, $700, in county orders, the same to 
draw interest from date. The auditor was, 
also, instructed to return to Mr. Davendorf the 
money deposited by him as security for per- 
formance of the jail contract. At the meeting 
of March i, 1864, the office of sheriff, L. T. 
Marshall, incumbent, was declared vacant, as 
Mr. Marshall had been absent from the Terri- 
tory for over nine months, and was delinquent 
in the amount of $95. Suit was ordered to be 
commenced against his bondsmen, and H. P. 
Steward was appointed to fill the vacancy in 
the office of sheriff, until the next general 
election. On May 4, of the same year, the 
commissioners instructed the county treasurer 
to pay county orders in nothing but green- 
backs. February 12, 1865, F. W. Perkins was 
appointed county auditor in place of Park 
Winans, the latter having forfeited his right 
to appoint a deputy by an absence from the 
county of over six months. Therefore the 
office was declared vacant and filled by the 
selection of Mr. Perkins, May 8, the same year, 
the board passed a resolution to the effect 
that the auditorship had been forfeited by Mr. 
Winans, not through loss of residence, but 
owing to his continued absence. 

following is the financial statement of the 
county of Stevens, February 12, 1865 : 



Total amount of money received since November 2, 

1863, to November 24, 1864 $ 9,8/4 02 

Amount disbursed: 

Delinquent tax list 1864 $ 1,402 cw 

County orders redeemed 3,781 99 

Territorial orders by Judge Oliphant 38000 

County court 161 00 

School superintendent's salary 25 00 

Sent to Olympia 138 00 

Delinquent tax list, 1863, not received 

Borrowed by county from school fund, paid 

Davendorf 600 00 

Treasurer's fees 248 42 

Sheriff's per cent, Chinese 3 77 

Police tax 765 00 

Interest on County orders 7 37 

Amount in treasurer's hands : 

Territorial 94626 

Amount county orders redeemed since No- 
vember 956 88 

School funds on hand 21320 

Roads and poll tax ! 149 00 

$ 9,877 89 

From the assessment rolls of May, 1865, 
we find that the price of grain was fixed as 
follows: Wheat, $1.75; oats, 75 cents; barley, 
$1.25; potatoes, $1.50. Yet about one year 
later, in June, 1866, wheat was taxed at $3 a 
bushel, oats $1.50, and potatoes $1.50. In 
1865 the tax apportionment was eight mills on 
the dollar; Territorial tax four mills; school 
two mills; road ten mills; road poll tax $5, and 
$3 a day allowed for road labor. In 1866 the 
Territorial assessment was three mills; school 
three mills and county eight mills. The road 
property tax was twenty cents on $100; poll 
tax two day's work for $4 each man. 

February 5, 1867, agitation began for the 
purchase of a court house, a price of $500 bejng 
fixed for the same, and Sherifif George Young 
was appointed to negotiate the deal. February 
23 a deed was given to C. H. Montgomery and 
approved. The purchase of the Douglas house 
was suggested, and it was resolved to secure 
this building provided it could be bought for 
$500 in coin, or $666.66 in greenbacks. April 
12 a deed for this property was given 
to R. H. Douglas and accepted, and 
$666.66 paid in legal tender notes. April 

12. 1867, the commissioners took up the 
question of building another road "from where 
the Cottonwood creek crosses the Walla Walla 
road to intersect with the Mullan road, at or 
near. Antonio Plant's, and it was enacted that 
the supervisors of different districts be re- 
quested to call out such men as have signed the 
road petition to work on said road on or before 
the first day of October, 1867, and also that 
there shall be a new bridge built on Fool's 
Prairie, and also such other work as shall be 
deemed necessary for a good road between 
Grame's and Cottonwood creek." On May 4 
the commissioners ordered that the road from 
Cottonwood creek to Spokane bridge be a 
county road. May 4, 1868, it was ordered that 
the Territorial fund then in the treasun,' be 
turned over into the county fund from time to 
time until the Territorial warrant for $841.64 
be satisfied. May 2, 1869, a new voting pre- 
cinct was established at Vogh's ferry, on the 
Pend d'Oreille river. June 28, 1869, the com- 
missioners found that the county was in debt 
by outstanding orders $3,369.84, from which, 
deducting $1,390.32 due from the Territory to 
the county, left an indebtedness of $1,979.52, 
which, together with the indebtedness of the 
county to the school fund of $1,400, left a total 
liability of $3,379.52. In the fall of 1869 the 
commissioners appeared to have considerable 
difficulty in collecting licenses for the sale of 
intoxicating liquors, and there were frequent 
appearances of notices like the following: 

"Ordered that all persons selling liquors by 
retail be notified to pay all arrears of license 
due and all persons selling without license to 
take out license." 

November i, 1869. on petition of George 
Wait and others, it was ordered that the county 
road from Colville to Walla Walla be changed 
so as to run on the west side of Colville valley. 
May 4, 1870. a new election precinct was estab- 
lished at Union Flat, at the house of H. Mur- 
ton. June 22. 1870. it was found that the 
countv was indebted bv outstandine: orders 



$7,234.86. Deducting the amount of county 
funds on hand as shown by the auditor's books, 
$1,430, remaining in the treasury, the actual 
indebtedness was $5,804.86. 

At a meeting of the commissioners held 
May 6, 1872, in order that all persons in the 
county entitled to the elective franchise might 
be afforded an opportunity of exercising it at 
the approaching election the board proceeded to 
organize the following election precincts and to 
appoint ofificers thereof for the election of June 
3. 1872. 

Che-we-lah Election Precinct — Boundaries : 
north by a line running east and west three 
miles south of the Twelve Mile House; east by 
Little Spokane; south by main Spokane; west 
by Columbia river. Place of voting, school 

Pine Grove Election Precinct — Boundaries : 
North by Hangman's creek and Spokane river 
to Monaghan's bridge; west by Walla Walla 
and Colville road to where said road crosses 
Crab creek ; south by a line running easterly to 
the house of A. Himes, including Mr. Himes 
and Mr. Wells in said precinct, thence north- 
easterly by Monroes to Hangman's creek where 
said creek crosses the line between Idaho and 
Washington. Place of voting, store of Mon- 

Pine Creek Precinct — Boundaries : South 
by Whitman county; west by Colville and 
Walla Walla road ; north by Pine Grove pre- 
cinct : east by Idaho. Voting place, the house 
•of T. F. Favorite. 

Spokane Bridge Precinct — Boundaries : 
South and west by Hangman's creek, Spokane 
and Little Spokane; north by Pend d' Oreille 
river: east by Idaho. Voting place, A. C. Ken- 
dal's store. 

Crab Creek Precinct — Boundaries : North 
by Spokane river; east by Colville and Walla 
Walla road ; South by Whitman county ; west 
by Columbia river. Place of voting, house of 
H. L. White. 

The reader will remember that Whitman 

county was established November 21, 1871, by 
setting ofi a certain portion of territory from 
Stevens count}-. It appears that this act left 
Whitman county in debt to Stevens county, 
and on November 25, 1872, the commissioners 
of Stevens county proceeded to consider this 
matter of indebtedness. It was shown that cer- 
tain provisions of the law organizing Whitman 
county in respect to the issue of orders covering 
its proportion of the liabilities of Stevens 
county had not been complied with, and the 
auditor was directed to transmit the following 
letter to the auditor of Whitman county : 

Fort Colville, Nov. 25, 1872 
Auditor of Whitman County. 

Sir : — At a special session of the board of com- 
missioners held this day, I am directed to call the at- 
tention of the commissioners and auditor of Whitman 
to the following extract from the act of the Territorial 
legislature organizing your county, approved November 
29, 1871: 

"The said Whitman county shall issue county orders 
in favor of Stevens county for that amount. And the 
county auditor of Whitman county shall transmit to 
the county auditor of Stevens county before the first 
day of July, A. D., 1872, the amount of county orders 
that shall fall due, Whitman county to issue in favor of 
Stevens county." 

Pursuant to the above I am instructed to demand 
of the board of commissioners and auditor of Whitman 
county an immediate compliance therewith and to ask 
that the order, or orders in question be dated as pro- 
vided in the act referred to, and also be properly en- 
dorsed so that interest may accrue thereon. 

As a matter of convenience in respect to the re- 
demption of the issues in favor of this county, I beg 
to suggest that the amount be covered by orders of the 
denomination of $100. Please transmit by registered 
letter. You have a certified statement of the amount 
of our regular and supplementary assessment, but take 
the aggregate of your taxable property as published in 
the Olympia papers. Please send your supplementary 
roll. Please acknowledge receipt. 

It appears that the above letter did not pro- 
duce the desired results, for we find that on 
May 5, 1873, the commissioners of Stevens 
county ordered the auditor to forward the nec- 
essary papers to the prosecuting attorney au- 
thorizing him to commence suit against Whit- 
man county, and to procure such help as he may 
deem necessar}' to secure judgment against the 



delinquent county. During the following year 
it appears little satisfaction was secured, con- 
cerning this financial matter, for at a board 
meeting ]May 24, 1874, the Stevens county 
commissioners ordered the auditor to take legal 
advice in relation to the Whitman county order, 
"and ask if we cannot get the money and refuse 
the order." However, it was decided that the 
the auditor deposit the Whitman county order, 
which, it seems, had been paid in bulk sum, re- 
gardless of the request of Stevens county to cut 
it into amounts of $100 each, with the treas- 
urer, subject to the order of the Stevens county 
commissioners. September 23, of the same 
year, it was ordered that the "county auditor 
turn over to Mr. I. H. Wells the county order 
now deposited with the county treasurer and 
known as the Whitman county order, amount- 
ing to $1,342.56, taking a receipt for said order 
and the amount thereof from Mr. Wells, and 
that Mr. Wells present said order to the county 
treasurer of Whitman county for payment of 
principal and interest, and in case there are not 
sufficient funds to pay said order, or any part 
thereof, then to split said order, principal and 
interest, into smaller orders of the denomina- 
tion of $100 each ; Mr. Wells then to deposit at 
his earliest opportunity the amount or order re- 
ceived for said order with the treasurer of 
Stevens county, taking a receipt for the same, 
to be subject to the order of the treasurer of 
Stevens county." 

January 5, 1875, Mr. Wells presented the 
order to the treasurer of Whitman county, but 
it was not paid for lack of funds. Neither 
would the treasurer split it up into smaller 
orders, although Mr. Wells requested him to 
do so. Finally this celebrated order was 
brought back and deposited once more with the 
treasurer of Stevens county. January 9, 1875, 
the Whitman county order was sold to Henry 
Wellington for $1,700 (in Stevens county or- 
ders). It was dated May 18, 1874, and was 
for $1,342.50, interest amounting to $316.04. 
Thus Stevens countv cleared $41.46. 

It becomes necessary to revert to May 7, 
1872, when we find that pusuant to an act of 
the Territorial legislature it became incumbent 
upon the commissioners of Walla Walla. Whit- 
man and Stevens counties, to appoint each a 
commissioner to view and locate a Territorial 
road from Walla Walla to Colville, and on -the 
part of Stevens county J. R. Courtnay was se- 
lected as commissioner. j\Ir. Courtnay met 
with the other commissioners, assisted in the 
survey of this road and was paid for his serv- 
ices $310.50. Concerning the subject of road 
building Mr. John Ricky says : 

"At this time the several counties put con- 
siderable work on this road, fixing up the old 
military road and building a part of it anew, 
until a first-class road was established as a Ter- 
ritorial road." 

May 7, 1874, the commissioners established 
the Four Lake Election Precinct, embracing all 
the territory between Willow Springs, Rock 
creek, north and south, and the Colville and 
Walla Walla road ; Lake creek, east and west. 
The voting place was at the residence of C. 
Murphy. September 22, the same year, Spo- 
kane Falls Election Precinct was established, 
bounded as follows: Commencing at the 
mouth of Hangman's creek, thence up the creek 
ten miles; thence east ten miles; thence north 
ten miles (more or less) to Spokane river; 
thence west down Spokane river to the place 
first named. Polls were established at the store of 
Mathema & Company. The following day the 
commissioners abolished the election precinct 
of Pine Creek, "there not being sufficient vot- 
ers, and ordered that said precinct be included 
in Pine Grove Precinct, and that the auditor 
notify Mr. Favorite of this order." 

May 5, 1875, a complication arose concern- 
ing the office of county auditor. From the pro- 
ceedings of that date we find that the county 
commissioners ordered that the resignation of 
J. R. Kinsley, as auditor be spread on the min- 
utes, of which resignation the following is a 
copy : 



"CoLVLLE, W. T., March i8, 1875. 
"To the Honorable Board of Commissioners of 

Stevens County, W. T. 

"Gentlemen : I herewith tender my resigna- 
tion as auditor of Stevens county, W. T., to 
take effect at the regular May meeting. 

"(Signed) J. R. Kinsey." 

It appears that Mr. Kinsley reconsidered his 
action in resigning, for at the meeting of May 
6, the letter appended herewith appears spread 
upon the records : 

"CoLviLLE, May 3, 1875. 
"To the Honorable Board of Commissioners. 

"Gentlemen : I do hereby give notice that I 
respectfully withdraw my resignation placed in 
your hands, dated March 18, 1875, ^s county 
auditor. Respectfully, 

"(Signed) John R. Kinsley, 

"County Auditor." 

A majority of the board refused to accept 
this withdrawal, the vote standing, L. W. My- 
ers and D. T. Percival, opposed to acceptance; 
J. Lamona in favor of it. The same majority 
accepted the resignation of Mr. Kinsley, and it 
was ordered that the office of county auditor be 
declared vacant. To this action Mr. Kinsley 
presented a written protest as follows: 

"Fort Colville, W. T., May 6, 1875. 
"Gentlemen of the Board of Commissioners : 

"I, John R. Kinsley, auditor of Stevens 

county, protest against the action of the board 
of county commissioners in declaring the office 
of county auditor vacant, as arbitrary and con- 
trary to law, and I refuse to surrender the 
"(Signed) John R. Kinsley. 

"County Auditor." 

Through the action of Percival and Myers 
S. F. Sherwood was appointed auditor of 
Stevens county. Commissioner Lamona pro- 
testing against such appointment "unless Mr. 
Kinsley be removed by due course of law; in 
that event he would sustain Mr. Sherwood." 

But Messrs. Percival and Myers continued 
the work, and approved the bond of Mr. Sher- 
wood, for $3,000, with Max Weil and Henry 
Wellington as sureties. Mr. Kinsley was then 
ordered to turn over all books and papers be- 
longing to the office of auditor to S. F. Sher- 
wood, and to this proposition Mr. Kinsley 
promptly refused. Mr. Sherwood was then re- 
quested to take immediate possession of the 
office, and to remove the lock from the door of 
the office and place thereon a new one. Sheriff 
John U. Hofstetter was also ordered to secure 
a new lock for the court house, and although 
Commissioner Lamona strongly protested 
against this forcible possession of the office, the 
majority carried the day, and Mr. Sherwood 
continued to hold the fort. 



From the original Stevens county there 
have been sliced the important political di- 
visions of Spokane, Whitman, Adams, Frank- 
lin, Lincoln, Douglas, Ferry, Okanogan and a 
portion of Chelan counties. Yet in 1871 in all 
that vast territory, under the jurisdiction of 
Colville, as the countv seat, there was a voting 

population of less than three hundred, and a 
total population, exclusive of Indians, of less 
than one thousand. The most populous por- 
tion of the district, at the period named, was 
the Colville valley. A list of the various farms, 
ranches, "sites" or residences of the white in- 
habitants, prepared for the information of the 



government shows them to have been ninety- 
one in number. From a copy of this hst we are 
enabled to give the names of eighty-eight of 
these pioneers of Stevens county. Many of 
them are still residents, even within its present 
boundaries ; some have removed to other locali- 
ties, or been set off by county subdivision; a 
large number have passed to the Great Beyond. 
The names are : Harry Young, L. D. Ferguson, 
Joseph Gangraw, Hilburn, I. R. Kings- 
ley, Bergean, George Waitt, Francis Hu- 
bert, George Frazer, Henry Brown, John Ink- 
ster, Andrew Mowatt, — Kemp, Peter Abram- 
son, George Flett, Joseph Morrell, Reid Mont- 
gomery. John Garrack, Patrick McKenzie, 
Thomas Brown, Fred Keiling, George IMcRea, 
Donald McCloud, Louis Morrigean, Nobra 

Dupuis. Mechan, Magnes Flett, 

Mechel. John Stranger, H. Wellington, Joseph 
Roberts, John Hauser, Con Rickart, Mrs. 
Fratzer. Narcise Finley. Louis Perras, M. 
L'Fleur, Francis Wolff. James Kitt, Louis 
Matthews. Jacob Buske. Alex. Gendron, Solo- 
mon Pelton. Mrs. McDougall. Frank Johann, 

John Wynne, Pierre, Moses Dupee, An- 

toine Paradis, \\'. Hall. L. W. Meyers, Peter 
Grupee, John Probell. John Jarvir, Fred Sher- 
\vood, Jacob Gillett, Robert Bruce, Thomas 
Stranger, Thomas Stranger, Jr., George 
Heron. Mrs. G. W. Jacobs, M. Oppenheimer. 
R. H. Douglas. Thomas Haller, Mrs. Cham- 
pagne. Robert McKay. Joseph Lapray, Mat- 
thew Hayden, Joseph Laurient, John Lezott, 
Leopold DeRudder, Andrew Hughson, F. 
Boesch. John U. Hofstetter, Joseph Martin, 

Louis Peone, Charette, I. Merchant, C. 

H. Montgomery, Ambrose Tindall. Donald 
McDonald. Marcus Oppenheimer, John 
Rickey. George Reimer, John Cluxton, Albert 
Dunlap, George W. Harvey. 

At this period Pinkney City was the me- 
tropolis of northeastern Washington. Here 
the board of county commissioners adminis- 
tered the affairs of a territory larger than that 
of anv other similar ImcIv on the Northwest 

Coast. They established election precincts con- 
taining hundreds of square miles; large sums 
were appropriated, necessarily, to reimburse 
those who brought in the election returns, and 
they were sometimes weeks on the road, while 
results remained in doubt; some of the school 
districts embraced territory from which coun- 
ties were subsequently carved ; the city of 
Spokane was yet to develop from the shadows 
of the future. 

The range of Indian superintendence was 
on a scale equally extensive. Over eight differ- 
ent tribes, prior to April 9. 1872, the Colville 
Indian Agency had nominal control. These 
trilies, including the Colville, Spokane, Okano- 
gan, San Poil, Kalispell, Methow, Nespelim, 
and Lake Chelan bands, numbered over three 
thousand persons. We say nominal control, 
for although some of these Indians declined to 
recognize the authority of the United States, 
they were in the main peaceably disposed. 
By executive order a reservation was set apart 
for them April 9, 1872. This included the Col- 
ville valley, and the act met with the warm ap- 
proval of the Indians. Not so with the white 
settlers and pioneers. Sixty of the latter filed an 
immediate protest. July 2 an order was issued 
by President Grant confining the reservation 
to the country bounded on the east and south 
by the Columbia, west by the Okanogan and 
north by British Columbia. This order was 
ratified by the first session of the forty-third 
congress and was followed by a counter protest 
by Indians and agents. This, however, was 
without effect, as the order was not "changed, 
but the Colville Indians entered upon a sort of 
joint-occupancy with the whites in the valley, 
and here the Jesuits assumed charge of their 
spiritual welfare, bestowing upon them the 
same care and attention which they had ex- 
hibited in other localities since 1842. This 
reservation was extended in April, 1879, by a 
grant on the west side of the Okanogan to 
the Cascade range. The reservation then in- 
cluded all the country in eastern Washington 



west of the Columbia and north of 48 degrees 
30 minutes, comprising some four thousand 
square miles. 

The reader will have noticed that in these 
early days, and prior to 1880, the names of the 
putative capital of Stevens county appear to 
have been interchangable. Sometimes the pro- 
ceedings of the county commissioners are dated 
Colville, Fort Cojlville, and again, Pinkney 
City. April 26, 1876, the county seat question 
was brought up at a meeting on that day of the 
commissioners, and a majority of the board 
concurred in the following : 

"That it is the opinion of a majority of the 
board of county commissioners that the act of 
1875, being an amendment to the act of 1863, 
an act repealed by the act of 1864, 'permanently 
locating the county seat at Colville,' and conse- 
quently null and void, that the amendment of 

1875 must be of necessity also null and void, 
and in consequence the act of 1864 still remains 
in full force and effect, Meyers and Lamona 
concurring; Mr. Percival protesting against 
the action of the majority of the board." 

In 1876 the Okanogan Election Precinct 
was formed by the commissioners, and one year 
later the Hangman's Creek Precinct, in the 
southeast corner of the county, was established. 
August 10, 1877, the commissioners in settling 
with the sheriff were informed that he had been 
unable to collect the taxes due for the year 

1876 owing to unsettled conditions resulting 
from recent Indian outbreaks. The sheriff was 
therefore given until the succeeding November 
meeting of the board to collect the taxes. Two 
new election precincts were organized in 1878; 
one, the Spring Valley Precinct, and another, 
the Moses Precinct, which appears to have in- 
cluded the greater part of Lincoln and Douglas 
counties, as now organized. It is described on 
the commissioners' record as follows : 

"In the southwest corner of Stevens county, 
with the following boundaries : Commencing on 
the Whitman county line, at the Columbia 
river: thence up said ri\'er to Spokane river; 

thence in a southerly direction by way of Min- 
eral Springs, near Crab Creek, , to Whitman 
county line ; thence west on said line to place of 
beginning." Refeience to a map of Washing- 
ton will conclusively show that it cost time, as 
well as money, to exercise the elective franchise 
in those days. In 1884 the Columbia, Sequaha, 
Spring Valley Election Precincts, and Okano- 
gan District were organized, thus considerably 
reducing the size, not only of Moses, but other 
election precincts. 

August 10, 1878, an order was made by 
the commissioners providing that the receiving 
officers of Stevens county be instructed to not 
receive gold dust in payment of any indebted- 
ness to the county at a value greater than the 
following rates: Amalgam dust, Rock Creek, 
Salmon River, $14;' "49" Creek, Pend d' 
Oreille, $16, and Kootenai, $17 per ounce. 

The amputation from Stevens of the terri- 
tory comprising Whitman county did not create 
any undue excitement in the vicinity of Col- 
ville. This, however, was not the case in the 
subsequent segregation of Spokane county. 
There was most emphatic protest from nearly 
all the citizens in the remaining portion of 
Stevens county, particularly from those resid- 
ing in the northeastern district. At a meet- 
ing of the board of commissioners, November 
6, 1879, the following resolution was con- 
curred in unanimously: 

"Whereas, Our representative, D. F. Per- 
cival, has introduced and caused to be passed a 
bill for the division of Stevens county, without 
the approval of a large majority of his consti- 
tuents ; 

"Resolved, That we consider his act sec- 
tional and in opposition to the wishes of the 
citizens of this county and very unjust." 

Of this action Mr. John Rickey, one of the 
oldest and most influential pioneers says : 

"At the time Spokane was cut off from 
Stevens county. Mr. Percival. of Cheney, was 
our representative in the Washington Terri- 
torial legislature. The people of the present 


county of Stevens did not desire a division of 
the county at this time, but it was generally 
understood that when the division was made 
the northern boundary of Spokane county was 
to be the Spokane river. Mr. Percival was 
elected by votes from this part of the county 
with this understanding, but when he reached 
Olympia he immediately introduced, and se- 
cured the passage of a bill creating the county 
of Spokane with its present boundaries." 

Mr. Rickey adds the following reminis- 
cence of this eventful year : 

"I remember one very exciting incident in 
the history of the 'Old Town.' It was in the 
year 1879 that the old log jail burned, and for a 
short time there was as much excitement as 
would be occasioned by an Indian outbreak. In 
fact the fire was caused by an Indian outbreak 
— an Indian breaking out of the old jail. 
'Apache Joe" was the Indian's name, and he 
was serving a sentence for arson, having set 
fire to some hay. The Indian dug his way out 
of the jail, but before taking his liberty he set 
fire to the building. I was attending court at 
the time and was sleeping that night in the 
court house, when I was awakened by the 
most unearthly cries I ever heard, apparently 
coming from the jail. When I got my clothes 
on and rushed out the jail building was a mass 
of flames and the cries were coming from a 
prisoner named Thomas, who was serving a 
thirty days' sentence for petit larceny, and who 
was now locked up in one of the cells of the 
burning building. Several persons had arrived 
on the scene by this time, and by using the 
trunk of a tree which was handy, for a batter- 
ing ram, we burst open the door of the jail and 
rescued the terrified prisoner. Thomas' clothes 
had caught fire, but after extinguishing the 
flames he was found to be not much the worse 
for his experience." 

The Territorial legislature of 1883 had en- 
acted a law making the "town of Colville the 
county seat of Stevens county." At this period 
the records of tlie commissioners showed no 

town of Colville in existence, that is no legally 
filed plat of such a town and, accordingly, May 
20, 1883, there was filed for record by J. W. 
Still a plat of the present capital of Stevens 
county, February 28, 1883, the town had been 
dedicated by W. F. Hooker and Mary J. 
Hooker, his wife, from land owned by John U. 
Hofstetter and John Wynne. May 2, 1881, at 
Pinkney City, bids for the erection of a new 
jail had been submitted by the commissioners, 
the contract being awarded to R. H. Douglas 
on his, lowest, bid of $1,200. For the purpose 
of providing this structure a tax of ten mills on 
the dollar was levied, and the same year the 
new jail was completed at Pinkney City. 

Thus there was a new county seat, named 
Colville, but the county business was transacted 
at Pinkney City; there the jail was located and 
there the county records were kept until 1883. 
December 28, of that year the commissioners 
convened in special session to consider the prop- 
osition of removing the records to the legalized 
county seat. The full board, comprising 
George Waitte, Adam Boyd and John U. Hof- 
stetter were present, together with Fred Keil- 
ing, sheriff, and H. H. Oliver, clerk. In the 
matter of removing the county records it was 
ordered that, in compliance with the law of 

1883, they be taken to Colville by January i, 

1884. The privilege of removing the jail to 
the new town free of cost to the taxpayers of 
the county, was extended to the proprietors of 
the new town of Colville, with a proviso that 
they donate a block of land for the purposes of 
county buildings. At Colville an office for the 
transaction of the business of the county audi- 
tor was furnished by John U. Hofstetter at a 
monthly rental of $9, and one room for the 
joint occupancy of court and sheriff at the 
same rental. Until the succeeding February 
meeting Mr. Hofstetter undertook to furnish 
the county treasurer an office free of charge. 
At the commissioners meeting of February 26, 
1884, the question of the location of the jail in 
the new town was considered. It was finallv 


agreed among the commissioners that if Mr. 
John Wynne would donate five lots in Block 
No. lo, town of Colville, the jail and other 
county buildings should be located thereon; 
otherwise the buildings to be placed on lots be- 
longing to Mr. Hofstetter in Block No. 14. It 
appears that satisfactory arrangements could 
not be concluded with Mr. Wynne, for on De- 
cember 31, 1884, we find that a deed was pre- 
sented to the county of Stevens by W. F. 
Hooker, andi Mary J. Hooker, of Spokane 
county, for "Block No. 14, in the town of 
Colville." No county buildings were com- 
pleted, however, at the time of the commis- 
sioners' meeting of February 2, 1885, for the 
board met on that date in various private resi- 
dences. John U. Hofstetter moved the jail 
from Pinkney City free of charge to the county. 

January 3, 1885, the report of a committee 
appointed to examine the financial condition of 
the county was submitted to the commission- 
ers showing the total indebtedness to have been 
reduced to $1,471.60. This committee con- 
sisted of S. Douglas and William Moore. 
Measures were then taken to dispose of the old 
court house at Pinkney City. At the commis- 
sioners' meeting of February 3, 1885, it was 
ordered that "the sheriff, after taking what 
lumber he needs for offices in the jail, post no- 
tice and sell at public auction to the highest bid- 
der, on four or six months' time, on good en- 
dorsed notes, the court house in the old town of 
Colville." This sale was approved by the com- 
missioners May 8, 1885. 

March 6, 1886, a special meeting of the 
commissioners of Stevens county was held at 
the request of Jacob Stitzel, chairman of a 
committee appointed to promote the erection of 
a new court house. Nothing appears to have 
"been done at this meeting, but on August 12, the 
commissioners decided to submit at the next 
general election, a proposition to vote to levy a 
special tax for the purpose of building a suit- 
able court house at an estimated cost of $3,500. 
But at a subsequent meeting held November 

II, the board decided to purchase an edifice 
known as the "Oppenheimer building," for 
court house purposes and it was deeded to the 
county by E. Oppenheimer and H. K. Hansen 
for the sum of $1,900. including two lots. D. 
J. Yeargain also secured the contract for mak- 
ing improvements to the value of $243 on the 
building, and here the county records were 
moved in February, 1887. 

In 1886 the various election precincts of 
the county, with their voting places, were as 
follows: Calispel, residence of William Miller; 
Metaline, residence of Alex. McLean; Little 
Dalles, store of Peter Ellensohn; Toads 
Schoolar, residence of Alex. Thorp; Salmon 
River, residence of D. J. McGilvery; Okano- 
gan, residence of G. Reynolds ; Old Dominion, 
house known as Old Dominion mining office; 
Camas Prairie, (the precinct known as 
Sequaha) was changed to Camas Prairie; 
Thetis; Walker's Prairie and Clugston Creek. 

March 13, 1888, the commissioners leased 
the building and vault then employed for court 
house purposes, from T. D. Boyer, for a term 
of five years at a yearly rental of $1,000. Mr. 
Boyer in consideration of this contract exe- 
cuted a bond in the sum of $6,000 conditioned 
that at the expiration of the lease, and upon 
payment of rent, he would make over to the 
county a deed of this property. 

September 10, 1891, it was shown that the 
outstanding warrants of Stevens county 
amounted to $53,785.16, and that there were on 
hand no available funds with which to redeem 
them. At the .preceding assessment the tax- 
able property in the county, as shown by the 
rolls, amounted to $2,510,019. It was deemed 
expedient by the commissioners to issue a call 
for a special election, October 13, to vote upon 
a proposition to issue $60,000 in county bonds. 
Meanwhile the supreme court of the State of 
Washington, which had been admitted into the 
union in 1889, had rendered an opinion afifect- 
ing the validity of the issuance of the bonds 
proposed by the commissioners at their meet- 



ing of September lo. In consequence of this 
adverse decision the following was spread upon 
the records of the county : 

"It is ordered that any and all orders here- 
tofore made relative to the issuance of said 
bonds, and notice of an election therefor, be 
and the same are hereby, revoked and vacated." 

Then the board advertised to sell bonds to 
the amount of $35,000, or not to exceed one 
and one-half per cent of the assessed value of 
the county, and on September 25 they ordered 
to be issued thirty-five funding bonds of Stev- 
ens county for the sum of $1,000 each, dating 
December i. 1891, and maturing December i, 
191 1, at six per cent, interest. The money 
realized from the sale of these bonds was to be 
employed exclusively in liquidating the long- 
est outstanding warrants, these warrants dat- 
ing back to November 5, 1885, the principal 
and interest of which aggregated $33,644.47. 

Almost synchronal with the admission of 
Washington into the union began the agita- 
tion for a railroad within the present limits of 
Stevens county. The rapidity with which the 
project gained headway, and the celerity with 
which the greatly desired railway development 
of the county was pushed to completion is ener- 
getically described by Mr. Randall H. Kemp, 
of Spokane, in the Colville Miner of date Sep- 
tember 12, 1890: 

A year ago last February, when D. C. Corbin. .A.. A. 
Newbury and James Monaghan returned (to Spokane) 
from a trip of nearly three hundred miles, made on 
runners, whereby they looked out the proposed route of 
the Spokane Falls & Northern Railway, the foundation 
was commenced on which one of the most important 
business enterprises beneficial to Spokane Falls and a 
vast area of country was reared. A person does not 
have to be an old timer to remember the alacrity with 
which the people of this progressive city accepted Mr. 
Corbin's request for a bonus of $100,000 which should 
be guaranteed before he commenced the construction of 
the road. 

The board of trade took an active interest in the 
matter; the banker left his counting room, the editor 
his chair, and the merchant his ledger; the entire popu- 
lation of the city appeared to consider themselves a 
committee, and before they scarcely paused to take 
breath this sum was pledged and D, C. Corbin, the 

railroad magnate of the northwest, was actively engaged 
in the construction of this line which is rapidly becom- 
ing a great artery of commerce. Like all successful 
business men possessing that rare faculty called genius, 
he selected a staff of aides and assistants from the best 
material to be found, and from its inception up to the 
present, the carrying out of this coUossal scheme has 
moved with the precision of a well-regulated clock. 

It appears almost incredible that such a perfect 
road as the Spokane Falls & Northern could be equipped 
in such a short time, and the benefit that it has been to 
the Colville and upper Columbia country, and this city 
(Spokane) as well, can scarcely be realized. The days 
of the lumbering stage coach, the heavy freight wagon 
and the slow cayuse method of traveling are numbered 
among the things that were, and another rich section 
of the great northwest has received the benefits of one 
of the great equalizers, a modern railway. 

The forthcoming opening of the World's 
Fair at Chicago, in 1893, created considerable 
patriotic interest in Stevens county, and it was 
almost universal opinion that the mineralized 
deposits within her boundaries should be suit- 
ably represented at the great international ex- 
position. May 6, 1892, an appropriation of 
$1,200 was made for the purpose of enabling 
George Pfunder to transfer various specimens 
of ores from the different mines of the county 
to the Spokane Falls & Northern depots. 

The initial agitation for removal of the 
county seat from Colville was in 1892. At the 
commissioners' meeting of August 20, a peti- 
tion was presented for removal of the capital 
of Stevens county from Colville to Chewelah, 
the question to be submitted at the next general 
election. October 6 a petition signed by one 
hundred and twenty-four voters was filed with 
the board praying for removal of the county 
seat to Kettle Falls, the question to be passed 
upon at the same election. . This latter petition 
was opposed by Commissioner A. T. Williams, 
who advanced the cogent reasons that election 
notices, including the Chewelah proposition 
were already posted and that in his opinion the 
petition did not carry the requisite number of 
signatures. Throughout the day the matter 
was debated with no little animation by the 
commissioners, and on the 7th, the day fol- 
lowing, a coup was sprung by a combination of 



Colville and Springdale people, in the shape of 
a petition signed by fifty-one voters praying for 
removal of the county seat to Springdale. Con- 
cerning this critical moment in county affairs 
Mr. John Rickey says : 

"After Chewelah and Kettle Falls entered 
the race for the county seat Colville, fearing 
that the necessary three-fifths votes might be 
secured in favor of Chewelah, induced the town 
of Springdale to enter the race and thus draw 
votes from the southern portion of the county 
which otherwise might go to Chewelah. The 
people of Springdale were loyal to Colville and 
promptly entered the race." 

Consistency demanded of Commissioner 
Williams that he, also, oppose the Springdale 
petition, although it is quite probable that he 
saw and sympathized with the strategic move- 
ment in behalf of Colville. He was, however, 
outvoted in the board, and November 8 the 
general election was held with the following 
result : 

For the removal of the county seat from its present 

location at Colville to Chewelah 330 

Against Chewelah .> 3SI 

For Kettle Falls. . .' 599 

Against Kettle Falls 352 

For Springdale 14 

Against Springdale 345 

At a subsequent meeting of the Commis- 
sioners November 15, C. K. Simpson and E. 
W. Weston, a majority of the board, assumed 
the position that Kettle Falls had won the 
county seat at the polls. To this Commissioner 
Williams dissented. Simpson and Weston 
urged that Kettle Falls had received a three- 
fifths vote as between that town and Colville; 
Williams insisted that a three-fifths vote of the 
entire poll was required. Kettle Falls was de- 
clared the county seat and preparations were 
made to remove the records. Then John Rickey 
and Harry Young, in behalf of Colville, began 
suit against the county commissioners to set 
aside their decision, and they secured from the 
superior court a restraining order of which the 
following in a syllabus : 

It is ordered that the above named defendants do 
absolutely refrain from in any manner removing or at- 
tempting to remove any of the public records, public 
books and appurtenances of said county from the present 
county seat to the city of Kettle Falls in said county, 
or elsewhere, and to absolutely refrain from establish- 
ing or attempting to establish the county seat of said 
county of Stevens at the said city of Kettle Falls, or 
elsewhere, and to refrain froin moving or attempting to 
remove said county seat and all papers, books, records, 
offices and files from the city of Colville, in said county, 
to the said city of Kettle Falls, or elsewhere, or in tak- 
ing any steps or making any contracts in furtherance 
thereof, or from doing any of the matters or things 
contemplated of in plaintiffs' complaint, until the further 
order of the court ; and that they show cause before this 
court, at the hour of 10 o'clock a. m., on the 25th 
day of November, 1892, why this order should not be 
continued until the final hearing of this cause. 

This order was signed by R. B. Blake, 
judge. The hearing of Colville's motion to 
make the restraining order permanent against 
the commissioners was heard December 2, 
1892, by Judge Blake, and was by him sus- 
tained. The city of Colville was represented 
by T. C. Griffitts; Kettle Falls by Post & 
Avery. The complaint filed with the restrain- 
ing order set forth the facts of the election and 
the grounds upon which the order was based. 
One of these was that the petition upon which 
Kettle Falls entered the race in no particular 
complied with the law, and setting forth further 
that Chewelah was the only legal contestant 
for the county seat. The case was carried to 
the supreme court of the state. Here it re- 
mained until March 29, 1894, when the court 
handed down a decision, brief as could be de- 
sired, stating that the whole proceedings were 
a nullity from their very inception. The no- 
tices were irregular and the county commis- 
sioners had not the right to submit the Kettle 
Falls proposition upon the showing presented. 

December 19, 1892, the census returns of 
Stevens county returned a population of 5,543- 
Under provision of the state law it was then 
declared by the commissioners to be a county 
of the twentieth class, and salaries of officials 
were raised accordingly. 

Mondav evening. May 10, 1893, Colville 



Valley was visited by the most disastrous 
flood ever experienced in its recorded history. 
Its main force was spent near the station of 
Sherwood, on the Spokane Falls & Northern 
Railroad, ten miles south of Colville. It is 
estimated by residents in the neighborhood of 
this sudden inundation that had a city the size 
of Johnstown, Pennsylvania, been situated in 
the path of this destructive element the result- 
ant loss of life and property would have been 
little less than that of the unfortunate town in 
the Keystone State. The circumstances were 
remarkably similar. A short time prior to this 
flood in the Colville Valley an earth-avalanche 
from the north side of Iron Mountain had 
fallen into the canyon at a point four miles east 
of the Colville river, forming a dam across the 
ravine nearly one hundred feet high. Along 
the bottom of this ravine flowed the waters of 
a small creek, and thus arrested by the natural 
dam formed by the landslide, they soon as- 
sumed the magnitude of a mighty lake, nearly 
ninety feet in depth. The consequent heavy 
pressure against the dam caused a sudden break 
of the imprisoned waters, and what was once a 
peaceful, rippling brook, became an irrisistible 
torrent that swept all before it, covering the 
surrounding country with four feet of mud, 
and debris, destroying the crops of many farms 
and sweeping away the homes, fences, and out- 
buildings of the inhabitants. Huge boulders 
were rolled along by the on-rush of waters, 
snapping large trees like pipe-stems in their 
furious race down the ravine. Thomas J. Pat- 
ton, a well-known and industrious farmer who 
lived on the beautiful spread of prairie that 
widens out at the lower end of the canyon to a 
width of a mile and a half, escaped with his 
family, but was compelled to witness the com- 
plete destruction of his spring's crop. 

At seven o'clock in the evening parties in 
the vicinity of the disaster heard a distant 
rumbling which was not thunder, but might 
be a seismic disturbance. At first the direction 
from which the detonations proceeded was not 

located, but as they became more distinct and 
at frequent intervals the awful truth burst upon 
them that an avalanche of timbers, rocks, debris 
and turbid water was pouring down upon the 
pretty pastor valley. Scarcely had the family 
of Mr. Patton reached safety on the side of a 
hill when a wall of water forty feet in height 
poured past them, breaking from the timber a 
quarter of a mile above their house, and spread- 
ing over the prairie farms to a depth of four 
feet. The track of the Spokane Falls & North- 
ern Railroad was covered with mud for the dis- 
tance of several hundred feet, trains being com- 
pelled to transfer passengers the following day 
across the break with teams. It was a disaster 
that would have proved far more appaling had 
the county at the time been more thickly 

At a special election held July 6, 1893. 
bonds to the amount of $65,000 were voted for 
the purpose of liquidating current expenses of 
the county, the necessary three-fifths of the vot- 
ing population concurring in the proposition. 
The State of Washington became a purchaser 
of $20,000 of these bonds ; the remainder were 
sold to Roberts Brothers. 

The heavy hand of financial disaster and the 
"hard times" of 1893 fell upon the residents of 
Stevens county, but this temporary depression 
did not more seriously afifect them than it did 
those in other localities throughout the country. 
Officially the county, through the careful ad- 
ministration of Treasurer Frank B. Goetter, 
escaped a loss of $15,000, deposited in the Citi- 
zens National Bank of Spokane. Reviewing 
the financial condition of the county with some 
attention Mr. Goetter came to a conclusion. 
June I, that he would no longer entrust the 
funds in his charge to a foreign corporation, 
and he transferred his account to the Bank of 
Colville which had guaranteed him against 
loss. Within a few days the suspension of the 
Citizens National Bank of Spokane was an- 

The following resume of damage causetl by 



a wind storm of June 3, 1894, published in the 
Colville Index of the 7th is of interest : 

Last Sunday afternoon about 3 o'clock a storm of 
wind, rain thunder and lightning swept from south 
to north over the entire surface of the county, laying 
waste great forests of timber, destroying fences, trun- 
ing over houses and doing damage in many other ways. 
In Colville the storm was not so severe as in other 
places. Signs were blown down, trees uprooted in some 
portions of the city, but the only damage to buildings 
worth speaking of was the dislodgment of the front of 
William Prindle's blacksmith shop. 

At Kettle Falls much damage was wrought by 
destruction of buildings. The large two-story building 
of W. R. Noteware was severed in twain, the upper 
story being swept away. The Curry block was smashed 
by a falling tree, and the hardware store building of 
J. P. Fogh was injured very materially. The roof was 
lifted from the Kettle Falls sash and door factory, and 
a barn of Louis Blue was completely demolished. 

In the neighborhood of Daisy and Harvey the force 
of the storm was terrific. No loss of life is reported, 
but there was much property rendered worthless. Fay 
Ledgerwood had one horse killed ; H. L. Childs sus- 
tained the loss of three cows ; Dr. Weston had two cows 
killed and a number crippled ; Mr. Tipton had three 
cows crippled and Fritz Bowren's barn was blown over. 
With relation to the storm at Daisy our correspondent 
tells us : "This section of the country is in a deplorable 
condition. The roads are almost impassable. The best 
of the timber is destroyed, the majority of the trees 
being broken off about half way up the tree, making them 
useless except for fuel. The mails have to be carried on 
horseback, and the fact is the whole Columbia river 
valley has the appearance of having been visited by a 
Kansas cyclone." 

In Echo Valley the roads are in a terrible state, 
and the authorities are exerting every effort to get them 
cleared of obstructions as soon as possible. From Addy 
our correspondent writes that much damage was done 
to small buildings, fencing and roads. No one has been 
reported injured, but a horse was found in a mud-hole 
with a tree across its prostrate anatomy, but was nnt 

At Chewelah the storm struck with all the fury of 
a cyclone. The fine forest of timber in Jenkin's ad- 
dition was literally mowed to the ground like grass. 
A number of houses were moved bodily several inches 
from their foundations, fences were strewn in all direc- 
tions and many horses killed. The big tent in which the 
Free Methodists were holding services at the time was 
blown down, and the throng of people who had gathered 
there had narrow escapes from death by trees falling. 
The G. A. R. hall was laid in ruins and is a total loss. 
On Monday the Spokane Falls & Northern train was 
delayed over an hour in the timber a short distance 
north of town, owing to the great numlier of fallen 

trees on the track. The telegraph wires were broken 
in several places and communication was cut off in all 

News of the storm comes from many other places, 
but the same results in a much lighter degree are re- 
ported. It was undoubtedly the most disastrous storm 
that has yet visited this portion of the northwest. 

The year 1894 will be memorable for a 
flood of vast proportions swelling the Columbia 
river far above the danger point. Nothing like 
it had been known before in the history of east- 
ern Washingtoh since its settlement by whites. 
At the Cascades the stage of water is said to 
have been about the same as at the great flood 
of 1862, but this statement is not supported by 
evidence in the vicinities of Kettle Falls, Mar- 
cus and other places. At Boundary City the 
waters flowed and lashed themselves furiously 
around the city limits and at Northport the 
menacing element stood over a foot deep on the 
floor of the railway station. Many residents 
removed to the suburbs, on higher ground. 
The fine residence of Mr. Bishop was sur- 
rounded by water to its eaves. The house ot 
Hugo Moser, with all its furniture was swept 
away down the river, together with about sev- 
enty cords of wood. The sawmill and sheds of 
the Northport Lumber Company were greatly 
damaged and much of the lumber carried away 
and irretrievably lost. 

Railroad bridges were washed away at the 
mouth of Onion creek and a large portion of 
the trackage temporarily ruined. At the Little 
Dalles Peter Ellensohn's warehouse was com- 
pletely ruined. Two miles of track were 
washed out at Seven Devils, and at Marcus the 
building occupied by Feldman & Company, as 
well as other stores and warehouses, stood in a 
depth of two feet of water. Repairs on the 
Spokane Falls & Northern railway cost $250,- 
000. As the banks on the reservation side of 
the river are low the loss to the Indians was 
considerable, although no pecuniary estimate 
of this was ever made. 

In Stevens county the year 1894 witnessed 
a gratifying rebound from the disastrous "hard 



times." The privileges of a cash market for 
the various products of the county were better 
than ever before known. The British Colum- 
bia mining regions became an unvarying source 
of profit to the agricultural producers of the 
northern portion of the county. All varieties 
of products were in constant demand, and it is 
a gratifying fact that the demand constantly in- 
creased as the years went by. And this, too, in 
the face of a heavy Canadian tariff levied upon 
goods of all descriptions. But it is a cash mar- 
ket, and the close contiguity of this section of 
the county to the Canadian mineral fields 
greatly favors this section. 

Agitation for a telephone service in the 
county dates from January, 1895. The pro- 
moter of this enterprise was W. B. Aris, of 
Kettle Falls. He procured the passage of a 
resolution by the county commissioners grant- 
ing him a franchise to construct and maintain 
a system of telephone lines along the public 
highways of Stevens county, including all the 
principal train centers. February 4 the Inter- 
national Telegraph and Telephone Company 
was organized and articles of compact for- 
warded to the secretary of state, at Olympia. 
Incorporators and trustees were W. B. Aris, 
F. W. Sherman, and J- H. Young. The capi- 
tal stock was fixed at $25,000, divided into 
shares of $10 each. Headquarter offices were 
located at Colville. February i the organiza- 
tion was made permanent with W. B. Aris, of 
Kettle Falls, president, J. Harry Young, of 
Colville, vice-president, S. W. Washburn and 
F. W. Sherman, of Kettle Falls, secretary and 
general manager, respectively. The same year 
the company was taken over by the Pacific 
States Telegraph and Telephone Company, 
which now controls the same, reaching all the 
principal points in the county. 

During the spring of 1895 considerable 
complaint was heard on all sides concerning 
alleged injustice being done the Indians by set- 
tlers in the Calispell Valley, and other portions 
of the county. It was claimed by a number of 

newspaper correspondents that white settlers 
were appropriating Indian lands. On May 4, 
of that year a correspondent at Usk forwarded 
the following item to the Colville Index : 

"Three Indians held up three white men 
while hauling fence posts to fence their ranch 
on the east side of the Fend d'Oreille river. 
The case is this: Twenty -three Indians claim 
fifty square miles on that side of the river. 
When the Indians could not stop the boys from 
fencing their ranch, one renegade Indian 
named Sam took an iron bar from beneath his 
blanket, then all three rushed upon the boys. 
One was lucky enough to have a six-shooter, 
so he was able to stave them off. The Indians 
then started home for their guns and said that 
they would kill every one of them. The boys 
soon saw them coming with their guns and 
they had to take to the woods for protection. 
It is about time something is done with these 
'government pets,' either removed or placed 
on other ranches so that other settlers can have 
some peace. It was only last summer that they 
stole everything that they could lay their hands 
on while the settlers were trying to save their 
little all from the floods, and at that time a 
petition with over one hundred and fifty signers 
was handed to Hon. John L. Wilson to have 
the 'pets' removed. We suppose when the 
settlers are all robbed or murdered the govern- 
ment will then be ready to settle with the In- 

Possibly it was this article, but perhaps 
more ample testimony that induced Mr. Robert 
Fountain to publish the following explanatory 
statement of existing conditions at that period : 

Seven years ago this vallej- (Calispell) was un- 
settled and almost unknown, the first settlers being com- 
pelled to hew a road through dense forests, find in- 
gress through rough and rocky canyons and deep 
swamps. It was due to their invincible grit and enter- 
prise that the valley has reached its present state of 
cultivation and prosperity. It was supposed by the first 
settlers that we were outside of the railroad limit, but 
the government survey made three years ago disclosed 
a contrary condition, as many who had located here 
found themselves on railroad land. Many hardy 



pioneers who had located homesteads and pre-emptions, 
thinking they had secured a home, and made valuable 
improvements, on ascertaining that their land was em- 
braced in the Northern Pacific forty-mile limit, became 
discouraged and abandoned their homes. Others re- 
mained, hoping to purchase when the land came into 
market. They had become attached to the country and 
had great confidence in its future. Such is a fair state- 
ment of the conditions of the white settlers. Now as to 
the Indians. 

Though they are generally known as Calispels, out- 
side of a few descendants of old Petoll, who died four 
years ago, there is not one of them who could be called 
a Calispel. They are composed of Spokanes, Nez Perces, 
and Flatheads, and with two exceptions they claim land 
on the east side of the Pend d'Oreille river. Not one 
of them has ever made an attempt to secure their land 
by filing since it was open for entry last May, and it 
would be hard to determine by what right they claim 
it. Some are on railroad and others on government 
land, and when one dies a stranger soon appears and 
takes his place. A large number of these Indians, un- 
doubtedly, belong on some reservation, for they make 
regular trips for supplies. The worst feature of it is 
that this land is made a rendezvous for the worst ele- 
ment of outside Indians who collect here in large num- 
bers during the summer season, passing their time in 
gambling, horse-racing and drinking, to the demorali- 
zation of the resident Indians and to the terror of white 
settlers. Through the winter they exist in a state of 
semi-starvation, very few among them doing work of 
any kind. 

The government has been petitioned to have them 
removed to some reservation and placed among the 
better class of their people. It was with this hope that 
a number of settlers who had been left without a home 
settled on that side of the river. So long as matters re- 
main in the present condition troubles will occur, and 
when the railroad lands come into market trouble of a 
more serious nature will happen. It would be greatly 
to the benefit of the Indians if they were removed, for 
there is no hope of their advancement so long as they 
are here. They are a burden to the country and an 
agent who would look to their interest would take them 
away. The Indians themeselves would profit by the 
change and a frightful incubus would be removed from 
this beautiful valley. 

During the fall of 1896 another abortive 
attempt was made to remove the capital of 
Stevens county from Colville. This scheme was 
on a most elaborate and magnificent scale. It 
included the complete organization of a new 
town to be called Stevens, located near Kettle 
Falls, which Phoenix like citv was to embrace 

both Kettle Falls and Marcus as suburbs, the 
erection of a $10,000 court house, and the es- 
tablishment of a smelter and water power to 
supply nearly the whole county. This plan was 
under the auspices of "The Stevens County 
Land & Improvement Company," capitalized 
for $500,000, and officered by Colonel I. N. 
Peyton, Former Senator George Turner, Colo- 
nel W. W. D. Turner, Chris McDonald, of 
Rossland, Custom Collector Martin J. Malony, 
of Northport, Mark P. Shaffer, of Springdale 
and Eber C. Smith. The latter was to be gen- 
eral manager of the company. A weekly news- 
paper, "The Stevens Standard," was started in 
furtherance of the project. The town of 
Stevens was platted and it was the announced 
purpose of the company to adopt a liberal policy 
toward all persons who might decide to locate 
there, not only by the donation of lots but by 
making the prices for real estate and water 
power reasonable. But on October 9, 1896, the 
county commissioners decided in the matter of 
Mark P. Shaffer, and others, petitioning for a 
submission of the proposition of removal to the 
people, that the petition had not been filed in 
time for the county auditor to give the required 
statutory notice to the electors of the county, 
and accordingly dismissed the petition. Only 
one building in the proposed new town of 
Stevens was erected. Some of the original 
projectors, however, still own a portion of the 
land. "The Standard," which published only 
a few issues, was printed in Kettle Falls. Thus 
passed into history the last effort to remove the 
capital of Stevens county. 

During the same year an area of country 
comprising about twelve square miles of terri- 
tory, including the Flat Creek country, on the 
Indian reservation, was the scene of a most dis- 
astrous forest fire. The locality was heavily 
timbered and the loss in valuable forestry was 
great. So dense and threatening were the 
flames that a number of miners, the Ledger- 
wood Brothers. Frank Goodwin, E. D. Miner 



and others, were driven to places of safety, 
many losing heavily in buildings, camp supplies 
and implements. 

The following spring, 1897, the Colville 
river broke from its banks and created consid- 
erable havoc among the settlers along the lower 
levels of the valley. 

In the fall of this year a new county court 
house appeared a desideratum devoutly to be 
wished. Accordingly a meeting was held at 
Colville, Saturday evening, October 9, for the 
furtherance of the plan. The following com- 
mittee of representative business men was ap- 
pointed, and the project was in full swing: 
Jacob Stitsel, C. W. Winter, Fred Hoss, H. G. 
Kirkpatrick, E. M. Denny, C. R. McMillan and 
John Hofstetter. Subscribers to the stock of 
the new enterprise were : 

Fred Hoss, $200; J. M. Stevens, $100; F. 
Barman, $250; Jacob Stitzel, $100; John B. 
Slater, $100; R. E. Lee, $100; Frank B. Goet- 
ter, $125; J. P. Hessel, $75; G. M. Welty, 
$100; Frank Habein, $50; JuHus Pohle, $50; 
Louis Perras, $50; V. Lemery, $50; C. A. 
Mantz, $50; Thomas Aspend, $40; Charles 
Lutt, $50; W. D. Allen, $50; H. G. Kirk- 
patrick, $50; P. H. Graham, $10; C. R. 
McMillan, $50; Mrs. L. Flugel, $50; Mrs. J. 
M. Mohney, $100; Swan Nelson, $10; J. U. 
Hofstetter, $150; L. Rusch, $60; R. M. 
Thomas, $20; George Thomas, $120; Henry 
Oakes, $100; George Theis, $50; Edward Gib- 
son, $25 ; H. W. Sacher, $25 ; W. Schmalzer, 
$15; J. G. O. Mayer, $50; E. J. Layton, $25; 
Paul Battrich, $15; John Hoist, $25; J. D. 
Burris, $15; Frank Rutter, $25; John Rickey, 
$50 ; James Fee, $25 ; Gardner & Baker $25. 

With this nucleus for a fund for the pro- 
posed new edifice ground was broken Tuesday, 
November 2, 1897, and work was pushed as 
rapidly as possible. It was evident that the 
people were in earnest and contributions to the 
fund continued to come in. Permission to build 
the structure and turn it over to the county for 
official purposes only was secured from the 

commissioners, the building to be erected on 
block 14, in the town of Colville, to be a two- 
story building, of brick, in size 40x80 feet. The 
building was destined, however, to be turned 
over to the county before completion. August 
18, 1898, the following proposition was made 
by the projectors and promoters of the plan : 

"The undersigned, citizens of Colville and 
committee on court house building, would re- 
spectfully submit the following : That the citi- 
zens of Colville and vicinity have contributed :n 
cash, subscriptions, material and labor sufficient 
to erect a court house for Stevens county on 
block 14, original town of Colville, the title 
of said block being vested in said county; we 
would further represent that we have a suffic- 
ient amount of means to enclose said building 
and that the roof will be complete; that we 
are not in a position to finish it at the present 
time ; that we estimate the cost of finishing the 
building according to plans and specifications, 
including plastering, painting, and windows 
and work necessary, at about $1,600; that 
knowing the great need of a building for court 
house purposes, we are now ready to turn over 
the same to your honorable body, for Stevens 
county, aiming to place on the roof, as stated, 
by a proper effort; that the building can be 
completed within the next sixty days or sooner ; 
that we have lath sufficient for the building and 
$100 paid toward the flooring; that all bills 
contracted by said committee for material and 
labor will be paid in full, except the bill for 
windows and doors that have not yet been de- 
livered; and that all subscriptions remaining 
unpaid after all payments of indebtedness con- 
tracted by said committee will be turned over to 
the county. 

"C. W. Winter. 
"(Signed) "Fred Hoss. 

"Jacob Stitzel." 


This proposition was accepted by the 
county, John U. Hofstetter, C. W. Winter, 
Fred Hoss, H. G. Kirkpatrick and Jacob Stitzel 



named as a committee to take charge of the 
completion of the work, and the same season 
the court house, a handsome edifice in the cen- 
tral portion of the town of Colville, was occu- 
pied by the county officials. 

In this connection it is well to indulge in a 
ret jspective glance at the old town of Pinkney 
City, the original county seat. For maiay years 
the town of Colville had been in possession of 
the c pital. An item from the Statesman- 
Index, of date October 8, 1897, puts in a short 
space the obituary of Pinkney City : 

"The residence of Adam Arnold was totally 
destroyed by fire at about ten o'clock to-day. 
Only a portion of the household goods were 
saved. This is the last of the historic 'Old 
Town,' the little burg near old Fort Colville, 
Mr. Arnold's house being the last habitable 
building there." 

It will have been observed in the perusal 
of this and the preceding chapter, devoted to 
the material progress of Stevens county since 
its earliest days, that such progress has in- 
creased in a most gratifying ratio each succes- 
sive j^ear. There has been no backward step. 
Monetary depression in 1893-4 was not 
greater, and the recovery more sudden, than 
in many other of her sister counties in the 
state. Great natural resources and immediate 
proximity to what might be termed the local 
markets of the Canadian mineral fields have 
largely contributed to these conditions. The 
subject of current events has been treated with 
rather close attention to chronology, but the 
object in so doing was, mainly, to avoid any 
confusion of dates in the mind of the reader. 
Nothing so embarrasses the student of history 
as an abrupt relapse to former incidents which 
might, with ordinary care and foresight, have 
been carried along in their proper chronological 
order. The same increasing ratio of advance- 
ment and prosperity will be noticed in the suc- 
cessive chapters and the wonderful improve- 
ment in a large variety of industries will be 
treated as fairly and candidly as careful re- 

search and painstaking verification can accom- 

The humane and judicious care of the poor 
of any community should invariably appeal to 
all county and municipal officials. Until the 
spring of 1899 no suitable provision had been 
made by the Stevens county commissioners in 
the way of a poor farm : the exclusive property 
of the county. These unfortunates had in no- 
wise been neglected so far as their personal 
comfort was concerned. But as yet land for 
poor farm purposes had not been secured. In 
April the commissioners purchased 160 acres 
of land three miles northeast of Colville. The 
price paid was $1,800. It is bench land, well 
watered and adapted to the growth of vari- 
ous grains, fruits and vegetables. W. A. Harb- 
ison, of Clugston, was employed as superin- 
tendent who, assisted by Mrs. Harbison, re- 
ceived a salary of $700 per annum. Buildings 
were subsequently erected and the greater por- 
tion of the land placed under cultivation. In 
the fall of 1899 the treasury of the county was 
increased by the payment, from Ferry county, 
of $16,872, being her share of joint indebted- 
ness at the period of the formation of Ferry, 
that territory having been the last to be am- 
putated from the once magnificent domain of 
Stevens county. The summer of 1900 was 
made notable by a succession of forest fires 
throughout the Colville valley and in other 
sections. From these the vicinity of Spring- 
dale suffered to a greater extent, perhaps, than 
other localities. The Chewelah district, also, 
lost heavily. The origin of these fires was at- 
tributed to the carelessness of campers and 
sparks from railroad engines. Fortunately the 
advent of welcome rainfalls contributed to the 
subjugation of these devastating flames. 

The statutes of the state classifying coun- 
ties according to population provide that a 
county having a population of 10,000 and less 
than 12,000 shall be known as a county of the 
fifteenth class. To such a station had Stevens 
county attained in December. 1900, having 


been raised by the census from the nineteenth 
class. The same law provides that salaries of 
county ofificers shall be increased accordingly, 
and they were fixed as follows : Auditor, $145° ! 
Clerk, $1350; Treasurer, $1450; Sheriff, 
$1450; Attorney, $1300; School Superinten- 
dent, $1100. 

The census of 1900. by precincts, accorded 
Stevens county the following population : 

Bossburg, including Bossburg village 
(247) 471; Boundary, 74; Calispell, 219; 
Chewelah, 614; Clayton, 189; Clugston, 295; 
Columbia, 297; Colville, including Colville 
town, (594) 1 160; Daisy, 295; Deep Creek, 
65; Diamond Lake, 125; Fertile Valley, 117; 
Flat Creek, 52; Forest Center, 74; Harvey, 
185; lone, 9; Kettle Falls, including Kettle 
Falls town, (297) 404: Lake Creek, 131 ; Lit- 
tle Dalles, 63; Loon Lake, 280; McLaughlin, 
227; Marcus, 219; Metaline, 12; Meyers Falls, 
370; Mt. Corbin, 120; Newport, 453; North- 
port, including Northport city, (787) 845 ; Old 
Dominion, 11; Riverside, 217; Rock Cut, 39; 
Springdale, 267 : Spring Valley, 809 ; Stensger, 
395; Theris, 356; Walker's Prairie, 94; White 
Lake, 330; Williams Valley, 71: Spokane In- 
dian Reservation, 589; Total, 10,543. 

The initiatory efforts in the way of a 
county fair association were made in May, 
1902. With the many and varied industries in 
this county and the recognized enterprise of 
her residents, it is a matter of surprise that the 
project so long lay dormant. The unqualified 
success of the fair held during the closing days 
of Septemter, 1903. addressed by Governor 
Henry McBride, accentuate the truth of this 
proposition. But the original "fair meeting" 
which imparted an impetus to these agricul- 
tural, stock and industrial expositions was held 
at Colville in May, 1902. Jacob Stitzel was 
made temporary chairman and W. H. Sparks 
secretary. To incorporate the association and 
act as trustees until a permanent organization 
could lie effected Messrs. Oakes, Knapp and 
Teeple were named as a committee. It was tlie 

sense of this meeting, subsequently carried into 
execution, to incorporate the association with a 
capital stock of $20,000, with shares at $2 
each. The organization was named the "Stev- 
ens County Producers Association," and the 
trustees were authorized to receive bids from 
the different towns in the county for the place 
of holding the fair. Thus the matter remained 
until August 9, when it was decided to hold the 
initial exposition at Meyers Falls, September 
26, 27," 28, which was accordingly done, and 
the first annual fair of the Stevens County Pro- 
ducers Association passed into history. Ex- 
hibits of every description were above the aver- 
age in quality, the fruit display being especially 
fine. Throughout the three days' continuation 
of the fair the attendance was fully up to the 
expectations of the most sanguine. 

In August of this year, 1902, one of the 
most important industries of the county met 
with a great disaster. The story is graphically 
told in the columns of the Stevens County 
Reveille : 

.-^s a result of fire which suddenly engulfed the big 
saw and planing mill of the Winslow Lumber Manu- 
facturing Company, situated three miles south of Col- 
ville, last Tuesday, August 12, all that is left of the 
largest lumbering plant in eastern Washington is a pile 
of smouldering ruins — a chaos of iron and steel ma- 
chinery warped beyond repair. 

The origin of the fire is not known, but it is be- 
lieved to have been due to spontaneous combustion. The 
mill had been shut down for the noon hour and the men 
had had scarcely time to comfortably seat themselves 
at dinner when the alarm of fire was sounded. The 
employees are thoroughly organized into a very efficient 
fire department, but before they could reach their posts 
the flames had enveloped the entire machinery building. 
Access to the engine room was cut oflf and pumps dis- 
abled, leaving the men helpless to combat the terrible 
heat. The sun was intensely hot, and it seemed im- 
possible to stay the tide of impending conflagration. 
Less than cwo hundred feet away, piled over acres of 
ground to the westward was nearly three million feet 
of lumber. The men rushed into a veritable firery furn- 
ace, without water and other protection, and by sheer 
force and determination tore away the broad wooden 
tramways of lumber upon the yards. Within one hun- 
dred and fifty feet of the burning mills stood the dry 
kiln which was, also, saved from destruction. There is 
no telephonic communication between the mill and Col- 



ville, and the first known of the fire were reports brought 
in by passengers on the northbound train. Immediately 
€very available conveyance hurriedly carried people from 
the city to the scene of the fire, but help from this 
source came too late. Within twenty minutes from the 
time of the first alarm of fire the building was in ruins. 
The mill is owned by the Winslow Lumber Manu- 
facturing Company, a corporation capitalized at $50,000, 
and was built about two years ago at a cost of $25,000. 
It had a capacity of 75,000 feet of lumber per diem. 
Insurance on the machinery is said to have been less 
than 25 per cent, of the cost, but a larger portion 
covered the lumber in the yards which was uninjured. 

This mill was subsequently rebuilt. 

Since the admission of Washington as a 
state the subject of a Pioneers organization in 
Stevens county has been agitated throughout 
the successive years, but without result. As 
there were no annual county fairs there were, 
consequently, no meetings of any great number 
of the earliest settlers at one time and at one 
place. Concerted action could not be taken. At 
the fair at Meyers Falls, unquestionably, the 
subject was rejuvenated, and this is the testi- 
mony of a number of the oldest residents of the 
county. Enthusiasm begets enthusiasm, and 
the attrition of a number of the more prominent 
pioneers of the county awakened an interest 
that finally found expression in practical re- 

sults. On Wednesday, September 30, 1903, 
the pioneers of Stevens county assembled at 
the fair grounds in Colville and organized the 
"Stevens County Pioneer Society." Jacob Stit- 
zel was selected chairman of the meeting and 
S. F. Sherwood, secretary. A temporary or- 
ganization was formed and a committee ap- 
pointed to draft a constitution and by-laws to 
be submitted at a later date, when the organiza- 
tion should be made permanent. It was de- 
cided that all persons were eligible to member- 
ship who were residents of Washington at the 
time of its admission to statehood and who 
were at present residents of Stevens county. 
The committee on constitution and by-laws 
selected were C. H. Montgomery, Chewelah; 
Fay Ledgerwood, Columbia River; Mrs. C. B, 
Ide, Colville; John Rickey, Colville: Mrs. Ida 
Fedder, Meyers Falls; G. W. Harvey, Harvey; 
John Keough, White Lake; John B. Slater, 

At a subsequent meeting the organiza- 
tion was made permanent, and the county now 
has a society which will contribute greatly to 
the preservation of historical data of this most 
fertile and productive succession of valleys. 



It is to the Stevens county of to-day, and to 
the resources lying within its modern limits, 
that we wish to direct the attention of the 
reader. The mutations of time and the exi- 
gencies of various periods have gradually re- 
duced her original territory, at one time em- 
bracing many of the principal counties of east- 
ern ^^'ashington, to a present area of 3.945 

square miles, or 2,524,800 acres. Yet within 
this area, still generous and expansive, will be 
found a greater variety of natural resources 
than will be exploited in any other county 
division west of the Mississippi river, if not in 
tlie United States. To recapitulate them here 
would prove a work of supererogation for 
nearlv all of them are treated elsewhere in their 


proper order and in volume commensurate with 
their importance. 

Stevens county occupies tlie extreme nortli- 
eastern portion of the state. The average width 
from east to west is about fifty-live miles. The 
extreme length north and south is about eighty 
miles. This includes the Spokane Indian reser- 
Vcition. Topographically the county is moun- 
tainous, divided into three distinct sections, or 
more properly valleys, separated by low moun- 
tain ranges, the general trend of which is north 
and south. These three districts are known as 
the Calispell country, to the eastward ; the Col- 
ville valley, the central portion of the county, 
and the Columbia river country, lying west of 
the Huckleberry mountains and forming, with 
the Columbia river, the division between Stev- 
ens and Ferry counties. The average altitude 
of the county is about nineteen hundred feet, 
Loon Lake being the highest, 2,440 feet, and 
Northport the lowest with an altitude of 1,350 
feet. Springdale has an altitude of 2,100, and 
Colville of 1,602 feet. 

It is not from abstract facts and figures that 
an adequate idea of the superlative attractive- 
ness of Stevens county can be obtained. The 
natural scenery lying along the three principal 
valleys mentioned will amply reward the busi- 
ness visitor or pleasure tourist. And it must 
be seen, traversed and investigated to be duly 
ajipreciated. It is not alone the scenery or the 
buuntiful productiveness of this region that 
will attract attention, but the eye of the ex- 
pectant settler will readily grasp the full sig- 
nificance of its accessibility to the best local 
markets in the west. To the north and north- 
west are the great mining districts which are 
today attracting the attention of the entire 
union, from the Atlantic seaboard, from the 
Gulf coast and from the Pacific. Innumerable 
supplies for these Canadian camps must, per- 
force, pass through Stevens county, and it at 
once Ijecomes evident to the traveler in this 
favored locality that the farmer can find himself 
in no more substantial location. 

Extending through the county, longitudi- 
nally, is the beautiful Colville valley, historic 
ground of eastern W'ashington. It is from 
three to five miles in width. Although its 
principal industries are confined to grain, fruit, 
hay and stock raising, it contains a number of 
valuable mines and the richest marble quarries 
in the world. Along the Columbia river, to 
the west, in a valley varying from three to fif- 
teen miles in width, is found a profusion of the 
finest orchard products known to the west ; it is 
the glorious horticultural domain of eastern 
Washington. Over in the eastern portion of 
the county, in the Pend d'Oreille valley, lies 
a country famous for its production of fine 
stock and enormous crops of hay. It is also, 
emphatically, the dairy region of the county. 
Here are some of the finest natural meadows 
in the state. 

But the agricultural lands of this county are. 
by no means, confined to these three principal 
valleys. Many of the smaller streams and can- 
yons which lead upward into the higher alti- 
tudes broaden into expansive bench lands and 
some of the choicest stock, fruit and agricul- 
tural locations are to be found among them. 
Along the Pend d'Oreille river lie extensive 
bench lands whose possibilities, appreciated by 
the speculative mind, gladden the eye of the 
prospective settler. .\t present the larger por- 
tions of these locations are covered with val- 
uable timber. Once cleared they become amongf 
the most productive lands in the country. The 
timber is abundant and of excellent commercial 
varieties, such as yellow pine, the prevailing" 
growth, fir, tamarack and cedar. To the mind 
of the practical lumberman these facts will 
appeal with great weight. From the experience 
of the past he can reason of the future; he 
knows the rapidly increasing limitations of 
forest reserves and the steadily advancing price 
at which timber lands are held. The diurnal, 
and in busy seasons the nocturnal whirr of 
hundreds of saw mills are heard throughout the 
county. Yet these great machines are but the 


pathfinders for advancing tides of agricultural 
immigrants who will soon follow with the 
seeder, the harrow and the header. For several 
years past these suggestions have been amply 
and practically illustrated by established facts. 
As an old agricultural district in eastern Wash- 
ington, Stevens ranks next to Walla Walla 
county. It is no theoretical question that lies 
before the pioneers of this section. Behind 
them are years of actual demonstration. 

The excellence of its roads and highways is 
a predominating feature of this county. In this 
there has been wonderful advancement since 
the days when Lieutenant Mullan was labori- 
ously cutting a military road between Forts 
Walla Walla and Benton, in 1858. Probably 
there is not one man in Stevens county who ever 
sat in a "good roads" convention. And yet, 
considered as purely public highways for com- 
mercial purposes the roads here are unsurpassed 
by those of any other section. Money has 
been expended upon them lavishly, and the in- 
terest taken in such enterprises has been keen 
and earnest. The taxpayers have been far- 
sighted and financially acute to such advan- 
tages. The question of transportation has ever 
been a live one with the people, and serious. 
And wherever the cost of hauling a ton of 
produce to the railway station for the purpose 
of delivering it F. O. B. could be reduced it has 
been done, and done cheerfully. It is the testi- 
mony of Francis Wolfif, one of the earliest of 
Stevens county pioneers, who came across the 
Rocky Mountains in 1853, with Governor 
Stevens, that in those days when the people 
Avanted a road they haggled not with county 
commissioners but forthwith proceeded to 
shoulder their axes and make it. Such is the 
predominating spirit to this day. And on every 
hand, east, west, north and south, it is exempli- 
fied in excellent public highways to a gratifying 

Along these roads, where one can enjoy the 
pleasantest drives imaginable, a most satisfying 
idea of the manifold beauties of Stevens county 

can be obtained. It is not from car windows 
that the actualities and possibilities of any pro- 
ductive locality can be seen to the best advan- 
tage. The exigencies of railroad-making often 
compel a line to be run through the most deso- 
late sections of such a country. The fairer 
portions are usually "just over the hill, the 
bluff or the mountain." But in quiet, reflective 
drives through peaceful valleys, by tinkling 
brooks, or in silent, sombre woodlands, one can 
thoroughly assimilate the beauties of the 
scenery, acquire local color, and come in touch 
with the heart-throbs of the people with 
whom he desires to mingle on an equal foot- 
ing and with equal facilities to learn their 
true conditions. It is in such drives through 
the Stevens county valleys that a glorious 
panorama of ever changing beauties unfolds 
before him. It is a series of pastoral pictures 
that greet the traveler's eye, varying with the 
seasons. From seed time to harvest, and from 
harvest to spring the aspect of this agricultural 
country continually presents a new and inspir- 
ing view. And the traveler realizes that each 
month the country is growing richer ; richer in 
material products; richer in thought, experi- 
ence and substantiality. 

Should the tourist's road lead through the 
majestic forests the ring of the swamper's axe 
will alternate with the flute-note of some wild 
bird, or the stirring, exhilirating drum of the 
partridge. Then silence for a distance, and 
then the whirr of a lumber mill will sharply ac- 
centuate the difiference between solitude in the 
"forests primeval," and the restless industry of 
man. For it is not in the broil and moil of 
city life that the actual producing industries of 
our country are carried on. Far from it. There 
they are simply living one upon the other; a 
vast throng of non-producing bumble-bees, 
more remarkable for their ceaseless hum than 
for honey. It is here, back in the mountains, 
the woodlands, the meadows and the harvest 
fields that the farmer, the miner, the stockman 
and the fruit grower are supporting them all. 


Albeit our Stevens county traveler — by pri- 
vate conveyance — would fain forget for a while 
the rush, roar and hustle of conflicting com- 
mercial interests, and turn to sports afield. 
They abound on every hand. Mr. S. Fred 
Sherwood, of Colville, an ardent and true 
sportsman, one who has hunted from the 
Catskills to the Olympics, in Central and South 
America and other countries, ranks as one of 
the leading authorities in the country on fauna. 
He says that Stevens county stands peerless 
in the profusion of bear, deer and lesser game. 
On the Columbia moimtains and in many other 
portions of the county range the beautiful 
black-tail, or Columbia deer, as well as Virginia 
or mule-deer ; black, brown and silver-tip bears 
are the easy prey of the skillful sportsman in 
all the mountains and valleys. Caribou is also 
found, but principally in the Metaline district 
and the Calispell country. Smaller game 
abounds represented by the blue grouse, sharp- 
tail grouse, or prairie chicken, ruff grouse, 
commonly called pheasant, and spruce partridge 
or fool hen. All of these birds of the gallina- 
ceous species are found in abundance through- 
out the valleys of the rivers and the creeks of 
the canyons. And a bird not indigenous to 
all localities in the state appears in small num- 
bers in Stevens county, a bird that has been 
removed by Tennyson from its humble coverts 
into the classic niche of fame. 

'Tis the place, and all around it, as of old | 

the curlews call, 
Dreary gleams about the moorland flying | 

over Locksley Hall. 

There are. also, the upland plover, and in 
the bottoms the rail and rare and gamey jack- 
snipe. The latter is the true sportsman's de- 
light, for it is an exceedingly active bird, diffi- 
cult to capture and must, invariably, be shot on 
the wing. While the jacksnipe is a migra- 
tory bird, it has been known to nest and winter 
in Stevens county. Throughout the swampy 
portions of the valleys and in the lakes abound 

many varieties of wild geese and ducks. Here 
are found in the spring and autumn months 
the Canadian, spot-breasted gray goose, white 
goose, or brant, sand-hill crane and swan. The 
evening flight of wild ducks, together with the 
appropriate mise en scene, recall Bryant's 
pastoral — 

Vain might the fowler mark thy distant flight to 
do thee wrong. 

Not in vain, however, in this section of the 
country. It is popular opinion that every fish- 
erman should carry a gun, so plentiful are wild 
ducks. To the skillful sportsman the canvas- 
back, redhead, mallard, blue-wingteal, green- 
wingteal, widgeon and other varieties of 
ducks are easy prey and gamey sport. Trout 
fishing throughout the county is unexcelled. 
All of the numerous streams abound in this 
variety of the finny tribe peculiar to the region 
of the Rockies. The principal species, however, 
is the rainbow trout, although other varieties 
of brook and mountain trout are often among 
a good day's catch. 

Concerning the resources of the lower Pend 
d'Oreille river, Stevens county, the following- 
article from the pen of a well-known writer and 
correspondent conveys an adequate and con- 
servati\e view of that picturesque country : 

".\ great country with a great future ;" such is the 
expression from every one who gives himself the pleas-^ 
ure of the journey from Newport. Washington, by 
steamboat on the lovely and incomparable river, the 
Pend d'Oreille, to Box Canyon, a distance of about 
fifty-four miles. The river for the first thirty miles runs 
through a country now well-known and partly settled, 
and is the highway to the njining districts of Bead and 
Marshall Lakes, the open and fertile Calispell Valley, 
famous for its hay and butter, and Usk. the chief center 
of supply for this region. 

At Parker the stretches of the lower river com- 
mence and the country on both banks is being rapidly 
settled. Some three miles below Parker Mountain, on 
the east bank, and situated in an immense forest of 
splendid timber, a large sawmill of 50.000 capacity per 
day is being erected. About two miles below this is 
another large sawmill in process of erection, while 
just below we pass through a large granite belt, con- 
tiguous to the coal measures, and which is found to con- 



tain several varieties of structural granite, from the 
gray to the red. 

Next we sight the well-known landmark, The Blue 
Slide, (a large landslide from the side of the mountain 
into the river of decomposed porphyry). From here 
the country widens out in extensive flats, well timbered 
and watered, and where cultivated, is found to yield 
abundant crops of hay, vegetables and fruit. Here are 
to be seen some of the finest ranches in the northwest, 
well sheltered and watered, and from whence starts the 
trail for Sullivan Lake, distant to the northwest some 
twelve miles, where game of all kinds abound, with 
caribou in the higher ranges beyond. At this point the 
river seemes to be obstructed by a high mountain with 
rugged and picturesque faces, bluffs and slopes. The 
river at this point is very wide and deep, and affords 
a natural harbor with easy anchorage. The mountain, 
known as Mount Jordan, is one vast and inexhaustible 
deposit of cement material and upon near approach we 
see active progress of construction under way of a large 
Portland and natural cement plant. The buildings are 
so located that all the material proceeds from one de- 
partment of the plant to another by gravity, thus re- 
ducing the cost of manufacture, and all the power is 
generated from the water of a side stream conducted in a 
ditch so as to give a fall of one hundred and ten feet, 
generating a power of two hundred horse power. The 
deposits of material are suited to the manufacture of 
very high grades of Portland cement and two grades of 
hydraulic natural cement. The cements being now made 
in the model plant, when compared with the imported 
cement, are at least forty per cent, in favor of the local 
article produced. It is safe to assert that here is being 
erected a plant that will supply the trade and be in 
operation so long as cement is used. The works and 
town site are prettily situated on a flat bench over- 
looking the river, and one can forsee a soon-to-be loca- 
tion of a prosperous, thriving city to be known as 

One mile farther down the river and just above 
the Box Canyon on the east side of the river are ex- 
tensive quarries of marble, now being operated by a 
company that are producing marbles of many shades and 
colors, from pure white statuary to the jet black monu- 
mental, with grays and indescribable cloudings. The 
quarries are being opened up with steam drills and the 
prospects are that the marble will be highly suited for 
statuary, decorative and monumental purposes. 

Leaving the steamboat here we take the trail on the 
west bank for the old mining camp of the Metaline. 
Before we have gone quite one half a mile we come upon 
the great sandstone quarries, which are of the fine 
grain, blue varieties and classed as free stone. This 
sandstone is easily worked, having the property of 
hardening when exposed to the air. The beds are level 
and blocks of monolith size can be quarried. Below the 
sandstone is a deposit of fire-clay in vast quantities that 
has the same -property of the clays of Europe, noted 
for making fire brick. Seven miles from here is the 

camp of the old Metaline, where progress is stagnated 
from the lack of transportation. It will be seen that 
there are resources on the lower Pend d'Oreille river 
which for quality and abundance it would be hard to 
equal and which will give employment and support for 
a very large population. 

Perhaps no other county in the state of 
Washington possesses greater available water 
power than Stevens. Nor is this valuable 
auxiliary to successful manufacturing indus- 
tries confined to one locality within the limits 
of the county. The most important in volume 
and power are the Kettle Falls of the Columbia 
river, near the town of that name. Here the 
river makes a precipitous descent of thirty-five 
feet. This immense volume of water accumu- 
lates force sufficient to warrant the assertion 
that it is the most extensive hydraulic power 
in the west ; a force capable of supplying electric 
energy throughout the entire territory em- 
braced by many contiguous counties. Another 
magnificent water power is that of Meyers 
Falls, in the Colville river. One-half mile from 
this is located the town of Meyers Falls, an- 
cient in history and reminiscent of the old 
Hudson's Bay Company. Here is a succession 
of falls that would be easily developed and are 
capable of furnishing thousands of horsepower. 
Within the limits of three-eights of a mile the 
total fall is one hundred and thirty-five feet. 
The main fall is eighty feet high. Aside from 
these are the Albany falls, two miles east of 
Newport, on the Idaho line, and the falls of 
the lower Pend d'Oreille river. At present these 
great water powers are practically undeveloped. 
There are flour and saw mills at Meyers Falls, 
and an electric light plant supplying a number 
of towns, but otherwise little advantage has 
been taken, so far, of the vast possibilities of 
these mighty and economical forces of generous 

Considered as a fruit producing section 
Stevens county is unsurpassed. It has been 
claimed that her prolific qualities in this line 
challenge the world. To those who have deli- 
cately implied that this was rather a sweeping 


assertion, reply has been made that it was abso- 
lutely true, and a number of fruit exhibitors 
have very nearly approached verification. It 
is quite certain, however, that a vital and most 
advantageous consideration to the Stevens 
county fruit grower lies in a lucrative market 
at its doors. The bane of the western fruit 
grower has ever been exhorbitant and. at times, 
prohibitive cost of transportation. But so 
omniverous is the demand of the mining towns 
of the northern country for Colville and Colum- 
bia valley fruits that prices have invariably 
ruled high. The horticultural industry is in- 
creasing in a most gratifying ratio with each 
successive year. In the Columbia river valley, 
from the town of Alarcus, extending along the 
Columbia a distance of one hundred miles, lies 
a belt from five to fifteen miles in width. This 
is the remunerative habitat of the deciduous 
fruit grower. ^Nlany \arieties of the tenderest 
fruits thrive here and yield profusely, as the 
magnificent Morrison, Sparks, Clinton, Harvey 
and other orchards, laden in season with 
lucious,- sweetly flavored fruits glowingly 
testify. Fully three-fourths of the area men- 
tioned is well adapted to fruit growths. With 
equal care and intelligent cultivation all this 
territory can be made fully as productive as 
the orchards named above. Two of the leading 
horticulturists of Stevens county have testified 
from the view point of experts concerning this 
industry. Mr. W. H. Oakes says : 

"When I first took up what is now Belle- 
view Fruit Farm sixteen years ago I had no 
idea of developing it to the splendid place you 
now see it is. But I noticed how prolific was 
the growth of berries, fruits, watermelons, to- 
matoes, etc., and it occurred to me that fruit 
trees might do well. I set out at first one hun- 
dred deciduous bearing trees of dififerent varie- 
ties. They began to bear at the end of three 
years, and most of them tlirived exceedingly. 
Since that time I have continued planting and 
experimenting as to the kind of fruits and the 
varieties of those kinds that would do best in 

this soil and climate. You can see the result. 
Peaches grow well on sheltered bench land well 
removed from water or in the black gravelly 
soil or sandy loam along the Columbia river. 
But you must have the hardy and early varie- 
ties. I succeeded best with Hale's Early, Crof- 
fin's Early, Alexander, Malta and Wagner. In 
pears the Bartlett is not hardy enough, but the 
Buer De Angoa and Flemish Beauty are per- 
fectly hardy and do well. I have one tree of 
the latter that never failed in eleven years. 
The Beauty is almost equal to the Bartlett. In 
winter pears the Winter Mellis and Buer Easter 
can be grown here with great success. Nearly 
all kinds of prunes do well, but I would recom- 
mend the Italian, Hungarian, German and 
French. I found all kinds of plums safe except 
Kelsey's Japan. In apricots the Russian varie- 
ties do excellently well, while the Morepark, 
though the best in the market, does not. The 
peach and golden are also too tender. All 
apples will grow well, but the Ben Davis is 
the best for the market, and is a hardy winter 
apple. The Wallbridge and Baldwin I found 
not so hardy. Delaware, Red Winter, Wine- 
sap, Baily's and Talmund's Sweet are O. K. 

"Low lands should be avoided, but bench 
lands removed from water will grow the fruits 
I have mentioned, and there is no hill so high in 
Stevens county but that there is moisture 
enough in it to grow fruit profitably if well 
cultivated. I want to say that the soil should 
be well stirred with a harrow or cultivator every 
ten days or less. The reason for this is that the 
pores of the earth expand and open in from 
seven to ten days and unless stirred the heat of 
the sun draws out the moisture. This is the 
most important point in cultivating dry soil. 
Regarding the relative quality of fruits grown 
here and elsewhere, other sections grow larger 
fruits, but Stevens county fruits are much 
sweeter flavored. The best flavored fruit is 
always grown on dry soil. Our apples and 
prunes are the best in the world. Our prunes 
are superior bearers, and don't dry down as 



much as others and go into market as the best. 
As to bearing, all our fruits bear as early as 
anywhere in the world, pears bearing in two 
years and apples extensively in three." 

"The first thing of importance in fruit- 
growing," said Mr. H. W. Sparks, of Kettle 
Falls, who has a splendid orchard on the 
Columbia, two miles south of that city, and who 
has given the subject of horticulture intelligent 
study, "is the varieties, location, cultivation and 
care. Care is the most important, as without 
care no one can expect to succeed. Variety de- 
pends on undivided taste and location and 
intelligent demarkation of the crop as to those 
grown for revenue and those grown for home 
use. Every one should have a goodly assort- 
ment for different seasons and tastes in those 
grown for the market. The main point is a 
hardy variety for the main crop and good ship- 
pers, those that will bear handling." 

Concerning the transportation facilities of 
Stevens county, it is no exaggeration to say 
that they are excellent, when the large size of 
the territory is taken into consideration. Re- 
garding this important factor in the upbuilding 
of a county the Statesman-Index says : 

"The Spokane Falls & Northern Railroad 
with more than one hundred and twenty miles 
of main line in the county, is doing much to 
assist in its progression and prosperity. It has 
recently been a heavy contributor to the Kettle 
Falls and Republic road, the importance of 
which to this portion of the county it is scarcely 
necessary to dwell upon. It runs a passenger 
train with comfortably equipped coaches north 
and south daily, and it is a very rare occasion 
when they are not promptly on time. To the 
annual Spokane Fruit Fair and like events the 
road always accords a generous rate and in 
other regards the passenger department of the 
Spokane Falls & Northern has ever consulted 
the best interests of our people and afforded 
them many advantages. 

"The southeastern portion of the county is 
traversed bv the Great Northern Railwav. This 

line affords the settlers of the Calispell and 
Pend d'Oreille valleys a means of communica- 
tion with the outside world. Small steamers 
ply the waters of the Pend d'Oreille river be- 
tween Newport and Box Canyon, and do a gen- 
eral freighting and passenger traffic for the 
convenience of the river settlements. At New- 
port on the boundary line between Washington 
and Idaho, the freight and passengers are trans- 
ferred to the Great Northern railway. 

"There are now nearly eleven hundred miles 
of public highway in the county running in all 
directions and others are in constant course of 
construction. The boards of county commis- 
sioners, realizing the importance of easy means 
of inter-communication, have been broad- 
gauged and liberal in their attitude on the im- 
portant matter of roads, while in no community 
can there be found more liberal contributors to 
projects of this nature than the public-spirited 
business men of Stevens county." 

The social conditions of this county have 
been earnestly and conscientiously considered 
by Mr. John B. Slater in his valuable work, 
"Natural Resources of Stevens County." He 

Stevens county is chiefly settled by an industrious 
and thrifty class from the northern Mississippi states. 
A dozen souls will fill the Chinese and colored popula- 
tion of the county ; these classes having at all times in 
the past been discouraged from coming into the county. 
On the Colville Indian Reservation are about five hun- 
dred peaceable Indians, nearly all of whom are actively 
engaged in the pursuits of farming and stock-raising. 
The tide of immigration of the white people has, prac- 
tically, driven the native population to the reservations, 
and those of the Indian race who are adverse to toil 
have found their way into the far interior and unin- 
habited portions of British Columbia. 

The society of Stevens county is the very best, and 
its people take pride in upbuilding its institutions and 
maintaining them. This fact is attested by the sub- 
' stantial character of the many splendid buildings to be 
seen on every hand in all the towns, devoted to religious 
and public school work. There are over one hundred 
school districts in the county, and in nearly all of them 
may be seen well built school houses of handsome 
design. In all the more populous districts the schools 
are graded, and a superior class of instructors are em- 
ployed in charge of all educational work. The Catholic, 



Methodist, Congregational, Presbyterian, Adventist, 
Baptist and a number of other denominational institu- 
tions are represented. Sunday school work is a leading 
feature in all settled portions of the county. The old 
Catholic church, built on a sightly place on the bank 
of the Columbia river, near Kettle Falls, nearly sixty 
years ago, is still standing, though it was long since 
abandoned for a more convenient location at Meyers 
Falls, where a large cathedral and the mission school 
for boys and girls are located and are accorded a good 
patronage. The secret societies have firmly established 
lodges, among which are the Masonic, Odd Fellows, 
and K. P., all of which are patronized and are fostered 
by the best classes. A number of G. A. R. posts have 
also been established and in many of the country places, 
as well as in the cities, they have erected large and 
commodious halls in which the largely decimating 
heroes of the last great national struggle take refuge 
in social intercourse and in appropriate exercises com- 
memorative of their great work. 

As well as having a market at hand for everything, 
Stevens county has everything for a market. Its wealth- 
producing capacity is circumscribed by no limit. With 
all it has room for the lumberman. Its forests are 
largely confined to the mountain districts and along the 
foot-hills. The timber growth is prolific and well- 
developed. Pine, fir, spruce and cedar grow in splendid 
proportions, in endless quantity and of a superior 
quality. The tamarack trees are now much sought after 
by builders, and lumber men are led to consider it one 
of the choicest of timbers for finishing purposes. It 
possesses the most lasting qualities, and subject to all 
manner of hard usage and exposure it answers every 
purpose. It partakes of the finest finish and the highest 
polish, is not susceptible to expansion and contraction, 
so commonly complained of in other timbers when ex- 
posed to the ravages of the elements, and promises, as 
a hard wood, to supplant the use of oak, ash and maple 
in the manufacture of all varieties of furniture. 

Added to the numerous industrial interests 
of this county is something in the way of the 
weirdly picturesque which is a recent discovery, 
dating in the summer of 1903. This is what is 
called Gardiner's Cave, and the following de- 
scription of the same is from the Spokcsman- 
Reviezv. of date September 13, 1903, written 
by one of a Spokane exploring party who vis- 
ited it. Investigation by the writer reveals the 
fact that it is nowise overdrawn : 

If you will take a map of Washington, trace the 
Fend d'Oreille river down to where it passes into 
British Columbia, get the scale of the map. put your 
pencil one mile south of the international boundary line 

and one mile west of the river, you will have determined 
almost the exact location of Gardiner Cave, in Stevens 
county, Washington. About due north and ninety miles 
distant from Spokane, this natural wonder, so far as 
explored, constitutes the largest cave yet discovered in 

Various and conflicting reports heard about this 
cave led a number of Spokane men to organize and 
equip a party to visit and secure some exact data on the 
subject. The party left Spokane on the morning of the 
24th of August, 1903, over the Great Northern railway 
via Newport, thence by steamer down the Pend d'Oreille 
to the foot of navigation near lone, sixty-four miles 
below Newport, from which point they secured the 
services of 7. E. Hall, with pack and saddle animals to 
make the overland journey. The trail was found to be 
in fairly good condition overlooking the river the 
greater part of the way, and the pedometer recorded 
24.75 miles between lone and Gardiner Cave, over a 
crooked trail. Elevation of lone 2.000 feet, and at the 
cave entrance 2,665 feet above tide water. The country 
is in almost as primitive a state as it was one hundred 
years ago, the most noticable indication of civilization 
being the ruthless waste of the forests ; fires having 
devastated about one half the country to be seen from 
the trail. Young growth of pine, fir, cedar, tamarack 
and hemlock, however, if permitted to live, would in a 
few years reforest a greater part of the burnt area. 

Fiom the trail may be seen a mountain to the west 
which was determined by the United States geological 
survey, who were re-establishing the international 
boundary monuments last year, to be over 8.000 feet 
above sea level. This peak is between six and ten miles 
from the boundary in Stevens county. It is said that 
there are several monuments on the south and west 
slopes of this mountain which have the appearance of 
aboriginal construction, but limit of time precluded a 
visit there. Other similar monuments occur at various 
points, both in Washington and British Columbia not 
far from the cave. Grouse are plentiful along the 
entire route, bear and deer abound, seldom disturbed 
by man, and from indications along the trail the country 
seems to be the home of many marten and other furred 
animals. The odoriferous pole cat was the only feline 
seen by the party, although a cougar and a lynx paid 
the life penalty for being too eager for a taste of civiliza- 
tion a few days since, and the human-like voice of the 
former is often heard in the hills. Trout abound in all 
the streams, and migratory waterfowl take long rests in 
the waters of this region in spring and fall. A well' 
authenticated story is current that a couple of hunters 
killed over two hundred deer near their camp one winter 
recently, simply for their hides, yet there are large num- 
bers remaining in that section. 

Arriving at the cave's mouth, which is situated on 
an easy slope on the east side of a pretentious mountain, 
at 9:30 o'clock a. m., the party found that the opening 
is simply a break in the roof of the cave, by which an 
easy entrance is made with a ladder constructed on: 



the ground. How far upward along the slope of the 
mountain the cave extends the party did not discover, 
an obstruction occurring some twenty feet above where 
a portion of the cave roof fell in. The barometric 
elevation at the surface was 2,665 feet, and at the floor 
of the entrance 2,645 feet above sea level. The general 
course of that part of the cave explored was E. S. E., 
with a gradual curve toward the east. But one branch 
of any importance was discovered. The first six hun- 
dred feet constitutes the most attractive portion of the 
cave, as below that point mud is found on the floor in- 
creasing in depth until at the present end the entire 
cave is coated with an accumulation of natural cement 
but partially dried, and increasing at the rate of one- 
eighth of an inch per year. Early in the spring the 
water, doubtless, fills the entire cave at the lower end, 
but gradually passes out through small orifices until at 
this season it entirely disappears and the air becomes 
clear and pure. By the aid of tools and powder it may 
be possible to open up chambers still lower down from 
the present end of the cave, as without doubt the sub- 
terranean waters finally reach the Pend d'Oreille river, 
a mile away. Carefully measured from entrance to the 
lower end of the main cave the total length was found 
to be 780 feet, with a total loss in elevation from 
2,645 to 2,420 feet, or 225 feet, a mean grade of about 
34 per cent. 

With Ed. Gardiner, the discoverer, in the lead 
the entire party of seven penetrated the cavern and ex- 
amined all its side chambers, finding a ball of twine 
thrown over a difficult passage near the lower end, 
recorded the date, taking several flash-light photographs, 
measuring the various chambers and securing other 
valuable data. This cave has many features of interest 
and beauty. The first 600 feet is gorgeously draped and 
festooned with stalactites and stalagmites in many 
grotesque forms, the former pendant from the ceiling, 
while the latter rise from the floor. At two points the 
main passage way is divided by two huge pillars, deli- 
cately fluted and of rare color, the first of which is about 
280 feet from the entrance and the lower one 155 feet 
further down, while all between, along the sides and 
ceiling, are stalactites of various lengths. 

At two places along the wall are numerous 
stalactites, which, by striking sharply, produce clear 
notes which resemble those of a piano. In places the 
floor is covered with rock forms of white limestone 
resembling baths, in some of which the water still re- 
mains clear as crystal. At other places are pillars rising 
from a few inches to several feet. At one side of this 
chamber is a wonderful formation resembling a frozen 
waterfall, near by which is an overhanging canopy with 
a well-formed seat at the base. This is "The Throne," 
and from it one can see all the principal beauties of 
this marvellous "chamber of wonders." The cathedral, 
to the right and 30 feet below, is frescoed and festooned 
with glistening gems. Rising from the floor are several 
fragile columns. o,i the tops of which the party placed 
their candles and viewed with pleasure the sublime 

effect. Thirty or more feet from the floor of the main 
hall and directly before the throne, a cluster of cyrstals 
resembles a huge bunch of grapes. 

The gigantic pillar at the upper end of this chamber 
gives the visitor ample space to pass, but when its twin 
column at the lower end is reached, one is mutely but 
firmly reminded that due obeisance must be made in 
acknowledgment of the beauties just seen before passage 
will be granted to the depths below. Passage can be 
obtained here only by prostrating oneself and crawling 
in, after which one passes through a narrow aisle, ten 
feet by about four feet wide, for about seventy-five 
feet, where another hole is reached, through which one 
must crawl bear-fashion. At 720 feet from the en- 
trance the only considerable side passage is found at 
the right running back at an angle from the main cavern 
some fifty feet, and ending in a circular chamber, the 
entire passage being about twelve feet high by eight 

There is ample evidence that Gardiner Cave, so far 
as explored by the party, constitutes but a small part of 
the subterranean chambers and passageways of the im- 
mediate locality. Points in favor of this assertion are 
that this cave was penetrated twenty feet above the 
entrance, where a portion of the roof had caved in, 
obstructing further observations without some further 
preliminary manual labor. Circular sinks of the sur- 
face in various places show that the underlying lime- 
stone has been removed. A considerable stream gush- 
ing out of the hill half a mile or more away with an 
opening above some two by four feet at low water and 
cut in the limestone adds to the evidence. Streams, 
which, as springs, gush out of the mountain above, 
suddenly disappear. The whole mountain so far as 
examined is limestone, an excellent material in which 
to look for caves. For ten days or a month's outing 
tViis portion of Stevens county offers great opportunity 
for either pleasure or research. 

While it is not within the province of this 
work to produce an exhaustive or technical 
treatise on the geology of Stevens county, we 
may candidly admit that such a division of the 
book would not prove the least interesting. To 
the student of this science the geological for- 
mation of the county is replete with interest 
offering a wide field for a fascinating investiga- 
tion. It is considered necessary, however, to 
glance at the primordial character of this 
greatly diversified country that others may trace 
therein the elementary outlines of a vast and 
comprehensive cosmogony. 

The greater portion of eastern Washington 
is covered by the original "fire-rock," the basalt. 



This dull, uninviting substance meets the eye 
everywhere, on the bluffs, along the streams and 
upon the "scab lands." But in Stevens county 
there occurs a radical transformation. Here we 
encounter every variety of the secondary rock 
and in the dykes and veins in them we find 
almost every known mineral. Among these 
may be named zinc, antimony, nickel, tin, 
arsenic, iron, silver and gold. Specimens of 
one or more of them are obtainable in numerous 
places throughout the county. Igneous, 
sedimentary and metamorphic rocks are in 
abundance everywhere, often thrown together 
in a confused mass by volcanic action. Of the 
igneous rocks basalt and porphyry are obtaina- 
ble, and of sedimentary rocks, sandstone, shale, 
and limestone are found. All the varieties of 
limestone are easily procured, carbonate of 
lime, magnesian limestone and sulphate of lime 
or gypsum. One variety of gypsum, alabaster 
of wonderful beauty, rewards the industrious 
searcher. Of the metamorphic rocks quartzite, 
marble, syenite, slate, granite, gneiss and mica 
schist are in surprising abundance. The many 
varieties of the finest marble in the world have 
already assumed a prominent position in the 
commerce of the county and are treated of else- 
where in extenso. One variety, improperly 
termed onyx, is said by experts to be the hand- 
somest and most valuable for decorative pur- 
poses to be found in any portion of the union. 
The slate is unequaled anywhere. Pure feld- 
spar, when decomposed, produces kaolin, a 
kind of clay. In the southeastern part of 
Stevens county is found an immense deposit of 
kaolin which has been experted and pronounced 
as running in high values. Mineral paint, 
formed from variously colored clays and 
ground oil, is an industry in the eastern, or 
Calispell section of the country, and in the Pend 
d'Oreille mountains are found huge buttes of 
pure mica. 

So far the coal measures developed are lim- 
ited. Although there are a number of small 
deposits, most of them have been burned out 

by later volcanic action. While geologists in 
this locality have been unable to find traces of 
the northern drift of the glacial period, the 
Rocky Mountains forming, probably, a barrier 
against the great glacier that aeons ago over- 
whelmed so large a portion of this continent, 
yet e\'erywhere in Stevens county are indubita- 
ble signs of glacial action. At that period the 
mountains attained a far greater altitude than 
at present, and were covered with immense 
glaciers which plowed out the valleys now 
thickly populated, and filled them with drifts 
hundreds of feet in depth. The fossiliferous 
distribution in this county is not so large as in 
many other localities. The powerful incinerat- 
ing heat that crystallized limestone into marble, 
clay into slate and quartz into quartzite, burned 
out the greater portion of fossils; yet with a 
little care quite a fair collection may be made 
at the present day. In every school district 
throughout the county a collection of ores and 
rocks may be accumulated superior to the 
geological cabinets of many eastern colleges. 

In speaking of the topography of the county 
Mr. L. K. Armstrong, editor of Mining, says : 

"Between the Columbia and the Colville 
rivers, with the exception of the narrow valleys 
along these streams, the country is rough and 
mountainous in places, reaching an altitude 
above sea level of more than 6,000 feet and 
the divide between these streams has an alti- 
tude of more than 4,500 feet. To the east of 
the Colville valley and between it and the Pend 
d' Oreille valley is another mountain range, the 
highest point of which, Calispell peak, has an 
altitude of 6,905 feet above sea level, with an 
average height of the divide between 4,800 and 
5,500. East of the Pen d'Oreille river the coun- 
try is mountainous and rough with about the 
same altitude as that to the west. All these 
mountain ranges are well supplied with lateral 
streams which have formed in many instances 
quite deep gorges. The mountains rise grad- 
ually from the valleys, first being the foothills, 
which gradually merge into the mountains. 



Along the Columbia, however, the bluffs rise 
more abruptly than they do along most of the 
streams. The mountain ranges extend in an 
almost due north and south direction across the 
county. The following list of elevations of 
different places over the county will give an 
idea of the diversified character of the surface : 

Locality. Feet. 

Addy (.1) 1,652 

Bossburg (1) 1,385 

Calispell Lake (2; 2,110 

Calispell Peak (2) 6,905 

Chewelah Peak (.2) 5,748 

Chewelah (i) 1,690 

Colville Mountain (2) 5,667 

Colville (I) 1,602 

International Boundary (i) 1,370 

Loon Lake 2,440 

Marble (l) 1,486 

Mouth of Colville River (2) 1,176 

Mouth o£ Spokane River (2) 1,068 

Northport (i) 1,350 

Newport (3) 2,121 

Springdale (i) 2,100 

Stensger's Peak (2) 6,299 

Waits Lake (2) 1,816 

(1) Elevation by U. S. Geological Survey. 

(2) Elevation by the North Transcontinental Survey. 

(3) Elevation from the G. N. Railroad. 

What is known as the Colville State Fish 
Hatchery was established in 1900 about one 
mile from Kettle Falls. In his report for 1902 
Fish Commissioner Kershaw said : 

"It is erected on state land, of which the de- 
partment has a lease for five years. It is located 
about one mile from Kettle Falls, on the Col- 
ville river, in Stevens county. It was operated 
in 1901, hut only took about 90,000 spawn, and 
I concluded that the expense of operation 
would not justify the results obtained, and 
closed the plant down for the present season. 
I placed Mr. D. M. Richard in charge, at a 
nominal salary, with instructions to closely 
watch the river and report to me the number 
of salmon that ascended the stream this sea- 
son, and he reported that he had seen only 
forty-five salmon so far. I have no doubt that 
at one time this was a fine salmon stream, but 

a freshet they had a few years ago changed 
the entire condition of the river. Instead of 
emptying its waters down the Columbia river 
as in former years, it now discharges its waters 
up stream. The channel of the Columbia river 
has changed from the east to the west side, and 
this, together with the freshet, has left the 
sprawning grounds in the river covered with 
large boulders, and has completely destroyed 
whatever natural conditions favorable for 
spawning ever existed." 

Three miles from Newport, in the south- 
eastern part of the county, ^Ir. B. L. Gordon, 
of Spokane, in the summer of 1903, established 
a private fish hatchery in the headwaters of the 
Little Spokane river for the purpose of breed- 
ing trout. At present this is the only fish hatch- 
ery of any importance in the county. 

October i, 1903, Stevens county contained 
the following postoffices, thirteen of them being 
money order offices : Addy, Alyea, Arzina, 
Bissell, Bluecreek, Bossburg, Boundary, Calis- 
pell, Camden, Cadonia, Chewelah, Clayton, Col- 
ville, Daisy, Deertrail, Dunn, Echo, Frontier, 
Gifford, Gray, Harvey. Hunters, lone. Kettle 
Falls, Locke, Loonlake, Marble, Maud, Meyers 
Falls, Newport, Northport. Oren, Penwith, 
Rice, Rockport, Ryan, Scotia, Springdale, 
Tumtum, Usk, Valley, Waterloo. Cusick, Dal- 
kena, Evans, Lenora, Wellpinit, forty-nine all 

In the extreme southwestern portion of 
Stevens, and due north from Lincoln county, 
.lies the Spokane Indian reservation. On the 
south it is bounded by the Spokane river, on 
the west by the Columbia, while its eastern 
boundary is formed by Chamokane Creek. Its 
area is about 328 square miles. There are no 
towns within its limits, the Indian agency being 
headquarters for all business connected with the 
tribe to which it is, at present, dedicated. The 
population is indefinite as the Indians come and 
go at nearly all seasons of the year. 

At one period the whole of the Colville 
Valley was included in the vast Colville reser- 


vation, now forming much of the territory of 
Ferry and Okanogan counties. This is a fact 
not generally known. But along in the 7o"s 
General Grant, then president, issued a procla- 
mation. By the terms of this document all the 
country lying in the northeastern portion of the 
Territory of Washington, touching the bound- 
ary of Idaho on the east, for a width of nearly 
one hundred miles, and extending in length 
nearly two hundred miles westward, should be 
included in the Colville Indian reservation. It 
is in accordance with this fact that it is deemed 
best to treat the Colville Indian reservation in 
this descriptive chapter of Stevens county, for 
at that period all of what is now the Colville 
reservation was within the county of Stevens, 
prior to the severance of Okanogan and Ferry 

During the administration of President 
Grant it was considered in the extreme east, and 
what was then the middle west, that the best 
use to which this portion of the earth's sur- 
face could be put was to cut it up into Indian 
reservations. Various military men and the 
heads of geological surveys had issued scientific 
pronunciamentos to the effect that the "Great 
American Desert" comprised nearly all the ter- 
ritory between California and the Missouri 
ri\er. Settlers had, however, located on widely 
separated tracts ; had tested the qualities of the 
"desert;" had spied out the land and pro- 
nounced it good despite the military men and 
scientists. Among these some had established 
the outposts of civilization in tlie Colville valley, 
on the "reservation." So vigorously did they 
protest at the expansion idea of President Grant 
that he soon changed the plan and fixed the 
Columbia river as the southern and eastern 
boundaries of the Colville reservation. That 
threw the territory of modern Stevens county 
out of it. 

The north half of the Colville reservation 
was opened to agricultural settlement Octolier 
lo. I goo. Considerable excitement had been 
anticipated which did not eventuate. There 

was not the "rush" that attended the opening 
of Oklahoma or even that of the Nez Perce 
Reservation in Idaho. Conditions were dis- 
tinctly different. For a number of years this 
territory had been open to mining settlement, 
and, consequently, it was impossible to herd 
homesteaders off the promised land as thev 
were barred out of Oklahoma. Since tlie reser- 
vation was open to mining development the 
right of any one to enter freely and pursue his 
avocations remained unquestioned. Towns had 
sprung up and a large population had taken 
full possession prior to the government's edict 
opening the reservation. Homeseekers under 
the guise of prospectors had chosen their loca- 
tions, pitched their tents, erected cabins and 
made other improvements. The greater num- 
ber who had contemplated filing had already 
done so. For weeks and even months home- 
steaders had been selecting their lands, many 
camping beside them the night previous to the 
opening. Practically the best of feeling pre- 
vailed. At noon they simply stepped across the 
section line and established their claims. But 
the event, though a quiet one, devoid of any 
sensationalism, was another landmark in the 
fuller development of Washington, and the ter- 
ritory once comprised in Stevens county. 
Along with the great mineral resources the 
agricultural and timber wealth were now to lie 
developed. An era of railway construction was 
to follow which, although still incipient, is 
destined to produce great results, and wild and 
idle regions made to blossom as the rose. 

A Spokesiiian-Rcz'iezi' correspondent, writ- 
ing of this incident from Grand Forks, B. C, 
under date of October lo, 1900, says: 

"The opening of the north half of the Col- 
ville reservation today for homestead purposes 
was characterized by many ludicrous and ex- 
citing incidents. Information received would 
indicate that there are an average of five claim- 
ants for each location. The United States 
Land Office .will be fully occupied for months 
in adjusting disputes respecting ownership. 


For instance, no less than six individuals, in- 
cluding Frank Law, of Grand Forks, and O. B. 
Nelson, H. Donough, B. Price and H. N. 
Genin, of Nelson, simultaneously located one 
hundred and sixty acres comprising the north 
addition of the townsite of Nelson. The land 
lies between the town and the international 
boundary. There is a perfect forest of stakes 
and each claimant before nightfall had erected 
a shack. The same condition of affairs practir 
cally prevails south through the Kettle River, 
Curlew, and San Foil valleys to Republic. 

"J. A. Coryell and Fred Wallaston, of 
Grand Forks, who have been engaged on the 
railway survey for the Clarence J. McCuaig 
syndicate, returned here tonight and report that 
every available foot of the land in the bottoms 
or on bench lands had been located. Mr. Cor- 
yell estimated tht the locations along this route 
will exceed five hundred, while the territory 
will not permit of over one hundred and twen- 
ty-eight valid locations. Mr. Coryell reached 
a point twelve miles south of the boundary (B. 
C.) line. He states that camping parties were 
strung along a few acres apart for the entire 
distance. At noon rival claimants began stak- 
ing their homesteads in close proximity, with 
the result that farm after farm dovetails into its 
neighbor. Fortunately no ill feeling was dis- 
played and the entire proceedings were note- 
worthy for the absence of gun play. The bench 
lands seemed to attract as much attention as 
bottom lands or timbered flats. Homestead^s 
showed especial partiality for the west side of 
Curlew Lake, and in the vicinity of Curlew 
townsite each location has seven or eight claim- 
ants. Helphry Brothers, merchants of Cur- 
lew, are among those who located land near 
the townsite. They have an eight-cornered 
contest on their hands. 

"Shacks and other buildings sprang up 
within three hours as if by magic. Many of 
the homesteaders hail from Idaho and eastern 
Washington, and are accompanied by their 
families. Several women secured choice lands. 

Miss Reeves, a young and prepossessing lady, 
abandoned her "hello" duties at Grand Forks' 
telephone office yesterday to join in the stam- 
pede. She was fortunate enough to secure one 
hundred and sixty acres of bottom land two 
miles west of Curlew. Half a dozen men were 
camped on the same ground before her arrival, 
but they chivalrously capitulated and moved 
elsewhere, possibly only to become involved in 
contests with their masculine neighbors." 

A Colville correspondent wrote as follows : 

"The opening of the reservation today cre- 
ated little public attention or interest. People 
intent on settlement ha\'e been going in for sev- 
eral weeks, not waiting at the border. No offi- 
cial signal gave notice of the time the proclama- 
tion took effect. It was simply 12 o'clock noon. 
Bossburg and Marcus were the principal points 
of entrance. The ferries were busy all night. 
Major Anderson, the agent, has been along the 
border the past few days making observations. 
The general rule observed was that a settler 
was not obliged to stay off the land, but could 
camp anywhere on the reservation in sight of 
the land he coveted, instead of at the border, 
and move on the land at once on the opening. 
At Northport much annoyance was expressed 
on account of the land not being surveyed. 
Only township lines are run out to the extreme 
east end." 

The Spokesiuaii - Rcvinc correspondent 
from Republic said : 

"The city hall bell rang today at 12 o'clock 
noon announcing the opening of the north half 
of the Colville reservation to agricultural set- 
tlers. Within a few minutes thereafter there 
were filings made with the United States Com- 
missioner O. S. Stocker. From that time until 
nine o'clock tonight (October 10) stragglers 
came in until the number reached twenty-five. 
There will he probably a larger number tomor- 
row as none was filed by those living at any 
considerable distance from Republic, or by per- 
sons who are not old time residents. The fil- 
ings were made upon lands near Curlew Lake, 


San Foil lake and along the streams feeding 
those lakes. There are no difficulties over 
lands so far as known here. Several persons 
filed on a ranch that has been cultivated for sev- 
eral years by a man named Murrier, but there 
has been no trouble over it yet. There were 
two or three races made to catch the commis- 
sioner's office first. Miss Elizabeth E. Bee- 
croft, well known in Spokane, where she once 
taught school, made the ride from a point on 
Curlew lake to Republic, nine miles, in fifty-nine 
minutes. Four miles of the road was over 
Klondike mountain." 

On the same date (October lo) a Kettle 
Falls correspondent wired : 

"It is exceedingly quiet here today, nowith- 
standing the fact that the reservation was 
opened at noon, nearly all those intending to go 
in having gone before and settled on or near 
their prospective homesteads." 

A Marcus correspondent said : 

"Agent A. M. Anderson, in charge of the 
Indians on the Colville reservation, and Clair 
Hunt arrived here this morning from an ex- 
tended trip through the reserve. The Indian 
agent discovered in a number of instances that 
settlers were attempting to encroach upon al- 
lotments and ordered the tresspassers off. Mr. 
Hunt said : 'There are "sooners" all over the 
reserve, and there \\as a great rush to make 
filings. Contests are numerous, in instances 
three or four men claiming the same land and 
all at work building houses on it.' " 

The interest taken by our Canadian friends 
across the border is manifested by the follow- 
ing from Grand Forks, B. C, under date Octo- 
ber 1 1 th : 

"Half a score or more of disappointed and 
disgusted homeseekers passed through here to- 
day on their way from Colville reservation. 
Thev came from various points along the upper 

Columbia river. Several of them were accom- 
panied by their families. Theirs was a hard 
luck story. In nearly every instance they had 
located on lands claimed by other individuals, 
and rather than await the outcome of intermin- 
able legal proceedings they concluded to aban- 
don their holdings. Others less fortunate ar- 
rived too late. Comparatively few of the home- 
steaders hastened to the land office to record 
their filings. The majority contented them- 
selves with erecting shacks on their holdings, 
feeling confident that such an evidence of good 
faith would more than counterbalance priority 
of registration. A number of settlers located 
on St. Peter's Flat, south of Curlew, only to 
discover today that their lands had already 
been patented as placer claims." 

On October loth and nth filings were 
made on homesteads in the Colville reserva- 
tion at the dififerent land offices as follows: 
Waterville, 1 1 1 homesteads and eight soldiers' 
applications ; Republic, 40 ; Spokane, 37. 

The free homestead law which was then ap- 
plied to the north half of the Colville Indian 
reservation has certainly made that region an 
attractive field for the bona fide homeseeker. 
The uncertainty of Indian titles there had been 
a rather strong incentive for white people to 
remain away from that region. But since it 
has been made clear what constitutes a "real 
Indian" for homestead purposes, it appears that 
a new and vast acreage of the reservation that 
had been held under Indian claims by white 
men and half breeds, claiming by marital ties 
is actually open to homestead entry. There is 
quite a large area lying east of the Kettle river 
that has not been prospected with a view to 
settlement by the people coming into the coun- 
try. It is now easily accessible, supplied with 
plenty of water and timber, and comprises the 
finest land and stock range in the countr\'. 




Near Kettle Falls. Erected in 1858. replacing a formi 
Church built in 1846. 



Due justice to the subject of which this 
chapter treats could not be done without a brief 
introduction concerning the geology of Stevens 
county. Although the Old Dominion mine, 
carrying gold, silver and lead, was the original 
mineral property opened in what is now the 
state of Washington, it is to her marble, ser- 
pentine, jasper and cjuartzite developments that 
the county owes her prominence. As has Ijeen 
previously stated the country rock is granite, 
(juartzite, marble, limestone and metamorphic 
rock in general. The marbles show stratifica- 
tion in but few places, the metamorphism hav- 
ing been great enough in most instances to de- 
stroy all traces of it. In places the sedimentary 
deposits are steeply inclined, having been much 
disturbed. In certain localities the marbles are 
found in contact with the granites. In the 
great part of the district fossils, if they e\'er 
did exist, have been destroyed. They are found 
in extremely limited quantities near Valley- 
Brook where the Washington Brick, Lime and 
Manufacturing Company are quarrying the 
limestone that occurs there and using it for the 
manufacture of lime. These fossils have been 
poorly preserved, and as yet it has not been pos- 
sible to do much with them. They ha\'e the 
a])pearance of being Palaeozoic corals. 

The same limestone and marble deposits 
are found to the north of Stevens county in 
British Columbia and in some places they con- 
tain a few poorly preser\-ed fossils which are 
thought to be of the Carboniferous age. It is 
quite likely that the Stevens county marbles 
and limestones are of the same age as those in 
British Columbia. Should the latter prove to 
1)6 Carboniferous the Stevens county fossils are 
probal:)lv the same. 

In the southern part of the marlile area it 
occurs low down either in valleys or low foot- 
hills. To the north it is found at a much 
greater altitude. Igneous and metamorphic 
rocks, such as granite, slate and quartzite are 
found in the highest part of the mountain 
ranges. In the foot-hills which border the Col- 
\-ille A^alley, from Valley-Brook to the north- 
ern end is found more or less marble and lime- 
stone. Indications show that the marbles and 
limestones of Stevens county are the remnants 
of what was at one period a much larger de- 
posit covering the country to the west as far as 
the Cascade Mountains. This area must have 
been under water at the time these deposits 
were forming, and these sediments accum- 
ulated, following which there was an elevation 
and the sedimentary rocks were folded more 
or less and in places, batUy broken. At the 
time this elevation took place the igneous rocks 
were forced up into those of sedimentary depo- 
sition, the sedimentary rocks more or less 
metamorphosed and thrown into anticlines and 
sinclines. At about this period erosion began 
to cut down this area and has succeeded in re- 
mo\-ing a large part of the limestone from it 
and especially from the highest parts where 
erosion would naturally be the greatest. The 
e\'idence of folding is not very great, and such 
evidence has been found in but a few instances. 
There is, however, plenty of evidence that there 
has been very marked disturlaances and in many 
places the strata are tilted and steeply inclined. 
In the northern part of Stevens county there 
are marked indications that this part of Wash- 
ington was covered with glaciers. In places 
large masses of rock, which are unlike the rock 
on which thev rest, are fnund, while in others 



the country rock plainly shows the effects of 
ice in the polished surface and striations which 
are found. 

In the matter of building and ornamental 
stone of various kinds Stevens ranks second to 
no county in the state. Granite, marble, jaspar, 
.serpentine and limestone comprise the principal 
material in this line. The quarry industry, yet 
in its infancy, has made rapid strides during 
the past few \ears and a large amount of money 
has been expended in developing this portion 
of the county's resources. The deposits of 
marble found in various sections are enormous 
and the prospect for their being extensively 
quarried is flattering. 

Concerning the history of the marble in- 
dustry in this county Mr. John B. Slater, while 
editor of the Stevens County Reveille, wrote 
the following under date of July 30, 1903 : 

In view of the interest being taken in the develop- 
ment of this industry it is interesting to know some- 
thing of the history of marble in its native state. .'\s 
early as 1804, when the famous explorers Lewis and 
Clarke traversed the wilds of the Pacific slope, then 
inhabited by Indian tribes. General Clarke reported the 
fact that a fine quality of marble abounded along the 
region traversed by the Columbia river. According to 
his reports the point traversed by the Columbia river, 
where he noted the fact that marble existed, was cer- 
tainly somewhere within the boundaries of Stevens 
county, and as he traveled over a vast range of country 
examining critically the geological formation, nowhere 
else did he find anything in the form or shape of marble 
worth mentioning. Soon after Fort Colville, which is 
located three miles north of this city, was garrisoned, 
in 1839, by two companies of California volunteers under 
the command of Major Curtis, who was, before his 
enlistment, chief of police of San Francisco, Lieutenant 
Whing, first lieutenant quartermaster in his cortipany, 
died at his own hands March 22, 1862. 

This was the first death of an officer reported at 
the post since its e.stablishment, and the garrison being 
small it created a profound sensation among the few 
who afforded the only military protection to this vast 
section of country. It was suggested by the soldiers 
that it was proper that his grave be marked by some 
suitable monument and the discussion of this matter 
brought forth the opinion and the skill of an ex- 
perienced marble cutter, who was a private in Lieuten- 
ant Whing's company, and he straightway, acting upon 
the encouragement of his comrades, explored the region 
inmiediatcly surrounding the fort for suitable stone 

from which to prepare a tablet upon which to inscribe 
the historical event. About three miles southeast of the 
fort he discovered a ledge of marble which appeared 
to be of suitable quality for the work he had in charge, 
and it was from this ledge that the beaiitiful slab was 
finished and lettered with the name of the soldier and 
the date of his death, and laid over the grave, a stone 
monument erected as a memorial to Lieutenant Whing. 

This is supposd to be the first marble tombstone 
erected in the eastern part of the state of Washington, 
and it is a fact worthy of commemoration that this 
first monument was carved out of Washington marble. 
When the military authority caused the remains of the 
soldier to be taken from the burying ground at the old 
garrison, some twelve years ago, and removed to the 
Presidio at San Francisco for final interment, the stone 
over the grave was discarded and soon afterwards 
picked up and used by a rancher as a base in an open 
fireplace built of stone. For a number of years this 
historical relic stood the test of fire until it was dis- 
covered by J. W. Douglas a few days ago and he being 
impressed with its origin, secured it as a memento to 
be held by his company commemorative of the first 
product of the kind in the state. This stone was about 
twenty-eight inches wide by three and a half feet in 
length, and is a beautiful blue, slightly varigated with 
white. The finish was effected by crude methods at the 
time, but the surface took a beautiful finish which re- 
mains upon the stone through ail its varied experiences 
of climatic conditions, which is considered a very re- 
liable test of the value of the stone. It is also worth 
mentioning that in after years when civilization began 
to supplant the military, that the marble slab, which has 
been described, proved an index to what has grown 
into an industry of such vast importance, .\bout the 
time the stone was discared from, the grave of Lieuten- 
ant Whing, Judge Samuel Douglas, of this city, traced 
its history and origin and forthwith located the immense 
ledge from which it was taken. Samples of the marble 
from these claims were sent to the St. Louis exposi- 
tion some twenty-five years ago and were reported as 
possessing every element of strength, susceptible of 
high polish and freedom from fracture that rendered 
it of the most desirable quality for commercial purposes. 

Soon after that George J. Wardwell, one of the 
most widely known marble operators in the state of 
Vermont, and the inventor of many useful devices for 
working marble, visited Colville and made a most 
thorough 'investigation of these marble quarries. He 
pronounced it one of the finest deposits of the native 
material he had ever seen, but discouraged its develop- 
ment, because, as he stated, lack of transportation was, 
practically, prohibitive for working it with the ex- 
pectation of any profit. Mr. Douglas took fresh cour- 
age from the statement of Mr. Wardwell, and after rail- 
road facilities had been established in the county, he 
associated himself with his brother, J. W. Douglas, a 
well-known attorney of Spokane, and a number of 
eastern parties, and organized the Standard Marble- 



Onyx Company. This company acquired title to sur- 
rounding land until now it has a holding of nearly 800 
acres in one body at this place. They have also ac- 
quired some marble properties at Chewelah, in this 
county, and have expended considerable capital and 
energy in their development. During the present season, 
and within the last two months, the Standard Marble- 
Onyx Company has placed upon the quarries a large 
plant of machinery for quarrying the marble and as soon 
as developments will justify they will put in the neces- 
sary machinery and mills for working and polishing the 
marble upon the grounds. Within the next year this 
company, according to its present plans, will have eight 
or ten quarries opened. Within their holdings may be 
found thirty different varieties and colors of marble ; 
and these for fineness of texture, beauty of finish and 
resistance of pressure, will equal if not suppass the 
product of any quarries in the United States. It is 
claimed that this wide range of colors to select from 
renders it possible to meet exery demand of the trade 
without having to divide honors with any other concern 
to furnish a quality of marble that cannot be produced 

Mr. Charles Lyman, who represents the largest man- 
ufacturers of marble machinery in the State of Vermont, 
•was recently here from Rutland, and spent two months 
examining the various deposits of marble in this section. 
His object in making a searching investigation of the 
marbles of this county was to determine the advisability 
of looking to this county for a market for his machinery. 
After going personally over the ground Mr. Lyman 
states that the marbles of Washington are in texture, 
far ahead of anything he has ever seen east or west, 
and especially are they remarkable for solidity. The 
deposits stand vertical with a tendency pitching east- 
ward, trending north and south, which is an evidence 
of permanance. The great width of the deposits are in 
remarkable contrast to the variety and narrow ledges 
of the material to be found in most places in the east. 
Here a ledge of marble of an identical color may be 
found without a change for a width of from 100 feet 
when another ledge of equal width of another distinct 
color may be immediately adjoining; and these changes 
may occur over a wide surface of country. 

"There is no comparison to be made," said Mr. 
Lyman, "with Vermont, as against Washington marble, 
in variety and colors. Washington is certainly in the 
lead of all marble producing countries, and so far as 
the quality and quantity are concerned there is a great 
abundance of it here ; in fact it is inexhaustible and it 
is evidenced from growing demands for building ma- 
terial for fine finish, that the builders of the country 
must, eventually, as a matter of necessity, come to the 
state of Washington for their supply." 

It is not now a question of transportation because 
the west, so far as marble is concerned, can compete with 
.the east in furnishing its products to the market. 

The process of extracting the various dimen- 
sions of marble is at once interesting and in- 
structive. There is no blasting in this delicate 
quarry work. All marble must l:>e drilled out. 
This is accomplished by means of steam drills. 
To raise a block intact and free from fracture 
a succession of holes must be drilled around 
the block. A "broaching" bit is then substi- 
tuted for the drill, and the partitions between 
the drill holes are cut out. The block is then 
loose, and is lifted by means of a powerful 
derrick onto a car running on a tramway built 
for the purpose, from the quarry to the mill, 
where it is placed under the stone gang saw. 
This saw is a sash apparatus which carries as 
high as fifty blades if necessary. The saws are 
adjusted to cut whatever dimensions are re- 
quired. When sawed the marble slabs, or 
blocks, are passed on to the rubbing bed; the 
face of the stone is reduced to a smooth sur- 
face, and it is ready for boxing and shipment. 
For the manufacture of pottery, terra cotta, 
sewer pipe and brick the county contains large 
deposits of suitable clays. Clays which make 
an excellent cement when mixed with limestone 
also abound. The clays which occur around 
Clayton are being used by the Washington 
Brick, Lime and Manufacturing Company for 
purposes of terra cotta, sewer pipe and brick. 
Here the company have an extensive plant 
affordmg employment to a large number of 
men. Good pottery clays are found in the 
same locality that are utilized by the Standard 
Stoneware Company, the plant of which is 
located at Clayton in the manufacture of all 
kinds of pottery ware. Limestone suitable for 
the manufacture of lime is found at Valley- 
Brook, an excellent grade of lime being pro- 

Reverting to the subject of marble it may 
be said that the Crystal Marble Company is one 
of the few corporations of this sort in the west 
whose operations have passed the experimental 
stage. Although the first location was made in 


June, 1899. the present company was not in- 
corporated unt'l August, 1901. The work of 
legitimate development has been constant!}' and 
consistently prosecuted until at the present time 
no question exists as to the ability of the quar- 
ries to produce a marble of exceptional 
value in quantities so great that the out- 
put need only be limited by the extent 
of the operations. The quarries of which 
five large ones have been opened and put 
into condition for immediate production are 
located about nine miles southwest of the town 
of Colville. and the land held by the company 
covers an extent of 1340 acres, or an area as 
great as sixty-seven full mining claims, or more 
than eight farms of 160 acres each. This prop- 
erty is not scattered but is in one block, and is 
heavily wooded with pine, cedar and fir timber 
of excellent size. This asset of the company 
alone is a very valuable one ; but when consid- 
eration is taken of the fact that it is almost cer- 
tain that this vast area is entirely underlaid 
with marble of high quality, the value of the 
timber) sinks into comparative insignificance. 
Recent borings in the vicinity show a depth of 
1 100 feet vertical of crystaline limestone or mar- 
ble and the continuity of the material for the 
working of many generations — perhaps cen- 
turies — is thereby assured. The contour of the 
country at and surrounding the quarriesof the 
Crystal Marble Company is all that could be de- 
sired. Two excellent roads of easy grade lead 
down to Colville and Addy on the Spokane 
Falls & Northern Railway. For the near fu- 
ture a spur to the quarries has been promised, 
and railroad rates have been secured which will 
allow the product to be shipped as far east as 
the Mississippi river and lake points. 

The Crystal Marble Company is incorpor- 
ated under the laws of the state of Washington, 
with offices at Colville. The officers are Robert 
E. Lee. president, C. W. Winter, treasurer. F. 
H. Chase, manager, Symons Block. Spokane. 
C. F. Conrady. vice president and C. A. Mantz. 
secretary. It is reported that Larson & Green- 

ough recently paid for a one-quarter interest in 
the property $25,000. 

The officers of the Keystone Marble Com- 
pany, another promising quarry, are E. M. 
Heifner, president: William E. Richardson, 
joint judge of Spokane and Stevens counties, 
vice president ; W. L. Sax, secretary and treas- 
urer; S. S. Beggs, J. F. Lavigne, George Bell, 
W. R. Baker and T. F. O'Leary, trustees. The 
Eureka Marble Quarries, now the property of 
the Keystone Marble Company, are situated 
about sixteen miles north of Colville, in Stev- 
ens county, and in the foot-hills of the Pend 
d' Oreille range of mountains. Bossburg, ten 
miles distant, is the nearest railway station, with 
an easy grade. These properties comprise the 
Eureka No. i. Eureka No. 2, Eureka No. 3 and 
Eureka No. 4. Each of these claims is 600 feet 
in width by 1.500 feet in length and the aggre- 
gate area covered is about eighty acres of pure 
marble. An estimate of the character and 
values of these properties is. indeed, flattering. 
It is claimed that this vast deposit is capable of 
producing a quality of marble superior to the 
finest statuary product of Italy. Only the \^er- 
mont quarries furnish it, and that in limited 
quantities. It is said that the product will com- 
mand an average of $12 per cubic foot at any 
point in America, and it is no more expensive 
to take this marble from its restifig place than 
it is the cheaper qualities. Ordinarily white 
marble is worth from $4 to $10 per cubic foot 
to the trade. Aside from the pure white the 
Keystone carries a variety of colored marble 
ranging from the most delicate tints to deep 
gray, mottled and white. There are also beau- 
tiful pinks and deeper shades showing brilliant 
effects when when polished. Facility for pro- 
duction is excellent. This feature has been ex- 
amined by Mr. George Bell, who enjoys a long 
ex])erience as an artificer in stime, especially 
marble. It is his testimony that the stone is 
substantially in place, and that it has not been 
broken up, checked or shattered by volcanic 
action, or other subterranean disturbances. He 


stated that all atmospheric effect ceased at a 
depth of from six to twenty feet below the sur- 
face, and that beneath these depths the marble 
is solid in texture, meeting every requirement 
as to pressure and expansion, and is susceptible 
of the most delicate carvings and the most soft 
and beautiful polish. It is estimated that 
$2o;ooo will place a plant of marble-working 
machinery on these properties that will afford 
substantial results from the sale of the product. 
The Columbia River Marble Company has 
acquired title to 1,300 acres of marble land. 
This is a mountain of marble; resembles no 
other deposit in this country and is an inex- 
haustible mass which cannot be estimated in 
cubic feet without making the figures look 
ridiculously large. The marble rises in giant 
cliffs, spreads in broad, smooth floors, and is 
present upon every foot of the tract owned by 
the company. This property lies one hundred 
miles north of Spokane, three miles from Boss- 
burg, and just across the Columbia river from 
the Spokane Falls & Northern railway which 
is a part of the Great Northern trans-conti- 
nental line. From the marble bluffs a cable 
tram will land blocks of any desired size upon 
the cars on the opposite side of the stream. Its 
proximity to transportation adds largely to the 
value of the property. The greater portion of 
the marble is cream-tinted, with occasional 
bold markings of black and often delicate trac- 
ings and pencilings of the latter. It is close 
knit, solid at the very surface, semi-translucent 
and a fine crystalled marble. It takes a plate 
glass polish without the application of expen- 
sive materials. This peculiar cream-tinted 
marble is identical in appearance with the 
world-famous Pavanazza marble of Italy. 
With American architects the Italian Pa- 
vanazza is popular, and they are using it abund- 
antly in interior decorative work in eastern 
cities. The officers of the Columbia River Mar- 
ble Company are George W. White, of New 
York, president; Thomas H.' Greenway, of 
Onyx, Washington, vice-president, and Jesse 

L. Bishop, of Spokane, secretary. Air. Green- 
way was the first to discover and develop mar- 
ble in Washington, and Mr. Bishop was for 
three years at the head of the office force of the 
United States Marble Company, of Spokane. 
One of the most valuable locations of the Co- 
lumbia Company is "Spion Kop," a round- 
topped mountain of marble, every cubic inch of 
which is high grade material, rivalling the best 
Italian marble. 

Of this deposit Conner Malott, city editor 
of the Spokesman-Rcvieiv has written : 

A deposit of marble has been found in Stevens 
county that is nothing, short of amazing in size and in 
the variety of the ornamental stone which it contains. 
It lies along the bluffs on the west shore of the Columbia 
river, two miles above Bossburg, and to measure it 
by metes and bounds would be almost impossible. A 
vast deposit of the rock extends for nearly two miles 
and has been exposed over a surface of more than one 
thousand acres. Throughout the whole property marble 
outcrops at the very surface in broad, smooth floors or 
in mighty bluffs, of a size that seem incredible. .\t 
Spion Kop, the highest point where it is exposed, there 
is a cliff of white marble nearly a quarter of a mile long 
that rises almost as sheer as the side of a house, for two 
hundred feet. 

There are tombstones for unborn millions in that 
huge wall alone. 

The property was examined pretty thoroughly by 
Thomas H. Greenway, superintendent of the United 
States Marble Company, and he has spent more or less 
time on it since. Mr. Greenway and C. E. Mitchell 
organized a corporation to work the property. They 
called it the Columbia River Marble Company, and they 
have started development. The company has secured 
title to 1,230 acres of marble land. There is very little 
wash on the property and the marble outcrops to the air 
in hundreds of places. It shows upon the hillside in al- 
most perfectly plane floors that are like the top of a 
table in smoothness and freedom from cracks. Then 
in the cliffs, such as those on Spion Kop, it breaks away 
in precipices that make one almost too dizzy to look 
down upon. 

The marble is of many grades. At the southern 
portion of the property it is a hard, white crystal, not 
unlike loaf sugar in color and texture, though it takes 
a fine polish. It is peculiarly hard and is perhaps best 
adapted for exterior building purposes. Toward the 
middle of the property it gives way to a mottled stone, 
where the white rock is shot through with streaks and 
patches of a darker tone. There seems to be no limit 
to the white and mottled stone. Mr. Greenway con- 
fidently declares that with a few channeling machines 



at work he can turn out marble at such low cost that it 
could compete with granite as a building material in 
Spokane. He declares that he can keep dimension stock 
in yards in Spokane so cheaply that a man wanting a 
stone step or a sill for a door can get it of marble at 
the price he would have to pay for ordinary building 
rock. If a quarter of what Mr. Greenway confidently 
e.xpects should come true marble from the Columbia 
river quarries will soon be a staple in the building trade 
throughout the northwest. It is not all marble of such 
a character, however. At the north of the property, 
between Spion Kop and the river, there is a deposit 
of cream-colored stone which is too rare ever to be used 
for common work. Marble men say that it most re- 
sembles the Pavanazza marble of Italy. It is a faintly 
colored stone, partly translucent, and its color tones are 
exquisite. It will always be used for the highest grade 
of interior finish. Mr. Greenway expects it will be the 
product which will give the widest fame to the quarries, 
and certainly it is a wonderfully beautiful stone. 

Nestled within the confines of the property are two 
delightful little lakes, one of which has long been 
known to the Indians for its curative qualities. It is 
surrounded on every side by marble outcrops, and it is 
probably the only place in the world where the noble 
Siwash has bathed himself in a marble bathtub. 

The Jefferson Marble, Mining & Milling- 
Company was incorporated under the laws of 
the state of Washington on the 28th day of 
August, 1899, by the discoverers of the first 
deposit of marble. The present ofificers are D. 
J. Zent, Colville, president ; Samuel Hutchin- 
son, Lind, Washington, vice-president: George 
J. Heimbach, Colville, treasurer: W. W. Zent, 
Ritzville, Washington, secretary. The trustees 
are S. Ott, W. W. King, George H. Kanzler, 
H. E. Hill, W. W. Zent. The marble property 
acquired is comprised in three claims known as 
the "Lilywhite," "Sunnyside," and the "Unex- 
pected." These were taken under the placer 
regulations and each contains twenty acres. 
The company's property is in the Colville Min- 
ing district, situated between the north and 
south forks of Clugston creek, fourteen miles 
by wagon road north of Colville. The com- 
pany now owns 450 acres, or twenty-two 
claims, together with the exclusive water right 
on Clugston creek, and plenty of timber for 
lumber and fuel for many years to come. 

This marble has a specific gravity of 2.'/2,^\ 

and 171 pounds to the cubic foot in weight, or 
13. 1 feet per ton. It has a resisting strength of 
2,100 pounds to the cubic inch. There are 
twelve distinct colors varying from dark blue 
to pure statuary white. There are, also, pink, 
rose and mottled grades, all susceptible of a 
high polish. The company enlisted the services 
of a very capable and thorough mining engi- 
neer, Mr. Charles Carruthers, a graduate of the 
Royal School of England, who made careful 
and scientific examinations. This was done be- 
fore any great amount of money was expended. 
The result of each examination and test is said 
by the officers of the company to haA-e been 
highly satisfactory. The price of this marble 
ranges from $3 to $15 per cubic foot f. o. b. at 
Colville. The price depends upon the color, 
quality and quantity purchased. 

The Jefferson Company owns, also, four 
mineral claims, carrying carbonates and silver. 
The principal one, the Comstock, is recog- 
nized as one of the most promising proposi- 
tions in the district. There are 250 feet of 
tunnel, 20 feet of winze and 35 feet of drift, 
making a total of 365 feet of underground 
work, together with an ore chute 500 feet in 
length. This property is about one mile south 
and east of the marble quarries. 

Among other marble prospects under de- 
velopment are a number of most flattering lo- 
cations in Stevens county. The Chewelah 
Marble Company, seven miles southeast of 
Northport, is about ready to ship its product, as 
is, also, the Allen Marble Company, two miles 
south of the same city. The United States 
Marble Company, twelve miles west of Valley, 
is quite an extensive concern, producing several 
varieties of varigated stone for which it finds a 
ready market. The Great Western Company, 
eight miles west of Addy, is just beginning to 
market its product, while the North American, 
west of Valley, and the Colonial, six miles west 
of Addy, do not as yet ship any marble, but ex- 
pect to do so at an early day. 

During the month of October, 1903, the 



United States Marble Company closed two im- 
portant deals, one in Seattle and the other in 
New York, for the sale of $21,000 worth of 
their Italian green marble. The Seattle con- 
tract called for $11,000 worth of the marble 
from the quarries of the United States Com- 
pany to be used in decorating the entrance of 
the Lumber Exchange, in the coast city. The 
following day an order was received from New 
York for five car-loads in the rough, involving 
a purchase price of $10,000. 

In 1890 the initial lime kiln was placed in 
commission in Stevens county for the purpose 
of burning lime for the trade. Previous 
to that period all the lime for building purposes 
was brought from Puget Sound. Today the 
Stevens county kilns supply the demands of 
nearly all of Eastern Oregon, Washington, 
Idaho and a part of British Columbia. The 
Springdale Lime Works, having kilns also at 
Clayton, are the largest on the Pacific coast 
and are said to produce the best quality of lime 
on the market. 


The original search for mineral in Wash- 
ington dates from an early day. It had been 
followed in a desultory manner since the first 
excitement attending the discovery of placer 
claims in the vicinity of Oro Fino, Idaho. So 
early as 1858 Indians attacked and turned back 
several parties of miners attempting to make 
. their way to the northward of Colville Valley 
in search of alleged bonanzas lying across the 
boundary. Owing to this fact a number of 
these would-be prospectors and miners located 
in the Colville Valley, sought other lines of in- 
dustry and became influential and respected 
citizens, contributing much to the upbuilding 
of the country. 

For a number of years following the rather 
indefinite and unsuccessful pursuit of the yel- 
low metal stories continued to be rife of ex- 
ceedingly rich exposures of outcroppings, and 

these tales continued to fan the flames of inter- 
est in the locality now known as Colville. The 
Kootenays had not been discovered. The rich 
mineralized sections of the Coeur d' Alenes had 
been merely scratched by prospectors, although 
some faint idea of the value of the district was 
l>eginning to be realized. Northeastern Wash- 
ington was, practically, unexplored. About this 
period Patrick and William Kearney advanced 
into this vicinity on a prospecting trip. They 
had been told of the existence of mineral in 
some sequestered spot of what was in that day 
the Territory of Washington. This informa- 
tion had been conveyed to them by Indians. 
According to fairly well authenticated tradi- 
tion they were out in search of this legendary 
gold deposit. 

It was in March, 1885, that the Old Do- 
minion mine, a gold, silver and lead proposi- 
tion, was discovered, probably the original 
quartz location in Eastern Washington. The 
history of its discovery is interesting. The two 
Kearneys, accompanied by A. E. Benoist, were 
first encouraged by indications of mineral 
found on the mountain upon which is now lo- 
cated the Nevada and New Era group of mines. 
An expert might term the discovery highly 
scientific; a "tenderfoot" will, doubtless, pro- 
nounce it a pure run of luck. It was the winter 
season ; the slopes of the mountain range, 
sheering ofif to the northeast, afforded a most 
picturesque view : a panorama painted by the 
hand of nature, and one of the many which 
brighten the scenic perspective of the entire 
state of Washington. 

By taste, experience and, perhaps, the 
strong influence of heredity, Mr. Benoist was 
a genuine and an ardent prospector; one of 
those sanguine natures with a vivid imagina- 
tion in the line of mineral exploitation. It is 
said today that never was he inactive while 
among the foot-hills or the mountains, a rest- 
less, eager hunter for the gleam of treasure. 
On the west side of the river he had discovered 
outcroppings. From the summit of the nearest 


peak which he immediately ascended he took 
his bearings to the northward. In his mind was 
firmly implanted the idea that upon this fissure 
there was certain to be an overflow, and at that 
spot he would gain all the wealth he desired. 

But there sprung up among this trio of 
gold seekers a radical difference of opinion. 
The two Kearneys declared that Benoist was 
demented. But not yet did they decide to de- 
sert him. With rapid steps the three men set 
out and walked a killing pace for two days. 
The third day found them seated on a sunny 
slope at the south end of the Old Dominion, at 
that time called Colville Mountain. The con- 
versation between the three prospectors was 
heated and the debate all one-sided so far as 
weight of opinion was concerned. The two 
Kearneys were disgusted and were trying 
seduously to persuade Benoist to return with 
them to the confines of civilization. But he re- 
mained obdurate. He declared himself deter- 
mined to prosecute his original idea, saying en- 
thusiastically that somewhere on that mountain 
must be the overflow of which he was in search. 
W^eary, footsore and discouraged the Kearneys 
who had determined to abandon Benoist, loi- 
tered upon the pleasant spot where they had 
paused for temporary relaxation from the 
heavy strain upon them. Idly they swung 
their prospecting picks in a vain endeavor to 
convice Benoist of the errors of his calcula- 
tions. A sharp point of rock was broken from 
the glacial covering of soil. It proved to be 
mineralized. The expert Benoist hastily pro- 
claimed the discovery. He proceeded to inves- 
tigate the extent of the deposit. Half an hour 
later stakes were driven and the Old Dominion 
mine was located — a mine which produced over 
$500,000 in silver, lead and gold during the 
same year of its discovery. There were four 
original locators named in the filing, as neither 
the Kearneys nor Benoist possessed capital, and 
each of these for several years enjoyed an in- 
come of $8,000 a month. 

At the time he first observed the outcrop- 
ping Benoist is credited with saying : 

"There is plenty of mineral in this hill, but 
we are too poor to fool with it, because we will 
have to give some of it away to get money to 
develop it." 

Benoist also contended that if they had con- 
tiriued south on the same contact they would 
have found a mine as good as the Old Domin- 
ion. The Deer Trail group of mines have been 
developed upon the same contact but in a 
southerly direction from the original discovery. 
For four years they produced liberally and of a 
quality of ore identical with that of the Old 

Writing in 1895 Mr. John B. Slater con- 
tinues the description of the Old Dominion 
mine, bringing it down to that date. It will be 
observed by the reader that he gives credit to 
W. H. Kearney, A. E. Benoist and E. E. 
Alexander for its discovery and location. He 

"Stevens county since its earliest settle- 
ments were made, over fifty years ago, has been 
known as a mineral country, but it remained 
for more advanced civilization to take the first 
steps in development of the resources in that 
direction. It was in the month of March, 1885, 
that the discovery of the Old Dominion was 
made by W. H. Kearney, .A. E. Benoist and E. 
E. Alexander upon the east end of what is now 
known as Old Dominion mountain, si.x miles 
east of the town of Colville. They had traced a 
limestone and granite contact over the country 
for many miles in search of mineral, but were 
attracted to a spot on the point of the mountain 
where the snow had melted from the ground. 
It was at this point that the three prospectors, 
while discussing the lay of the beautiful pan- 
orama of country that lay to the south and 
west, saw croppings of rich ore projecting from 
the crevices along the brow of the cliff beneath 
their feet. The trained eye of the experienced 
prospector seized the fragments of the precious 


metal that had been so mysteriously revealed, 
with exultations of joy that knew no bounds. 
The location was staked off and named the 
Old Dominion. With their own hands these 
prospectors extracted several tons of the ore, 
and with the assistance of friends, secured 
transportation for it to San Francisco, where it 
was given a thorough test and netted them 
nearly $3,000. 

"This discovery attracted the attention of 
the whole west to the mineral fields of Wash- 
ington for the first time, and since that day a 
steady growth has characterized the industry; 
and the world has never lost interest in the 
merit and extent of its development and pro- 
duction. As has teen frequently said, the Old 
Dominion has paid from the grass roots. From 
the day of its discovery it has been in active 
operation, during a period of ten years (or 
since 1885). It had not one dollar of capital 
to start with, but it has been the means of lay- 
ing the foundation for the fortunes of hun- 
dreds of people who now live happily and con- 
tented with themselves beneath the shadow of 
the great mountain which bears its name. In 
1892 Mr. G. B. Dennis, one of the best known 
financiers of the Pacific slope, who has had vast 
€xperience in the development of a number of 
the greatest mining enterprises in the country, 
examined this property with a view to ascer- 
tain its possible extent and value, hoping that 
the information thus obtained might serve him 
to great advantage in making investments and 
developing other enterprises in the country. He 
was so much pleased with it that he resolved to 
purchase it. After repeated efforts Mr. Dennis 
and his associates in the transaction succeeded 
in effecting a purchase of the property for a 
large sum of money. Mr. Dennis, through his 
intimate relations with the money centers of 
the east, and by a long established reputation 
for integrity, great executive ability and busi- 
ness foresight, coupled with indomitable energy 
and unsurpassed skill in the management and 
control of great enterprises, immediately or- 

ganized the Old Dominion Mining & Concen- 
trating Company, with a capital of $1,000,000, 
with G. B. Dennis as president and general 
manager; Cyrus Bradley, secretary; John 
Hanly, superintendent. The Old Dominion 
mine was at once transferred to the ownership 
and control of this corporation. No sooner 
had the company been organized than the capi- 
tal stock was all subscribed and it was recog- 
nized as one of the most substantial institu- 
tions of the kind in the country. Many thou- 
sands of 'dollars were at once expended in the 
construction of the largest concentrating plant 
in the state of Washington. The machinery is 
of the best and of the latest improved pattern. 
An 80-horse-power compressed air plant was 
built, and heavy hoisting machinery placed in 
position. A shaft is now being sunk to the 
600-foot level to meet the face of a 1200-foot 
tunnel, and in all about 5,000 feet of develop- 
ment work has been done. Regardless of the 
low price of silver during a long period of un- 
precedented financial depression, and the con- 
dition of distrust that has prevailed through- 
out the country, this mine has kept a large force 
of men employed continually, and under its 
present management has produced over $600,- 
000 of high-grade ore from its vast deposits 
near the original discovery that have been 
worked from a depth not to exceed seventy-five 
feet from the surface of the ground at that 
point. The value of the ore is carefully esti- 
mated at 450 ounces of silver per ton, and 33 
per cent lead. Large reserves of rich ore are in 
sight. The company will not ship ore at pres- 
ent for the reason that it possesses the capital 
to push development, and considers it a prefer- 
able investment to store the product in waiting 
for better times and higher prices in the future. 
"The Old Dominion Company now owns, 
in addition to the Old Dominion mine, fifteen 
other properties adjoining and is pursuing a ju- 
dicious, systematic and vigorous policy in their 
development. Mr. Dennis was the first to in- 
troduce heavy capital in the Coeur d' Alene 


mines of Idaho, and has been a great factor in 
the development of the mining of the North- 
west, and will continue to direct the same force 
in the upbuilding of the mining interests of 
Stevens county, which he recognizes as the 
richest field in which he has had the good for- 
tune to interest himself." 

The mining interests of all districts have 
been marked with alternate prosperity and de- 
pression. In this respect what is known as the 
Colville district has not differed materially 
from others. Yet the fact remains that it has 
■ reached a more advanced stage of development 
and produced more ore than any other silver 
district in the state of Washington. It forms 
the southern half of a belt extending about ten 
miles east from the Columbia river across the 
Colville, and from the headwaters of Cedar and 
Deep creeks, which debouch into the Pend d' 
Oreille river near the National Boundry line, 
southward for seventy-five miles, terminating 
in that direction in the Cedar Canyon District. 
Like all other pioneer discoveries it has had its 
successive periods of activity and torpor. 

The formation of this belt of country is 
granite, lime, slate and quartzite, and is veined 
with a belt of bodies of silver-lead ores, run- 
ning sometimes north and south and others 
east and west. These occur either in contacts 
between granite and lime, slate and lime, or 
slate and quartzite, or in fissures in the slate or 
lime. Where they occur in the lime formation 
the ledges show a good deal of surface disturb- 
ance, but at depth settle into permanent bodies 
of ore either in chutes or veins. In the slate 
formation the ledges are almost invariably in 

Although there are hundreds of claims and 
prospects throughout Stevens county in various 
stages of development the following is a list 
of the patented mines, the person or persons in 
whose names the property is assessed and the 
full value of each mine, as assessed with im- 
provements, taken from the 1903 assessment 

Capitol Lode — H. A. Armstrong, $250; 
Bonanza Mine — Deer Trail Consolidated, 
$5,000; Cleveland Mine — Cleveland Mining 
Company, Olympia, $5,200; Triangle Fraction, 
$200; Stuart Fraction, $200; Lucky Boy,. 
$200; Copper King, $200; Copper Queen, 
$200; Etta — Northwest Development Com- 
pany, $200; Tom Sawyer — ditto, $200; Cop- 
per Bell — ditto, $200; Ona — ditto, $200; 
Cream Tint Kaolin M.— E. S. Graham estate, 
$250; Bella May— R. B. Merrill, $100; Dia- 
mond R.— R. B. Merrill, $100; Blue Bucket— 
R. B. Merrill, $100; Friday— F. W. Billings, 
$1,500; Saturday — ditto, $1,000; Friday 
Fraction — ditto, $500: Grand View — ditto, 
$1,500; Monta Quartz — ditto, $500; Mill Site 
— ditto, $150; Lost Axe (Placer) — ditto, 
$200; Clifford (Placer), $200; California, 
$750; Daisy Lode, $600; Buckeye Mine — D. 
P. Jenkins. $100; Eagle Mine — Eagle Cop., 
G. M. & M. Company, $200; Reeves— Old Do- 
minion M. & M. Company, $50; Old Dominion 
— ditto. $1,500; Ophir Boy^ditto, $50; Ella — 
ditto, $250; Tillie P., $50; Spaulding— ditto, 
$50; Buda— ditto, $50; Airline— ditto, $50; 
Walter — ditto, $50; Tres Pinos — ditto, $50; 
International — George J. Goodhue, $177; Sil- 
ver Crown, $125; Northern Light, $125; En- 
terprise — Scotia M. & M. Company, $150; 
Morning Star — ditto, $150; Elephant — Cedar 
Canyon C. M. Company, $10,000; Defiance, 
Victory and Challenge — F. G. Slocum, $1,000; 
Crescent > and Deadwood — Orient M. & M. 
Company, $2,500; First Thought, Homestake 
and First Thought, Fraction and Annex Lodes 
— First Thought Mining Company, Limited, 

The total full value of improvements on 
these mines assessed is $900. The full value 
of these mines as assessed is $86,377. The last 
named mine had its assessment reduced to 
$25,000 by the county board of equalization, 
leaving a total of $61,377. 

The original silver-lead discovery was 
made in 1883, at the Embry camp, two miles 



east of Chewelah. It was made by a party of 
prospectors sent out by John N. Squire, of 
Spokane. In that section the ore carries gale- 
na, sulphide of silver, some carbonate of lead 
and chloride of silver, mixed with iron and cop- 
per pyrites. Within two years this was fol- 
lowed by a rush of prospectors. Explorations 
continued northward. Following the location 
of the Old dominion came discovei'ies at the 
heads of Deep and Cedar creeks, and along the 
range east of the Columbia to Little Dalles. 
This territory was included in the Northport 
District. The Young America, at Bossburg, 
is fifteen miles south, the ore being entirely 
lead and silver. The Big Bonanza lies five 
miles from this, southeast. Here the ore is a 
mixture of heavy galena and iron pyrites, car- 
rying about forty per cent lead and ten ounces 
of silver. Still traveling southward we come 
to Gold Hill, two miles east of Marcus. The 
ore here is copper pyrites carrying gold. Five 
miles more to the south is Rickey mountain 
where there is a large quantity of gray copper 
ore. This, however, is very much broken and 
no solid bodies are found. Summit Camp lies 
fifteen miles onward where the ore carries 
galena and lead carbonates, and this same class 
of ore is found at the Wellington five miles to 
the southwest. 

One of the most important mines in Stev- 
ens county is the Cleveland, discovered in June, 
1894, by Messrs. France, Finsley and Lingen- 
felter. It is situated five miles south of Wel- 
lington. The ore is galena carrying about 
thirty ounces of silver. The Cleveland is in 
the western portion of the county, in what is 
known as the Huckleberry range. Here is a 
rich deposit of silver-lead from twelve to fif- 
teen feet wide incased in a well-defined contact 
of lime and granite. Within two months of 
the date of its location the Cleveland was sold 
for the round sum of $150,000. George B. 
McAuley, a well-known Coeur d' Alene min- 
ing man, James Monaghan and C. B. King, 
two Spokane capitalists, were the purchasers 

at the price named. So early as 1895 they had 
thoroughly tested the value of the property and 
closed all doubt respecting the ore deposits, and 
at that period the property was not for sale at 
any price. In addition to the silver the ore 
runs 40 per cent lead to the ton. Although a 
large sum of money has been expended in de- 
veloping the ore bodies, little of it has been 
spent that has not been taken in value from the 
mine. Nearly thirty miles of roadway have 
been constructed, and shipments have been 
large. The ledge was tapped by a 200-foot 
cross-cut, from which a drift was run 150 feet, 
a winze sunk 60 feet and an upraise made for 
20 feet, the ore then being stoped out. The 
ledge occasionally pinches to two feet. The 
main ledge was struck forty feet higher up the 
mountain and carries 25 ounces of silver and 
59 per cent lead. 

On what is probably an extension of the 
Cleveland ledge Dr. J. P. Turney, A. W. 
Turner, C. G. Snyder, H. H. McMillan and C. 
E. Richard, of Davenport, located the Bland. 
It is six to eight feet between lime walls, as 
shown by a cross-cut and carries antimonial sil- 
ver, carbonates of copper and azurite, assaying 
52 ounces of silver, 5 per cent lead and a trace 
of gold. 

The Young America group of claims is a 
quarter of a mile northeast of Bossburg, on the 
Spokane Falls & Northern railroad, no miles 
from Spokane. The entire property is covered 
with float and a ledge cropping from twelve to 
twenty feet wide runs' across all four claims. 
The Bonanza is also reached from Spokane by 
the same railway, to Bossburg, and from there 
five miles in a southeasterly direction. Trav- 
eling southward from Bossburg we come to 
the Summit group of five claims, owned in 
1897 by the Summit Mining Company. These 
claims lie ten miles by wagon road from Addy 
station, on the Spokane Falls & Northern rail- 
road. The group is on a series of five parallel 
ledges of sulphide and galena ore, one of which 
is in the contact between slate and diorite, while 



the others are in fissure in the slate. All are 
dipping into the mountain at such angles as en- 
courage the belief that they will unite in a great 
contact vein at a depth of 600 feet, or less. 

Three and one-half miles by road, north- 
east of Chewelah, in the Colville Valley, is the 
Eagle group of six claims, at one time owned 
by I. S. Kaufman, C. D. Ide and C. W. Ide. 
The croppings show large deposits of galena 
and sulphides of silver in a limestone forma- 
tion. Development work shows ore chutes 
ranging from eighteen inches to eight feet in 
thickness, connected by stringers. The ore 
ranges in value from 25 to 100 ounces of sil- 
ver ; 40 to 70 per cent lead. 

The Buck Mountain group of eight claims 
is controlled by the Buck Mountain Mining 
Company. It lies four miles north of Cedar 
Canyon and twelve miles by road from Spring- 
dale, which latter town is forty-seven miles 
from Spokane. One ledge is six feet wide in a 
22-foot shaft, and in tunnels sixty and forty- 
five feet, which show eight inches of solid 
galena and bunches of that mineral throughout 
the ledges increasing in solidity with depth. 
One car-load returned 61 ounces of silver, TjYz 
per cent lead and assays have averaged about 
that figure. Another ledge is seven and one- 
half feet between lime and granite walls, and in 
a 3ofoot shaft shows chloride and gray cop- 
per ore throughout, assaying 64 ounces of sil- 
ver, $3 in gold and 8 per cent copper. An- 
other large ledge crops ten feet wide and 
carries chlorides which assay 36 ounces silver, 
12 per cent copper and $5.20 gold. Three 
claims are along another ledge between slate 
walls which a 40-foot shaft shows to widen 
from three and a half to seven feet. Assays 
from samples taken at increasing depths 
showed 40, 52 and 64 ounces of silver respec- 

Two miles southeast of Springdale, by 
road, is the Honest Johns group of three 
claims, owned by the Honest Johns Mining 
Company. The croppings show a 60-foot ledge 

containing iron carbonates. A cross-cut was 
driven 280 feet to tap the ledge 175 feet below 
the surface, which has since been extended. 
This cut a 30-inch stringer carrying 41 ounces 
of silver, 31 per cent lead and $2.20 in gold, 
besides 20 per cent iron, which makes it a good 
fluxing ore. 

Aside from the Deer Trail mine to the 
south of the Old Dominion, there is the Deer 
Trail No. 2, the principal one of twelve adjoin- 
ing claims, all controlled by the Deer Trail No. 
'2 Mining Company. It consists of rich min- 
eralized quartz, decomposed and acted upon by 
fire due to the slaking of the lime. The crop- 
pings carried 28 ounces in the form of black 
sulphurets and galena. The flakes of silver are 
sometimes as large as a silver dollar and thin 
as tin foil. The first car-load from near the 
mouth of the tunnel netted $237 at the smelter, 
the second over $600 and the third $1,000, in- 
creasing in value until one car netted over 
$2,900. The name of this miners consistent 
with the circumstances of its discovery. In 
August. 1894, W. O. and Isaac L. Vanhorn 
were pursuing two deer in Cedar Canyon. W. 
O. Vanhorn stumbled over a huge quartz 
boulder carrying galena, and immediately he 
began prospecting down the mountain. They 
had pieces of the boulder assayed and found 
between 70 and 80 ounces of silver to the ton. 
W. O. Vanhorn panned down some of the red 
sand for gold, but found strings and flakes of 
native silver. He sacked two and one-half tons 
which he hauled to Davenport, Lincoln county. 
After enduring much ridicule he secured suffi- 
cient money to pay the freight and received a 
payment of $150 a ton. He then shipped nine 
tons which netted him $1,360. 

In an impartial mining review the Kettle 
Falls district must not be overlooked. The 
promising mineral belt on Rickey Mountain is 
a valuable attestation of the richness of the 
district. It is fully covered by locations, the 
stakers being men of wide experience in their 
line. Its low altitude, mild climate and light 



fall of snow afford it many advantages and en- 
able the properties to be worked all the year 
round. It has excellent transportation facili- 
ties with ample timber and water closely con- 
tiguous. The Acme mine, six miles south of 
Kettle Falls, on the Columbia river, is a gold 
property with a little silver and lead as by- 
products. It has a vein of sixty-four feet with 
no walls, assays from which run from $60 to 
$88 a ton. The original owners of the Acme 
were Sig. Dilsheimer, of Colville, and some 
Portland and New York capitalists. They 
bonded the property to San Francisco parties 
and the new owners are eminently satisfied 
with their purchase. 

The Vulcan and the Fannie are two prop- 
erties in the Kettle Falls district in which min- 
ing men have great faith. They are owned by 
the Vulcan Gold Mining and Milling Company, 
and comprise forty acres of ground located on 
the west slope of Rickey Mountain, two and 
one-half miles south of Kettle Falls. The 
Mayflower, adjoining the Vulcan is, also, a 
promising property. The Mascot adjoins the 
Acme mine on the east. It is developed by a 
tunnel on the vein which is from three to ten 
inches thick, assaying 40 ounces of silver and a 
trace of gold. There is a road across the foot 
of the property making it easy of access. The 
owners of the Mascot were N. B. Wheeler and 
A. Curry, of Kettle Falls. 

Perhaps the most promising property in 
this district is the Silver Queen group of mines, 
the property of the Silver Queen Mining and 
Milling Company. The mines consist of three 
full claims and are situated about two and a 
half miles south of Kettle Falls on the Colum- 
bia river. The claims are known as the Silver 
Queen, Last Chance and Populist. Develop- 
ment work has been principally done on the 
Silver Queen, ^^ery high grade ore has been 
extracted, some selected samples assaying the 
marvelous values of 3,000 ounces of silver to 
the ton and no assay from the lead runs less 
than loi ounces, this carrying some lead. One 

half mile east of Kettle Falls is the Blue 
Grouse, consisting of five claims. It carries 
lead, silver and copper, and assays 63 ounces of 
silver, 45 per cent lead and a large trace of 

The Columbia River Gold Mining Com- 
pany owns five claims lying six miles southeast 
of Kettle Falls. The ledge is twenty-four feet 
in width and is a milk-white quartz carrying 
silver, gold and copper. Rich values are shown 
by assays. The Blind Discovery is a property 
that is but two claims removed south from the 
Silver Queen and Vulcan mines. This con- 
tiguity to these excellent properties is a most 
favorable indication for it. But it could easily 
stand on its own merits as the average values 
'from various assays is 72 per cent lead and four 
ounces of silver. J. F. Sherwood. P. Larson 
and others are the owners. 

It is the opinion of many of the best min- 
ing experts that the Metaline District is the 
coming great galena camp. That this is ap- 
preciated by the national government is attested 
by the fact that a large sum of money has been 
expended in blasting at Box Canyon, on the 
Pend d'Oreille river, widening and deepening 
that stream to make it navigable for steamers 
to Metaline, in order that its rich ores may be 
shipped to the smelters without the great ex- 
pense entailed in hauling to Box Canyon. Ore, 
however, has been packed from John Betten- 
court's mine with a twenty-horse train to Box 
Canyon, a distance of eleven miles, over a de- 
plorable road, and notwithstanding this ex- 
pense, smelted at a profit. The following are 
some of the most promising properties in the 
district : John Bettencourt. three claims, strict- 
ly galena ; Doc Done, two claims ; Enoch Carr, 
three claims; Tom Murphy, one claim. 

The Flat Creek sub-district, for it is lo- 
cated within the Northport District, is really a 
district by itself. It is in that portion of the 
reservation lying east of Kettle River, and may 
be termed the Rossland of Stevens county. The 
character of its ores is identical with that of 



the great British Columbia camp. There are 
over forty good properties in the Flat Creek 
District, the prevailing character of the ore be- 
ing gold and copper. One of the most promis- 
ing properties, and the one upon which has 
been done the most development work is the 
Badger Boy, a group of claims on Fifteen Mile 
creek. The present workings assay $56. 
Aside from this is the Lottie, the Poorman, tlit 
Triumph, the Lucky Find, the Bucknorn, the 
X Ray, the Silver Star and the McKinley. 
Carlson & Colender have several claims on Flat 
creek, and the Badger State Mining Company's 
mine is another Flat Creek property. The 
Bullion Mining Company's properties are on 
Bullion Mountain, between Crown and Rattle- 
snake creeks, and consist of several claims. 
This is a rich property, surface ores running 

The vast area of the Piere Lake District is 
almost covered by mineral locations. Through- 
out the entire district the formation is granite 
and porphyry, indicative of true fissures. The 
great mineralized belt on Sulphide Mountain, 
in the heart of the district, has been the potent 
medium in bringing fame to this locality. 
That it is rich in the precious metals is known 
to every prominent mining man in Washington, 
the Sunday Morning and Little Giant are very 
valuable properties, and their officers prominent 
in mining and other industrial circles. 

The Springdale District embraces the 
southern portion of Stevens county. Notable 
among the mines of the district are those in the 
southern portion of the Huckleberry range of 
mountains lying between the Colville and Co- 
lumbia river valleys. Mention has been made 
of the principle mines in this district, notably 
the Cedar Canyon. Cleveland and Deer Trail 
No. 2. The property of the Wells-Fargo, Min- 
ing Company consists of three claims situated 
three miles northeast from the celebrated 
Cleveland mine, in the Huckleberry Mountain, 
and twelve miles from Springdale. the princi- 
pal place of business of ihe company. While 

originally prospected as a precious metal mine, 
development work has adduced the fact that it 
is a pure antimony property, perhaps the only 
one in Stevens county. It has a three-foot 
solid ledge of this valuable metal which con- 
tains no lead or any other product that would be 
detrimental to the successful working of the 
antimony metal. The value of this property 
may best be judged from the fact that anti- 
mony is largely used in type-castings and al- 
loys, and for which there is a steady and per- 
manent demand. It is worth in the market at 
all times from nine to ten cents per pound. 
The Wells-Fargo Mining Company is capital- 
ized at $1,000,000, in shares of $1 each. Its 
officers are all prominent in industrial circles. 

The Chewelah District, of which the thriv- 
ing town of Chewelah is the center, has a con- 
siderable number of mining claims wiiich are 
among the most promising in Stevens county. 
Embraced in the Northport District are numer- 
ous properties of undoubted great worth. Pre- 
dominating ores are galena, gold and copper in 
the order named. Red Top Mountain, situated 
about equally distant from Northport and 
Boundary, and east of the Columbia river, 
is the scene of a great amount of active develop- 
ment work. West of the Columbia river, and 
on the reservation, Sophia Mountain properties 
are taking a front place. Considerable capital 
is being invested in the Northport District and 
many mining men are expressing great inter- 
est in its future. 

Aside from quartz operations placer min- 
ing is prosecuted profitably for miles on Sulli- 
van creek which empties into the Pend d' Ore- 
ille near Metaline. The largest operations are 
conducted by the Pend d' Oreille Gold Mining 
& Dredging Company, a syndicate of capital- 
ists of Oil City, Pennsylvania. The largest 
stockholder in this company is Daniel Geary, 
one of the leading factors of the Standard Oil 
Company. The company controls seven claims, 
is stocked for $100,000 at $1 a share and the 
stock has been freelv sold at par in Oil City. It 



is now withdrawn from the market. Concern- 
ing the question of placer mining Mr. John B. 
Slater wrote, in 1895 : 

"Mining for gold in quartz in Stevens 
county has not been followed with success, and 
search in that direction for the yellow metal 
does not attract much attention. But placer 
gold is abundant on the shores of the Colum- 
bia river, where it is deposited in the sands of 
the beaches and bars along the stream. For 
years the Chinese plied their quest for the prec- 
ious substance with great profit, but the white 
population have driven them out from the field 
and more substantial work and improved gold 
saving machinery has brought gold-mining out 
to an admirable degree. Along the river at 
Boundary City may yet be seen the washed 

lands that were worked by the placer miners of 
'forty-nine.' These lands are still rich and give 
up a goodly supply of wealth under the appli- 
cation of improved machinery. All along the 
river from Northport to Fort Spokane, a dis- 
tance of 100 miles, are hundreds of men work- 
ing the bars and flats with profit. It is esti- 
mated that one man with a rocker can take out 
from $25 to $50 a week. The gold is usually 
coarse, ranging from the size of a mustard seed 
to that of a few cents. A fair average of the 
pay dirt is forty cents to the square yard, but it 
is more likely to be more than less. During the 
year 1894 there was taken, in a round sum, 
from the placer grounds of Stevens county 
nearly half a million dollars." 



The present territory comprising the coun- 
ty of Stevens contains no city entitled to rank 
as a metropolis. Some of the territory which 
she has lost, however, particularly Spokane 
county, is not far behind the coast in the matter 
of handsome cities, vyith imposing buildings 
and grand perspectives of substantially paved 
streets. But it can be truthfully said that with 
■one or two exceptions, and those exceptions dis- 
mal failures, there is not a "boom" town within 
the present limits of Stevens county. Of the 
twenty or more platted towns within her terri- 
tory each one has enjoyed a healthy growth de- 
void of anything approaching the abnormal, 
feverish or sensational. Though small at 
pres,ent, so far as concerns population, the 
towns of Stevens county will range up along- 
:side those of any other county in eastern Wash- 

ington, outside of Spokane county. The ma- 
jority of them lie along the line of the Spokane 
Falls & Northern railroad, between Clayton on 
the south and Boundary to the extreme north. 
One cluster, including Scotia, Penrith, Camden 
and Newport, lie along the few utiles of Great 
Northern trackage in the southeastern portion 
of the county. A few others are located on 
the banks of the Pend d'Oreille and Columbia 
rivers, between which is the inhabited district 
of Stevens county, with its vast wealth of mar- 
ble and mineral deposits. 

A brief statistical record of the platted 
towns of Stevens county, giving the dates of 
their dedication and by whom platted, will not 
be out of place here : 

Colville — February 28, 1883. W. F. 



Kettle Falls — August 14, 1889, Eugene La- 
framboyse. Eighteen or twenty additions to 
Kettle Falls were platted in a very short time 
after this. 

Chewelah— March 28, 1884, E. J. Web- 
ster, J. S. Kaufman, Eugene G. Miller. 

Loon Lake — February 18, 1890, Cyrus F. 

Meyers Falls — September 18, 1890. One 
townsite by L. W. Meyers, September 18, 
1890; one townsite by Jacob A. Meyers Sep- 
tember 29, 1890, and one townsite by G. B. 

Squire City. — November 29, 1899, Charles 
O. Squire. This was Springdale, the name 
being changed later. See account of Spring- 
dale elsewhere. 

Marcus — ^June 27, 1890, ^Marcus Open- 
heimer, James Monaghan. 

Columbia — August 14, 1890, Adel Bishop. 

East Marcus — August 5, 1890, E. D. Mor- 
rison, O. B. Nelson. 

'Springdale — December 11, 1890, Thomas 

D. Schofield. 

Loon Lake Park — July 29, 1891, Daniel 
C. Corbin. This was afterward unplatted and 
used alone for park purposes. 

Valley — July 29, 1891, Daniel C. Corbin. 

Donald Townsite — December 5, 1891, Don- 
ald Mc Donald. 

Northport — May 28, 1892, Northport 
Townsite Company: by E. J. Roberts, presi- 
dent ; A. T. Herrick, secretary. 

Addy — January 23, 1893. G. Fatzer. 

Millington — May i. 1893, Consolidated 
Bonanza Mining & Smelting Company; by J. 

E. Foster, president; C. H. Armstrong, secre- 

Clayton — July 5, 1894. Washington Brick, 
Lime & Manufacturing Company ; by H. Brook, 
president ; Joseph H. Spear, secretary. 

Newport — August 14, 1897, Joseph H. 

Granite Point — September 24, 1900. John 
R. Stnne. John W. Chapman. 

Hunters — April 15, 1901, W. H. Latta. 
Daisy — April 9, 1902, Samuel L. Magee. 
Cusick — May 24, 1902, J. W. Cusick. 
Usk — June 9, 1903, George H. Jones. 

This is the county seat of Stevens county, 
which it has been for many years, and at periods 
when its jurisdiction covered a vast range of 
territory, nearly the whole of eastern Wash- 
ington, and at one time Idaho and a portion of 
Montana. The town is most eligibly located 
on a slightly plateau, sitting at the base of 
Mount Colville, yet overlooking the grand per- 
spective of the famously productive valley that 
bears its name. The census of 1900 gave Col- 
ville a population of 594, but during the past 
three years this has been increased to over 800. 
The altitude of Colville, as given by the United 
States Geological Survey, is 1,602 feet; that of 
Colville Mountain, by the North Transconti- 
nental survey, 5,667 feet. _It is an incorpo- 
rated city on the line of the Spokane Falls & 
Northern Railroad, eighty-eight miles north of 

In many respects Colville is a most charm- 
ing place of residence. To the north rises a 
gentle declevity shaded by handsome groves, 
known as "Nob Hill," commanding from its 
picturesque eminence a full view of the beauti- 
ful Colville valley, through which winds like 
a silver thread in a cloth of green the Colville 
ri\er. Clustered among the shade trees of 
Nob Hill are some of the most elegant, com- 
fortable and modem residences in the state. To 
the east rise in successive heights, like mam- 
moth terraces, a range of imposing mountains, 
the whole north and east forming an effective 
background for one of the prettiest townsites 
in Washington. To the southward trends the 
Colville river in sinuous convolutions, fringed 
by low trees and bushes, and winding through 
the richest and most productive hay land in 
the countrv. 



Although a comparatively \-irgin region 
Colville is one of the oldest towns in the state. 
Much of its earliest history has already been 
gi\-en in the first chapter of the second part of 
this work, and necessarily so. Therein will be 
read how the original town, a few miles distant, 
was named "Pinkney City," and the conditions 
under which the county seat was removed to 
its present site, together with the date of the 
same. The first building erected on the site of 
the present town of Colville is the brewery 
which is still in existence and located on Main 
street. This edifice was erected in 1874 by 
John U. Hofstetter. For a period of eight 
years it remained the only building on the pres- 
ent townsite of Colville. 

In 1883 the town was platted by Major 
Hooker and John Still, of Cheney, Spokane 
county. Two adjoining ranches were owned 
at that time by Mr. Hofstetter and John Wynn. 
From these ranches land was taken for the 
townsite. But it was not until 1882 that the 
present town of Colville began to evolve into 
a material existence and the old town of Pink- 
ney City fade to a melancholy landmark. In 
that year the military post at Fort Colville, 
which had been established in 1859, was aban- 
doned. The greater portion of the business of 
Pinkney City had been supported by the garri- 
son at the fort. When the soldiers departed 
the business men gathered their lares and pen- 
ates; their stocks of goods and household ef- 
fects, and hied themselves to' the new town of 
Colville. Aside from the abandonment of the 
fort there were other cogent reasons why Col- 
ville should flourish and the old town deterior- 
ate. Pinkney City was an out-of-the-way place 
and far from being so convenient and accessi- 
ble as the present site of the county seat. The 
first man to change his location from the old 
town to Colville was C. H. Montgomery. He 
moved his store and goods in 1882 to a point 
which is now the north end of Main street. 

Of the new town Mr. Montgomery was the 
pioneer merchant. The same year Mr. F. 

Wolfif removed his saloon and billiard hall from 
Pinkney City, and he was the second person to 
establish business relations with Colville. He 
located on Main street, on the corner now occu- 
pied by Goetter's drug store. He also erected 
a residence for himself and family near his 
place of business. The disintegration of the 
old town was rapid. The same year Oppen- 
heimer Brothers, the last remaining business 
men in Pinkney City, capitulated to the stern 
logic of events, struck their commercial tents 
in the old town, came in to Colville, and Pink- 
ney City for all practicable purposes was a thing- 
of the past — a tale that is told. It remained 
but a country of reminiscences ; a historic ruin ; 
a veritable "Deserted Village." 

Following the departure of the troops from 
Fort Colville in 1882, new settlers coming into 
the new town appeared to consider the aban- 
doned fort and barracks as public property. 
They literally tore the government's build- 
ings to pieces, utilizing the lumber for the pur- 
pose of building shacks for themselves. Not 
only did they wantonly remove the lumber and 
brick which were of use to them, but their van- 
dalism extended to the abstraction of the flag- 
staff and other articles for which they had no 
need. The few private buildings which re- 
mained in the town also suffered a like fate, al- 
though the greater number of them had been 
removed. In this connection Mr. Wolfif says : 

"I wish to say that not one of the old set- 
tlers were guilty of this vandalism. Colonel 
Merriam came up from the fort at the mouth 
of the Spokane river and took back with him 
the doors and windows of the government 
building and these were about the only articles 
saved from the wreckage of the plant." 

For seven years the town of Colville re- 
mained a country village with nothing other- 
wise than a merely nominal organization. In 
1889 John U. Hofstetter and other citizens of 
Colville, by their attorney, H. G. Kirkpatrick, 
petitioned the judge of the district court, then 
holding a session in Col\-ille. to incorporate the 



town of Colville. The signers of this petition 
which brought about the first incorporation of 
the town were: John U. Hofstetter, Oliver 
Peone, L. Flugel, M. Cherette, Frank Habein, 
E. Oppenheimer, Joseph Luckenbel, J. M. Bew- 
ley, Frank B. Goetter, J. H. Young, Fred Hoss, 
A. A. Barnett, F. Barman, T. M. McClure, S. 
H. Manly, F. Wolff, John Brook, George C. 
Schneider, John Leipp, W. H. Kearney, W. H. 
Wright, S. F. Sherwood, Carl Flugel, Thomas 
L. Savage, Louis F. Scheifele, M. Seylor, W. 
M. Varker, Louis Perras, C. H. Thompson, E. 
L. Swain, W. S. Prindle, David T. Stewart, S. 
Douglas, Court Lousie, J. H. McKenzie. 

Following is the decree of the court which 
is taken from volume "A" on page 167 : 

"It is ordered and declared that said town 
is hereby duly incorporated, and the metes and 
bounds thereof are hereby designated and de- 
clared to be as follows; Commencing at the 
northwest corner of section 9, in township 35, 
N. R. 39, E. W. M., thence running south 
along the west line of said section to the south- 
west corner thereof ; thence east along the south 
line of said section to the southeast corner there- 
of ; thence north along the east line of said sec- 
tion to the northeast corner thereof ; thence west 
along the north line of said section to the point 
of beginning. 

"And the name of said town is hereby or- 
dered and declared to be Colville. It is further 
ordered that the following named persons be 
appointed and that they shall constitute the 
board of trustees of said town until their suc- 
cessors are elected and qualified, viz : John U. 
Hofstetter, W. H. Wright, Wm. A^arker. T. 
M. McClure, Thomas L. Savage. 

"It is further ordered that petitioners pay 
the cost of this proceeding." 

On the 14th day of June. 1889, these gen- 
tlemen took the oath of office and entered upon 
the discharge of their duties. John U. Hof- 
stetter was elected chairman of the council and 
William Varker temporary clerk. Samuel 
Douglas was elected town counselor. .\t the 

next meeting of the council W. L. Davis was 
appointed town clerk and A. A. Barnett town 
marshal, city assessor and street commissioner. 
F. B. Goetter was appointed town treasurer. 

Thus municipal matters remained until Feb- 
ruary, 1890, when the discovery was made that 
the incorporation under which the city of Col- 
ville had been transacting business was void. 
The process of incorporation had been under 
the territorial laws. Concerning this matter 
Mr. John B. Slater says : 

"The present town of Colville was incorpo- 
rated in 1889 under the territorial law. This 
was done through the agency of the district 
court. In February, 1890, shortly after Wash- 
ington had been admitted as a state, the state 
supreme court held that under the state law the 
court's incorporation of towns was void. The 
town immediately proceeded to reincorporate 
in accordance with the requirements of the 
state law. The reincorporation of the town of 
Colville'brought up a fine point of law, which 
was not decided until some few years afterward. 
The city government under the territorial in- 
corporation had contracted a number of debts. 
One of them, an item of indebtedness, Avas an 
account of $600 due Mr. A. A. Barnett for ser- 
vices as town marshal. Under the ruling of 
the supreme court in 1890 the former incorpo- 
ration was held to be null and void and to have 
no legal existence. With this decision staring 
them in the face the new town authorities did 
not feel like assuming the responsibility of pay- 
ing the debts. The matter was allowed to drag 
along for several years, and the case finally 
was decided in the supreme court, having been 
taken up by M. M. Cowley for the Traders' 
National Bank of Spokane, which held some of 
the warrants. The court decided that while the 
old corporation had no legal connection with 
the new corporation, the debts were contracted 
in good faith by practically the same organiza- 
tion, and Colville was ordered to pay the indebt- 
edness contracted by the former city govern- 



A brief resume of the reincorporation of the 
county seat made necessary by the decision of 
the state supreme court will not l3e out of place 
here, as it is valuable historical data. When the 
people of Colville were rudely awakened to the 
fact that instead of being a full-fledged city 
they were not a corporate body at all. a petition 
was presented to the board of county commis- 
sioners asking for incorporation of the town 
of Coh-ille under the laws of the state. This 
petition was granted and Monday, May 26, 
1890, was set for holding a special election to 
name five trustees and one town treasurer. 
June 2 the vote at this special election was 
canvassed by the commissioners. It was found 
that the total number of votes cast was 76, of 
which 76 were in favor of incorporation and 
none against it. The trustees elected were A. 
A. Barnett, Benjamin P. Moore, John B. Sla- 
ter, O. Peone and Lewis Schifile. Frank B. 
Goetter was elected town treasurer. Colville 
was declared to be a town of the fourth class. 

June 12, 1890, the new council convened in 
its initial session, and proceeded to organize. 
A. A. Barnett was chosen mayor ; John U. Hof- 
stetter, street commissioner; F. Wolff, town 
marshall ; J. H. Moyle, town clerk ; H. G. Kirk- 
patrick, town attorney ; R. B. Thomas, engineer. 
J. H. Moyle declined to serve as town clerk, 
and F. H. Fish was selected for that position. 
Colville was now on a firm municipal basis and 
the matter of indebtedness contracted by the 
organization under the territorial law drifted 
along, got into court, and was finally adjusted 
as previously stated. 

May 26, 1 89 1, a special election was held 
for the purpose of deciding whether or not to 
bond the town. Seventy votes were cast and 
all of them in favor of bonding. These bonds 
were voted for the purpose oS establishing a 
municipal system of water works, but they were 
ne\'er issued. At a meeting of the town coun- 
cil held February 3, 1891, a motion prevailed to 
instruct the town attorney to draft a memorial 
to the legislature of the state of Washington, 

asking for an enabling act authorizing the pres- 
ent incorporation of the town of Colville to 
assume all indebtedness contracted by the orig- 
inal territorial incorporation, which had been 
declared \ok\ by the state supreme court. Ac- 
cordingly the memorial was drawn up, a few 
days later, and a copy forwarded to the state 
legislature then in session at Olympia. It does 
not appear that the legislature acted upon this 
petition, as we find the case subsequently in the 
state supreme court, the Traders' National 
Bank of Spokane, plaintiff^. The court's decis- 
ion was favorable to the sentiments of the 
signers of this memorial. 

Sunday, March i, 1891, the First Congre- 
gational Church, of Colville, was dedicated. 
Of these services the Re publican, under date 
of March 7, says : 

"The sermon of Rev. Walters was one of 
the ablest ever enjoyed by a Colville audience. 
After the sermon, and other exercises, includ- 
ing hymns and anthems excellently rendered, 
Mr. Walters made an appeal for contributions 
to finish paying for the church. His words 
were so well chosen and his manner so winning 
that the whole amount was made up in a short 
time, the donors seeming to feel it a privilege 
to contribute. One of the special features of 
the occasion was the presentation of an elegant 
pulpit Bible by Mrs. Fannie Barman. The 
gift was highly appreciated. The church is a 
beautiful edifice, well appointed and convenient. 
The church was dedicated free of debt, $530.50 
being raised by Mr. Walters and Mr. Clark." 

February 13, 1892, Colville suffered its 
first severe loss by fire. Although the total of 
losses was not great, yet they were severe when 
the size of the town is taken into consideration. 
This conflagration was quite a sensational 
event, moreover, as it developed a certain 
sturdy heroism in the handling of so deadly an 
explosive as dynamite. The fire broke out at 
7 130 p. m., in the Dominion hotel. Nearly the 
entire population of Colville, at that time, were 
gathered at Meyers' Opera House witnessing a 


play presented by the Ladies" Aid Society, of 
Colville. At that period the only fire depart- 
ment possessed by the municipality was a 
bucket brigade. But it proved surprisingly effi- 
cient and accomplished yeoman service. A ro- 
tary pump belonging to Joseph Luckenbel was, 
also, brought into requisition and immediate 
action by attaching to it the hose of the Meyers" 
block. This line of hose was laid across the 
street and within a remarkably brief space of 
time a good stream was brought to bear on the \ 
Witham building. At the time the window 
frames and sash of this edifice were already j 
smoking and about to be fanned into flames. [ 
Across the windows were placed blankets and 
pieces of carpet, and these were saturated with ; 
water. But so intense was the heat that this ' 
proved useless. All glass on the south side of 
the Witham block cracked into flinders and fell 
to the ground. It now looked as though the 
Ribkey store building, Charette's saloon and 
the Hofstetter barn, and a place called the 
"Ark" would be destroyed. It was also plain 
that unless some immediate and effective action j 
could be taken the saloon of James Durkin, 
Habrin's stable, the postoffice and, possibly 
Perras & Lemery's store would soon burst into 

At this critical juncture was heard the cry 
of "dynamite and giant powder!" rising above 
the tumult of the crowd and the roar of devour- 
ing flames rapidly eating up the hotel. Almost 
simultaneously a man was observed running 
toward the Rickey building with a box of giant 
powder on his shoulder. At once an order rang 
out for everyone to fall back and watch for fly- 
ing timbers. The crowd required no urging to 
act upon such a sensible suggestion, and a deaf- 
ening explosion immediately followed; the 
Rickey building could be seen in the air flying 
in all directions : it was plainly evident that the 
courageous parties who handled the powder 
were experts in the business. This was 
heroic treatment but effective, although other 
buildings in the \'icinit\' did not escape damage 

consequent upon the force of the explosion. 
All the glass in Durkin's saloon and Habein"s 
stable was broken, as were several windows in 
the postoffice, and one large plate glass in the 
Hotel Colville, besides several smaller ones in 
various parts of the building. William Hof- 
stetter sustained quite severe bruises caused by 
a portion of the roof of the Rickey building- 
falling upon him. 

The Dominion hotel was built in the fall of 
the year 1885 at a cost of about $5,000. It was 
erected when material was very high, and was 
composed entirely of wood. The Rickey build- 
ing was built about the same period and cost 
about $1,500, but was valued at $1,000. It was 
a total loss to Mr. Rickey as it was absolutely 
necessary to blow up the building to save adja- 
cent property. The losses were about as fol- 
lows : Benoyse estate, $3,000; John Rickey, 
(no insurance) $1,000; J. J. Cascadden, furni- 
ture, $500; F. Barman, $250; C. W. Witham, 
$250; Mattie Charette, $100; I. Luft, $100; A. 
Chandler, $150; D. T. Daniels, $50; James 
Durkin, $150; Frank Habein, $25; Charles 
Fluegle, $15; John U. Hofstetter, $15: Court 
House, $ia; postoffice, $5. 

It is necessary to revert to the year 1 887 for 
the purpose of calling attention to the fact that 
Colville at one time had a smelter. It was 
erected in 1887 by the Mutual Mining & Smelt- 
ing Company and conducted at a profit for two 
years, being located on the hill north and adja- 
cent to the city. The company was an organi- 
zation of New York capitalists, the stock being 
$100,000, in shares of $1 each. The cost of the 
plant was $25,000. Ore was hauled by teams 
from various parts of the county, principally 
Chewelah, there being no railway line to Col- 
ville at that period. It was necessary to haul 
the coke from Spokane by team. The smelter 
finally passed into the hands of Receiver John 
B. Slater, and was disposed of by him. 

Following the disastrous fire of February, 
1892, steps were taken in the following March 
for the organization of the Colville Hook and 



Ladder Company. This organization was per- 
fected at a meeting held March 5th, at the office 
of J. C. Luckenbel. The following officers were 
elected: S. F. Sherwood, foreman; F. C. 
Hammond, assistant foreman ; J. B. D. Meeds, 
Jr., secretary ; W. H. Kearney, treasurer ; J. C. 
Luckenbel, truckman. 

The following were elected as charter mem- 
bers : S. F. Sherwood, Joseph C. Luckenbel, 
J. B. D. Meeds, Jr.; F. B. Goetter; C. S. In- 
galls: F. C. Hammond; N. J. Klass; H. W. 
Sacher; F. H. Fish; S. Dilsheimer; F S. 
Miller; C. D. Coleman; W. S. Prindle; Tames 
Thomas ; Ole Olson ; W. Miller ; W. H. Kear- 
ney ; S. Walsh : A. H. Sperry ; J. Sacher ; C. W. 

March 15 the town council appropriated 
$500 for the support of the newly organized 
fire company, having rescinded a former appro- 
priation of $300 which had never been used. 

The material prosperity and social condi- 
tions of Colville can best be described by the 
following extracts from local journals. Jan- 
nary 29, 1892, the Republican said: 

"There are now in contemplation five hand- 
some business houses, the building of which 
will commence in the early spring. The 
smelter is certain to become the property of 
some individual or company who will run it for 
all it is worth, after making a few changes in 
construction. The cause of its lying idle was 
its unfortunate ownership by men lacking cap- 
ital and devoid of business ability. There have 
been more transfers of Colville lots within the 
last three months — genuine transactions on a 
business basis — than have been made during 
the same time by all the rest of the towns in the 
county combined. Do not misunderstand us; 
we are not crowing: we only wish that every 
town in the county, as well as this place, had 
been blessed with a brisk trade in town prop- 

"There have been in the past, and we pre- 
sume there are still some people in the county 
Avho have an unaccountable prejudice against 

the county seat. We will say to those people 
that while the whole county is growing, Col- 
ville is also developing, that new, modern and 
artistic residences are being built, that it has 
been a long time since you have been here ; that 
you should come and see these substantial im- 
provements that you may realize the fact that 
the town of Colville stands on the ground that 
will be covered by the City of this portion of 
the country within five j-ears. ***** 
Work on the mines in this vicinity has more 
than doubled within the last six months; fifty 
men are at work building the Old Dominion 
concentrator, and the promise is that so soon as 
it is at work a large number of mines whose 
ores will assay from $60 to $500 a ton will be 
opened up in good shape. Make no mistake: 
things are coming our way, and business is 
picking up; spring will open with an activity 
that will take the wind out of the sails of the 
chronic kicker." 

February 28, 1895, the Index said: 
"Notwithstanding the prevailing hard times 
and g'cneral depression, Colville does not pro- 
pose to fold her hands and, like Micawber, wait 
for 'something to turn up.' She is not built that 
way. The season will open in Colville by the 
erection of several buildings, business houses 
and residences. C. W. Winter, of the Bank of 
Colville, has purchased ground on East Still 
street upon which he will erect a fine residence 
to be ready for occupancy this summer. 
Charles Thompson will also build a residence 
in the eastern part of the town. W. H. Wright 
will soon begin the erection of a business house 
on the corner of Still and Main streets, on the 
site of his old store which was burned. Other 
improvements will be made in the near future 
\\'hich are not yet sufficiently developed to be 

September 3, 1897, the Index said : 
"Colville is a larger town that even in the 
days of the boom of many years ago. At pres- 
ent there is not a vacant house in town and 
many families are occupying rooms in blocks 



simply because there are not enough residence 
buildings adequate to the demand. Real estate 
is held at normal value and considered cheap. 
Numerous cottages are being built at present, 
and it is safe to presume that besides these 
many more will find tenants, especially during 
the school terms, at good rental returns. The 
steady growth of Colville is largely due to its 
being the natural educational center of a large 
radius of agricultural land. At present Col- 
ville has an academy which accommodates fully 
two hundred students. The capacity of our 
public school is being doubled, giving room for 
two hundred more pupils than heretofore." 

Commenting upon the new improvements 
made by Colville up to 1899 the Statesman-In- 
dex of August 18, of that year, said: 

"Colville continues to enjoy a period of 
healthy growth which, however, is in no way 
to be classed as a building boom. This period 
of growth dates from 1897 when three or four 
citizens concluded that Colville was a pretty 
good place after all and forthwith built them- 
selves elegant and comfortable homes. Last 
year their excellent example was patterned by 
others who likewise built homes. The court 
house was also completed last year. 

"With the opening of spring this year the 
good work was resumed, some building new 
residences, others remodeling and enlarging 
their buildings. None of the structures of this 
year equal in cost the best building erected last 
season, but there are more of them so that the 
aggregate this season will exceed that of last 
year. The buildings, or improvements already 
completed this season or now in progress, will 
amount approximately to $16,000, and there 
is more than a possibility that at least three or 
four more good residences will be commenced 
during the fall season. Below is a list of the 
building improvements now complete or in 
progress at the present time, with the approx- 
imate cost of each : 

"J. Pohle, malting establishment, $4,000: 
residences: M. R. Peck. $2,300: Hershberger. 

$1,600; John Cowling, $800; Mrs. Cameron, 
$1,000; George Reynolds, $800; Dick Fry, 
$800; Ed Sherwood, $550; Thomas Williams, 
$550; W. H. Wright, store, $500; C. W. Hall, 
store, $400; S. A. Chamberlain, residence, 
$400; W. Moorhead, addition to residence, 
$400; L. B. Harvey, addition to residence, 
$350; Colville Paint Company, office and ware- 
house, $350; L. W. Meyers, improvements, 
$300; G. B. Ide, addition to residence, $225 ; W 
E. Parmelee, addition to residence, $200 ; A. W. 
Miles, residence, $200 ; Louis Perras, brick root 
house, $150; Gardner & Baker, improvements, 
$75; A. J. Lee, improvements, $500; A. A. 
Bamett, 'improvements. $150; H. G. Kirk- 
patrick, improvements, %J$." 

In 1900 the Spokane Galvanized Wire Pipe 
Company, of which H. Orchard was the head, 
was granted a franchise to install and operate 
a system of waterworks in the town of Colville. 
The town council contracted with this company 
for the use of the water for fire purposes, and 
on August 14 the water was accepted by the 
council. Later there was considerable dis- 
agreement between the council and the com- 
pany as to the price to be paid by the town for 
its water, the council claiming that $25 per 
month was the stipulated price, while the water 
company demanded $30 per month. Thus mat- 
ters drifted along until 1902 when \\\ B. 
Hewes secured a controlling interest in the 
company, and changed the name of the corpor- 
ation to the Colville Water Power & Develop- 
ment Company. The system is now in success- 
ful operation and giving universal satisfaction. 
The water is obtained from a spring situated 
about one mile southeast of the business por- 
tion of the town, and is piped to all parts of 
the city from the company's reservoir. 

Colville has a post ofiice of the third class, 
and in addition to receiving two mails a day, it 
is the distributing point for two rural free de- 
livery systems. One route is to the Narcease 
country, eleven miles southeast, the trip being 
made dailv. The other is a star route to Echo, 



eleven miles north, and the trip is made on 
Tuesdays, Thursdays and Saturdays. 

The first commencement exercises of the 
public schools held in Colville ocurred Satur- 
day evening, May 18, 1900. In the educational 
affairs of Stevens county this occasion marked 
an important period. The members of the 
grammar school class of 1900 were, mainly resi- 
dents of Colville, and they received the hearty 
congratulations of friends for having so success- 
fully and satisfactorily completed their work in 
the eighth grade. The exercises were conducted 
at the Olympic Theatre, which had been taste- 
fully and appropriately decorated for this schol- 
astic occasion. There were present the board of 
directors of the Colville schools. Professor Say- 
lor, superintendent of the city schools of 
Spokane, Professor J. E. M. Bailey, and all of 
these gentlemen were seated near the graduat- 
ing class. To Miss Mary Suig was accorded 
the honor of delivering the salutatory address ; 
Masler George Zent was the valedictorian. 
President Rickey, of the board of directors, pre- 
sented the diplomas. There were fourteen 
members in the class and the event reflected 
high credit upon their efforts and the conscien- 
tious work of their teachers. 

September 3 the public schools of Colville 
reopened with the addition of a ninth grade, or 
more properly, high school "first year." This 
advanced course included work in algebra, 
philosophy literature, rhetoric, word study and 
physical geopraphy. Ample facilities were 
also provided for such as desired to take up 
courses in bookkeeping, shorthand and type- 
writing in addition to the elementary studies of 
the high school. No tuition fee was charged 
for any of these special lines of work. On the 
day named the school opened with an excellent 
enrollment, there being a number of students 
from out of town, including one from Ross- 
land, B. C. 

Friday evening, May 24, 1901, was held the 
second annual commencement. This class 
numbered six member s^Gertrude Bashaw, 

Etta Zent, Olive Bryan, May Cameron, Mig- ' 
non Jones and Bird Nelson. County Superin- 
tendent W. L. Sax delivered an appropriate 
address to the large audience assembled, the 
central thought of which was confined to the 
work of a district high school. He expressed 
the hope, as well as the conviction, that when 
the question came before the people that it 
would receive the unanimous support of the 
electors. At that period it was proposed to 
build a high school structure. The Stevens 
County Reveille of May 30, said : 

"Much credit is due Prof. J. E. M. Bailey 
for the able manner in which he has conducted 
the school for the past two years, and he has 
been ably assisted by the efficient corps of 
teachers under him, and also by the patrons of 
the schools." 

Saturday, July 27, a special election was 
held for the purpose of voting upon a proposi- 
tion to levy a ten-mill tax to build an addition 
to the school house. It was in the nature of a 
dual proposition and resulted as follows : For 
new building, 40 ; against building, 62 ; for 
ten-mill tax, 33 ; against tax, yy. The total 
enrollment of the Colville public schools in 
1903 was 215. A ninth and tenth grade were 
maintained, the former comprising five, and the 
latter four pupils. The course of studies was 
raised in order to unite the two grades in the 
study of European history and rhetoric, there- 
by lessening the number of daily recitations. 
The eighth grade consisted of twenty-two 

The Colville fire department has been not- 
able for a number of reorganizations. March 
16, 1901. was the occasion of one of them, 
when a preliminary meeting was held which 
w^s followed on the evening of the i8th by an- 
other at which a permanent organization was 
effected. Dr. Harvey was elected chief, Charles 
Wingham, assistant, and R. E. Lee secretary 
and treasurer. The same month a hose cart 
was purchased by the city, which had, prev- 
I iously, in June, 1900, bought five hydrants at 



$30 each, and 700 feet of hose costing $391. 
During the spring of 1903 the Colville depart- 
ment was again reorganized. James Petty was 
appointed chief. Prior to this period there had 
been no fire house, and interest in the organiza- 
tion had waned perceptibly. Following the 
election of Mr. Petty as head of the department 
the city council erected a new hose house at a 
cost of $300 and authorized the purchase of 
new apparatus. At present, owing to the ex- 
cellent water pressure, the town is afforded the 
best possible protection against fire. Hydrants 
are situated in convenient places in different 
portions of the town, and the esprit du corps of 
the department is above reproach. 

There are in the town of Colville the fol- 
lowing fraternal societies : A. F. & A. M., Col- 
ville Lodge No. 57; R. A. M., Colville Chapter 
No. 20; Order of the Eastern Star, Colville 
Chapter No. 57; Independent Order Odd Fel- 
lows, Colville Lodge No. 109; Rebecca, Faith- 
ful Lodge No. 90 ; Modern Woodmen of Amer- 
ica. Tamarack Camp No. 9215; Grand Army 
of the Republic, General John M. Corse Post, 
No. 98, Department of Washington and 
Alaska ; and the Woodmen of the World. 

May 20, 1886, a dispensation was granted 
to the A. F. & A. M., and the first meeting was 
held June 23, 1886. The lodge received its 
charter June 3, 1887. The initial officers were 
Christopher K. Gilson, W. M., A. A. Barnett, 
S. W., A. M. Anderson, J. W. Colville Chap- 
ter No. 57, Order of the Eastern Star, was or- 
ganized February 5, 1900, with nineteen mem- 
bers and the following officers : Mrs. Elizabeth 
Brouilett, Matron ; John B. Slater, Patron and 
Mrs. Delva Smith, Associate Matron. The 
chapter was chartered in June, 1900, and was 
organized under the charter July 13, 1900. 
Colville Chapter No. 20, Royal Arch Masons, 
was organized May 21, 1900, and established 
under its charter July 28, 1900. 

In March, 1899 a meeting was held at the 
law office of Judge King for the purpose of 
organizing a jiost of the C-and Army of the 

Republic. D. C. Ely was chosen chairman 
and Thomas King secretary. A number of the 
veterans present signed a petition to depart- 
ment headquarters asking that a G. A. R. 
post be established at Colville. They were A. 
F. Perkins, William Day, John O'Brien, Ed- 
ward Cox, Hugh Weir, John Salvage, Samuel 
A. Chamberlain, Austin Prouty, David Fisher, 
and Thomas J. Baldaidge. The name of Gen- 
eral John M. Corse was selected for the new 
post, and the members were formally mus- 
tered in during the May following. A. F. Per- 
kins was elected commander, C. W. Campbell, 
adjutant and Mr. Cox. quartermaster. 

There are four church societies in Colville, 
Congregational, Baptist, Free IMethodist and 
Catholic. All have comfortable and commo- 
dious church edifices with the exception of the 
Baptists, and that organization is now erecting 
a handsome place of worship. 

The electric lights of the Northwestern 
Light & Power Company were first turned on 
in Colville Saturday, August 22, 1903. The 
result was satisfactory in every particular, and 
it was one of the important events in the devel- 
opment of the industrial side of Stevens county 
history. The promoters of the enterprise leased 
from L. W. Meyers, owner of the falls in the 
river, at Meyers Falls, a minimum of 3,000 
horse power, with a privilege of increasing the 
supply as the business of the company should 
demand. The plant was installed by the Wag- 
ner-Bullock Company of Cincinnati and St. 
Louis. The power at present is furnished 
through the medium of a three-hundred horse- 
power Lafelle water wheel. This operates a 
generator with a capacity of 2,600 lines of 16- 
candle power each. The electricity is trans- 
mitted over high tension wire from Meyers 
Falls to Colville, twelve miles, and here it 
passes through transformers which furnish the 
incandescent and arc lights from the same cir- 
cuit. This system will include the towns of 
Colville, Meyers Falls, Kettle Falls, Marcus, 
Bossburg and Northport. The Northport 



smelter will, also, be supplied with light and 
power, and its owners have contracted with the 
company for a period of five years. The North- 
western Light & Power Company was organ- 
ized early in May, 1903, and the enterprise has 
"been promoted entirely by local capitalists. The 
officers of the company are : President, F. G. 
Finucane, manager of the Bank of Montreal, 
at Spokane; vice president, C. W. Winter, 
cashier and manager of the Bank of Colville; 
secretary and treasurer, T. A. Winter, assistant 
cashier of the Bank of Colville. The principal 
place of business is Colville. 


Northport, the "Smelter City," and the 
port of entry, is the most populous town in 
Stevens county. It was so named by the town- 
site company that located it, because the topo- 
graphy of the country between Nortlrport and 
the boundary line between the United States 
and British Columbia, demonstrated the fact 
that it was destined to be the most northern 
town on the line of the Spokane Falls & North- 
ern railway. True, the little town of Boundary 
was established — a town of practically one 
family — but events have sustained the wisdom 
of establishing Northport as the port of entry. 

In the spring of 1892 the present site of the 
city of Northport. now the metropolis of Ste- 
vens county, was simply a prettily wooded flat. 
Three log cabins were to be found in the vicin- 
ity occupied by homesteaders. These home- 
steads constitute the present townsite. They 
ivere held by A. V. Downs. Fred Farquhar and 
Frank George, the latter at one time superin- 
tendent of construction of the Spokane Falls & 
Northern railway. These men became spon- 
sors for the permanency of the future townsite. 
Within the space of a few short months the 
primeval woods were converted into a lively 
city. May 28, 1892, the town was dedicated, 
by the Northport Townsite Company, E. J. 
Roberts, president; A. F. Herrick. secretary. 

The initial enterprise established was a general 
store by T. L. Savage. At this period Mr. 
Savage was collector of the port. Previously 
he had been engaged in the mercantile business 
at Kettle Falls. But that particular "boom" 
town was waning ; falling into municipal inepti- 
tude and decrepitude, and Mr. Savage, aware 
of the fact that the Spokane Falls & Northern 
railroad was headed this way, decided to re- 
move his stock of goods to Northport. W. A. 
F. Case, present postmaster of Northport, was 
manager of the new enterprise, and about June 
I, the store was opened in a small log cabin on 
the present site of Mr. Savage's big store. 

The second business house erected in the 
young metropolis was built by W. P. Hughes. 
This was occupied by the post office and the 
Northport News, of which Mr. Hughes was 
editor and proprietor. The latter came under 
a contract with D. C. Corbin, promoter and 
constructor of the railroad, to build the town of 
Northport. The establishment of the News by 
Mr. Hughes, where there was practically only 
a "paper town," was considerable of a venture 
and it was, in reality, a "country newspaper." 
At the time the plant was installed there was 
no railroad, or even wagon roads — nothing save 
a trail through the mountains could be traced 
to the present town of Northport. But over 
this, after surmounting innumerable difficulties, 
Mr. Hughes and his printer, C. F. Murphy, 
now editor of the Northport Republican, suc- 
ceeded in bringing in the plant with ox teams. 
On the nation's birthday, July 4, 1892, the 
Northport Nezvs made its first appearance. At 
this early period a dozen souls could, probably, 
be numbered as inhabitants of the "town" — 
consisting of two buildings and a few tents. 
Doubtless the most interesting item of news in 
the paper was the one giving currency to a re- 
port that there was. actually, a town of North- 
port; establishing "a local habitation and a 
name." The News said : 

"Seldom in the annals of journalism has it 
been necessary for a new paper to explain for 



the benefit and enlightenment of its contempor- 
aries where it exists and who are its expected 

"Yet, save within a circumscribed area, one 
may presume that a certain ignorance anent 
Xorthport exists, and the reasons for such a 
presumtion are as various as they are plausible. 
The most recently published map of the United 
States ; the most comprehensive atlas ; the very 
latest gazeteer, none of them indicate the loca- 
tion of Northport; none of them recognize its 
existence. The census taker has passed it by; 
it has so far enjoyed no place in history; a 
month or two ago it was a beautiful wooded 
flat: today it is already a town; tomorrow— a 
few tomorrows hence, at any rate — it will be a 

Tuesday, August 9, the young town had a 
narrow escape from destruction by fire. Con- 
cerning this event the News says : 

"The entire fire brigade was called out 
Tuesday afternoon to fight a fire in the timber 
at the southern portion of the townsite. A fire 
had been burning around that neighborhood 
for about two weeks, but little attention was 
paid to it, as it was thought it would die out 
of its own accord. About noon, Tuesday, a 
stiff wind sprung up from the south fanning 
the blaze until a fire commenced to run toward 
the business part of the town, causing wide- 
spread alarm. A large crowd of men then 
turned out and fought it by making a path and 
back-firing. Fortunately about this time the 
wind changed to the north and the fighters won 
the victory by sucessfully stopping the fire from 
reaching any building." 

August 5. 1892. the Northport saw mill 
began operations. William Smith, R. L. Bar- 
low, W. R. Lee and H. Viet were the proprie- 
tors. The Spokane Falls & Northern railroad, 
which had been built to the Little Dalles in 
1900, and upon which for nearly two years 
work had been suspended, in the fall of 1892 
was extended to Xorthport. In the language 
of the Northport Nezvs : 

"Sunday, September 18, was the eventful 
day the railroad reached Northport, and the 
sight of E. J. Roberts, the energetic chief en- 
gineer of the Spokane Falls & Northern rail- 
road, clothed in a long duster and a regulation 
broad-brimmed army hat, walking with slow 
and majestic tread and commanding mien, giv- 
ing his orders in a clear and forcible voice to a 
large crowd of men who were following him, 
putting ties in their proper places and laying 
rails, with the construction train slowly moving 
along behind the whole, was a pleasing and 
astonishing sight, and one that will never be 
forgotten by tlje pioneers of Northport, the 
future mining, milling, smelting and agricul- 
tural city of northeastern Washington."' 

The first passenger train ran into the town 
two days later. A box-car was utilized as a 
depot until a suitable structure could be erected. 
The arrival of this railroad signified much to 
the new town, and prosperous times resulted. 
For a few months Northport was the terminus 
of the railroad. Then work was recommenced 
and the road extended to Nelson, B. C, the 
following year. Northport was headquarters 
for this railroad work for many months, about 
one thousand men being employed in construc- 
tion, and they making the town their temporary 

At the period the railroad had Little Dalles 
for a terminus there was a line of boats plying 
the Columbia river between that point and 
Ravelstoke, B. C. This was the Kootenai 
Steamship Company. The boats in commission 
were the Columbia, a passenger boat having a 
capacity of two hundred people. The Kootenai 
was the first boat constructed. The IlUciUa- 
zvaet was a small freight boat. At Ravelstoke 
the boats connected with the Canadian Pacific 
Railway. After the Spokane Falls & Northern 
road reached Northport the boats plied be- 
tween this point and Ravelstoke. The steam- 
ship line was discontinued when the road was 
built to Nelson. The boats herein named were 
the first ; others were built later. 



October 8 an interesting meeting was held 
for the purpose of organizing a mining district. 
There was an attendance of twenty-five people, 
and it was unanimously decided to organize a 
district with the following boundary- lines : Be- 
ginning at the international boundary line of 
the United States and British Columbia, on 
Kettle River; thence southerly along said river 
to a point west of the "Young America" mine; 
thence east to the Metaline District, or mines; 
thence north to the international boundary line ; 
thence west along said line to the place of be- 
ginning to Kettle Falls, the district to be known 
as the "Northport Mining District." The rea- 
sons for desiring to organize this particular dis- 
trict were that it would save miners consider- 
able trouble, expense and delay in recording 
their location and other notices. W. P. Hughes 
was elected recorder of the district. 

During the fall of 1892 a school was estab- 
lished at Northport. At this period the coun- 
ty's finances were not in condition to warrant 
much aid to a school at this place. There were, 
however, about 30 children of school age in 
Northport and vicinity, and a meeting was held 
October 8, at which Thomas Nagle, County 
Superintendent of Schools, was present. He 
decided to form a district with the following 
boundaries ; commencing on the Columbia 
river, and international boundary line; 
thence along said line to a point at 
the northwest comer of the Metaline Dis- 
trict: thence south to the southeast corner of 
the Metaline District; thence west to a point 
just below "Pete's," (or the Little Dalles on 
the Columbia;) thence northerly along the 
Columbia river to the place of beginning. 
Messrs. F. E. Seriver, A. Bishop and W. M. 
Blake were elected trustees and W. F. Case, 
clerk. Mr. Nagle informed the people of 
Northport that the county could at this time 
spend only money to pay the teachers, and that 
the citizens would be compelled to provide a 
building for the proposed school. The people 
immediately raised $235 by popular subscrip- 

tion, and erected a building at a cost of $150. 
School was opened Monday, December 12, with 
twelve pupils. Miss Hogg was installed as 
temporary teacher, and within a short time was 
succeeded by Mrs. William Haven, the first 
regularly employed teacher in Northport. At 
this period all but a very small portion of the 
townsite was covered by a dense forest, and in 
the shadows of these woods the school building 
was erected but a short distance from the "busi- 
ness part" of the town. Many considered it a 
rather unwise plan to locate the school so far 
away, but the logic of subsequent events proved 
that it was an eligible location, for with the 
steady growth of the town the residence portion 
extended a mile beyond the school house. 

The post office that supplied Northport and 
vicinity with mail during these pioneer days 
possesses quite an interesting history. This 
office was established at Little Dalles, some six 
miles below Northport, in 1901, Cy Town- 
send was postmaster. When the railroad was 
built through there a terminus was made four 
miles below the present townsite of Northport. 
To accommodate the people Mr. Townsend 
placed the post office building on a flat car and 
removed it to the end of the road. In Septem- 
ber, 1892, the road was pushed on through to 
Northport, which left the former terminus "out 
in the cold." Consequently Mr. Townsend 
again moved the building and business to this 
end of the line, locating near the steamer land- 
ing. Shortly afterward it was again removed, 
this time to Columbia avenue, where mail was 
regularly distributed to the people of North- 
port, although the post office was officially lo- 
cated at Little Dalles. While this primitive 
post office was at the end of the railroad, a few 
miles below Northport, the government's 
affairs were conducted in a manner that would 
have caused consternation at Washington, ac- 
cepting some of the narratives of the old tim- 
ers. Mr. Townsend, also, conducted a saloon 
at this place. When the mail pouch was deliv- 
ered it was his custom to open it in the saloon, 


spread the mail on the bar, and invite the in- 
habitants to "step up and select their mail." 
One day a post office inspector dropped into 
town, without immediately revealing his iden- 
tity, and witnessed a proceeding of this kind. 
After the saloon was empty the inspector made 
himself known, and the following colloquy is 
said to have taken place: 

"Is this your customary way of distributing 
mail?" inquired the inspector. 

"Yes," replied Mr. Townsend, "that's about 
the way we work it here." 

"Well, don't you know that this is irregu- 
lar? You should never open the pouch in the 

"I don't know whether it's regular or not, 
but I guess people around here are satisfied." 

"Where do you keep your registered let- 
ters? Under lock and key?" 

"No : I got them back here under the bar, 
and when anybody comes in who has a regis- 
tered letter I give it to him." 

"Well, this is very irregular and must be 
stopped. You are working for the govern- 
ment, and if you expect to hold your position 
you must conduct affairs differently in the fu- 

"Now, see here; you may be a post office 
inspector, all right, and be privileged to come 
around here asking questions and telling me 
what to do, but I want you to understand this : 
I never asked for this position, and am simply 
acting as postmaster to accommodate the people 
around here. They are satisfied with the way I 
run things, and if they are the government 

ought to be. You can take your d — d post 

office any time you want to," and the post office 
which consisted of a pasteboard shoe box, in 
which were a few letters, landed in the street 
in front of the saloon. 

It is a matter of record, however, that Mr. 
Townsend continued to act as postmaster until 
an office was established at Northport and there 
was no material change in the manner of con- 
ducting the delivery of the mails. 

January i, 1893, ^^ office was established 
at Northport, and W. P. Hughes was made 

Although the beginning of the year 1893 
witnessed the arrival of about one thousand 
railroad workmen, and in their wake hundreds 
of other people, the order maintained in North- 
port was excellent. Speaking of this feature 
the News of January 5, says: "Notwithstand- 
ing the roar and rush and bubble and life of 
Northport, there has not been a shooting scrape 
nor highway robbery so far." 

Monday, May 8, 1893, occurred North- 
port's first great fire. "That date will ever be 
held in remembrance with horror by present 
citizens of Northport," said the Nczi<s. speak- 
ing of the disaster, "on account of the terrible 
fire that fastened its remorseless fangs on the 
best business buildings of the town, and laid 
them and their contents on the ground, a huge 
mass of ruins." 

The fire broke out at about 3 :30 o'clock p. 
m., in the small building in the rear of William 
Eaton's saloon. It was discovered by Fred 
Johnson, of the Silver Crown. He at once 
raised the alarm, and with several others ran 
to the scene. They found the door securely 
fastened, but proceeded to break it down. So 
soon as this was accomplished a vast cloud of 
smoke rolled forth, and nothing in the room 
was visible. No water was at hand, and conse- 
quently it was next to impossible to combat the 
fiery element. The small building was soon 
a mass of flames, and within a few minutes 
from the discovery of the fire, the ceiling of 
the main building of Mr. Eaton was in flames. 
They spread to both sides of Mr. Eaton's build- 
ing, taking the Big Bend Company's store, Mrs. 
M. Eagan's restaurant. Jerry Spellman's sa- 
loon, Cy Townsend's saloon and lodging house 
O'Hare & Kellerman's restaurant and meat 
market building, and Col. Pinkston's lodging 
house. By extra exertions the new building -of 
John Bum and two or three smaller buildings 
were saved. Within two hours from the time 


the flames were first discovered nothing could 
be seen but a smoking mass of ruins. The fam- 
ily and guests of Col. Pinkston, who conducted 
a lodging house, barely had time to escape with 
their clothes, and many lost money and jewelry 
which they had no time to secure. 

The heaviest losers by this fire were: Big 
Bend Company (C. D. Hampton j two-story 
building and general merchandise, $8,500; in- 
surance, $7,000; William Eaton, two-story 
building and saloon, stock, $2,500, insurance, 
$2,000; Jerry Spellman, one-story building and 
saloon, stock, $1,200, no insurance; J. W. 
Townsend, two-story building, saloon and 
lodging fixtures, $2,000, no insurance ; O'Hare 
& Kellerman, restaurant and butcher shop, 
building, $400, no insurance ; Col. W. M. Pink- 
ston, furniture, etc., of Columbia lodging 
house, $1,000, no insurance; smaller losses by 
a number of others. The safe in Mr. Eaton's 
contained, among other things, $1,000 in cur- 
rency belonging to Mr. Eaton, and about the 
same amount in currency and coin belonging to 
C. D. Hampton. So soon as possible after the 
fire the safe was pulled out from the ruins, and 
when opened the property within was found 
uninjured. The fire, it is stated, was of incen- 
diary origin, but no cause was ever assigned for 
it. With the exception of the Big Bend Com- 
pany's store all the edifices were immediately 
rebuilt. Says the Au'ic? : 

"In one way the fire has proven a benefit 
in the fact that it shows Northport to be a per- 
manent town. Most of the people who w^ere 
burned out came here in December and Janu- 
ary, thinking business, on acount of the rail- 
road work would be good for about three 
• months. The fact of their rebuilding, and their 
evident determination to remain here shows 
that the place is solid." 

In June, 1893, a depot, costing about 
$2,000 was built by the Spokane Falls & North- 
ern Railway Company. 

Friday night, June 9, occurred the first 

birth recorded in Northport, a baby girl being 
born to Mr. and Mrs. W. L. Olmstead. 

Early Thursday morning, August 10, 1893, 
just three months and two days following the 
other fire, Northport was again called upon 
to suffer from a disastrous conflagration, 
and this time one life was lost. Of this disaster 
the News said : 

"About half past twelve o'clock, Thursday 
morning, the people of Northport were aroused 
from their slumbers by the cry of 'fire' ! and 
of course all responded by jumping into their 
clothes and hurrying to the scene to give what 
assistance they could to their neighbors and 
save the town from ruin. The fire originated 
in the front room of the northwest corner of 
the Hepp & Anderson building, known as the 
International Hotel. The entire building was 
soon in flames, and as there was no practicable 
way to fight them, except with buckets of 
water, the flames rapidly spread to surrounding 
buildings. Seven were consumed, and then the 
wind fortunately changed to the south and 
saved the balance of the town from destruction. 
Those suffering losses were William Smith, a 
small frame building ; L. A. Clark & Company, 
store, residence and livery stable ; Hepp & An- 
derson, hotel and saloon building; Remble's 
butcher shop, Brandt's laundry ; James Bailey's 
residence and G. O. Mayer's restaurant. 
Smith's loss was about $100; L. A. Clark & 
Company's loss about $3,000, insurance $400 
on store building, $1,000 on stock, $200 on the 
barn and $300 on the contents of the barn; 
Hepp & Anderson's loss was about $4,000, in- 
surance, $3,000; Remble's loss $200, no insur- 
ance; Brandt's, $300, no insurance; Mayer's 
$300 in furniture, $70 or $80 in money and 
three watches. James Bailey's loss is un- 

"So soon as the fire was over it was seen 
that a human being had burned, and upon 
closer investigation it was found to be the 
body of George Schild, who was well known 


here as a mine owner and an old friend of 
Charley Hepp. Deceased had recently returned 
from a trip up Sheep Creek, where he had be- 
come interested in a promising gold claim, and 
he had intended to leave to-day with his imple- 
ments for that mine. The prevailing theory of 
the origin of the fire is that George Schild went 
to his room about midnight under the influence 
of liquor, and either upset the lamp or per- 
mitted a lighted cigar to fall on his bed. He oc- 
cupied the room where the fire broke out, and 
his body now lies on the wire mattress, face 

Mr. Hughes says that this part of the town 
did not immediately rebuild. There were a 
number of vacant buildings farther to the east, 
and those who were burned out and engaged in 
business again moved there and occupied those 

Sunday, June 3, 1894, Northport and vicin- 
ity were visited by the most severe wind and 
rain storm that ever afflicted the county. The 
day had been exceedingly sultry, and about 
noon dark clouds began to fleck the brassy sky. 
This phenomena was soon followed by thunder 
and lightning. Soon afterward citizens look- 
ing down the river saw terrific, frowning, black 
clouds, while volumes of dust arose from 
mountain sides, and soon the falling of crash- 
ing timber and the dull roar of wind was heard. 
Within a short period the storm reached North- 
port, and then trees and signs were scattered 
by the violence of the wind. It continued to 
blow thus fiercely but a few moments, but its 
subsidence was followed by a deluge of rain 
which continued, increasing in violence at in- 
tervals, for three hours. There were many 
narrow escapes from death by falling trees, but 
fortunately no one was injured. Following 
this war of- the elements came the high water 
of the Columbia which did much more damage 
than the storm. The railroad track from Mar- 
cus to Waneta was covered by water, trees and 
debris, the damage from which cost several 
hundred thousand dollars to repair. In time 

the water subsided, and on June 14, in review- 
ing the flood the News said : 

"The worst scare that Northport ever had 
is now over, and we are breathing easier. The 
highest flood known in this section for seventy- 
five years has pas.sed, and Northport, except in 
the vicinity of the mill, stood high and dry 
during the terrible ordeal. The flood reached 
a portion of our lowest (business) flat, and 
the water came within a foot of the top of the 
floor of the Northport Trading Company's 
store, the News office, the Peerless Saloon, \Y. 
M. Blake's news stand, Olmstead's drug store, 
and the custom house. The other business 
houses on Columbia avenue, were from one to 
three feet higher. No one ever before thought 
there was such a difference, as the flat has the 
appearance of being the same height from one 
end of the street to the other. W^ater was 
never thought of in the matter, anyhow, as it 
never before rose so high in the memory of the 
oldest inhabitant who happens to be Indian , 
Isaac, who lives on the reservation opposite 
and a little below Northport. Isaac says he 
came here when a little boy, and he is now 
about eighty years old. The highest water 
was twenty years ago, and it was almost as 
high as this year. *Savy,' who was here at the 
same time, thinks it was two or three feet 

"One good proof that the flood was higher 
than ever before is the fact that Marcus Op- 
penheimer's store in old Marcus, was built by 
the Hudson's Bay Company in 1869. and has 
stood undisturbed by high water ever since. 
This year the water was a few inches on the 
floor. Under the circumstances we think it 
will be safe to build sky scrapers on the North- 
port business bench. 

"The highest point reached by the water 
was at about 7 o'clock, on Saturday evening, 
June 9, when it was probably about seventy-five 
feet above low water mark. Sunday morning 
it was seen that the water had receded about 
two inches. It then began to fall a little faster. 



and as the weather has continued cool it would 
be next to impossible to raise again. Back of 
Columbia avenue, but on the same bench, the 
restaurant portion of the Silver Crown, and 
Mrs. Case's residence were flooded to such an 
extent that they were vacated for a few days. 
With these exceptions, and the mill portion, 
every building was from twenty to forty feet 
above the water. The heaviest losers in the 
vicinity are W. R. Lee, barn, a few thousand 
feet of lumber and damage to buildings and 
machinery; John Tyman, house, chicken coop, 
etc. ; William Katchum, house containing pow- 
der, etc. ; W. O. Johnson, house ; R. M. Stod- 
dard, damage to house; A. Presslar, house; T. 
J. Hamilton, house; A. Bishop, damage to 
house, barn, crops, etc. ; Jack Reynolds, dam- 
age to crops; Fred Scriver, same; Moser 
Brothers, two-story house, chicken coop, crops 
and everything except their chickens, land and 
camping outfit. Dr. Frank Miller and Michael 
Jegke, damage to fences and crops. There were 
no other losses worth mentioning." 

July I, 1895, the county commissioners 
were called upon to grant a petition from the 
citizens of Northport for incorporation. This 
petition was rejected for the reasons that the 
proposed boundaries were not sufficiently and 
clearly defined, and that the consent of the 
parties owning unplatted lands were not filed 
with the board. 

Thus, until 1898 the town of Northport 
drifted along unincorporated. June 3 another 
petition for incorporation was presented to 
the commissioners asking that Northport be 
made a city of the third class. The petition 
further set forth that there were within the de- 
sired limits fifteen hundred inhabitants. A 
special election was ordered for June 23. On 
the 27th inst., the county commissioners can- 
vassed the result of this election, finding 228 
votes in favor, and five against, incorporation. 
The city was declared incorporated with the ex- 
ception of the smelter .site. The following city 
officials were also declared elected : William P. 

Hughes, mayor; A. T. Kendrick, A. K. Ogil- 
vie, J. W. Townsend, J. Frank Harris, J. J. 
Travis, A. Almstrom, T. L. Salvage, coun- 
cilmen; J. A. Kellogg, city attorney; D. S. 
Hammond, city clerk ; F. G. Slocum, treasurer ; 
J. J. Travis, health officer. 

With the opening of the north half of the 
Colville Indian Reservation to mineral entry, 
in February, 1896, Northport began to as- 
sume an air of general prosperity. Miners and 
prospectors poured into the town. Placer and 
quartz mines were located across the river, and 
only a short distance from the young city. 
Within one week several hundred claims were 
located. March 18, 1896, Northport suffered 
from the third disastrous conflagration. The 
News said : 

The fire fiend has again visited us, and many of 
our worthy citizens have met with heavy losses. About 
7:30 o'clock last night as some one opened the door 
leading upstairs in S. F. Bradbury's restaurant, oppo- 
site the depot, flames were seen slowly licking down the 
stairway. Those who were at the tables jumped up, and 
seeing they could do nothing in the building, ran out on 
the street and gave the alarm. Strange to relate, at 
this early period the whole roof and upstairs were in 
flames. The entire populace turned out and each did 
his best to subdue the flames, but with no water system, 
and the only water to be had from barrels and some 
adjacent wells, small headway could be made. A gentle 
northerly breeze was blowing, which caused the principal 
fight to be made on the north side. 

The Bradbury building was soon a mass of fire. 
Next Cy Townsend's two-story building, on the north, 
and A. E. Allraan's Club saloon on the south (being 
the corner building), were on fire. Then several small 
buildings in the rear were rapidly consumed. By a 
determined fight with wet blankets and buckets of water 
the large music hall building across Fifth street, belong- 
ing to Charles Litchfield, and occupied by A. Tabor Si 
Company, as a music hall, and I. H. Stevens as a 
restaurant, was almost miraculously saved. From Cy 
Townsend's the flames crawled to R. G. Field's grocery 
store, thence to Mr. Halbeis' harness shop ; next to the 
Crandall Brothers' general merchandise store; and 
thence to T. R. O'Connor's saloon, where the flames 
were stayed after entirely gutting the building. This 
was adjoining Mrs. Eagan's Gem restaurant. The fire 
originated from a defective flue in Mr. Bradbury's 
kitchen. It was merely a stove-pipe from the range, 
going through the roof, with nothing but a tin to protect 
it from the boards. The principal losers are: 

A. E. Allman, Club saloon building, which was 


newly papered and painted, ready for business, $1,200; 
S. F. Bradbury, building and contents, $2,000 ; Cy Town- 
send, two-story building, three smaller buildings, saloon 
fixtures, furniture and stock, $3,000; R. G. Fields, 
grocery stock, building, etc., $1,000; William Halbeis, 
only $200, as he saved almost everything ; Crandall 
Brothers, stock, $1,500; T. R. O'Connor, saloon build- 
ing, fixtures, etc., $300; M. R. Golusha, three buildings, 
$1,000; Tom Miller, residence and personal effects, $200; 
Robert Meyerhoff, blacksmith shop, $100; Mrs. M. 
Eagan, damage, 200; Mrs. J. H. Moyle, damage, $100; 
Tabor & Company, damage, $25. There was no in- 
surance on any of the property destroyed. 

During the spring and summer of 1S96 ma- 
terial conditions in Northport presented a most 
flattering outlook. From March, of this year, 
until August, forty-five new residences were 
erected, and fifteen business houses were built 
to supply the constantly increasing demand. 
In addition to these structures fifteen tents were 
in commission during the month of August. 
Following were the business enterprises in 
Northport in August, 1896, twenty of which 
had been established during the preceding five 
months : General merchandise stores, 3 ; groc- 
eries, 3 ; commission house, i ; saw mills, 2 ; 
shoe shops, 2 ; planing mill, i ; harness shops, 
2 ; tin shops, i ; hotels, 3 ; lodging houses, 7 ; 
saloons, 1 1 ; meat markets, 2 ; blacksmith shops, 
2 ; livery stables, 2 ; barber shops, 2 ; bath 
houses, i; bakeries, 2; dance hall, i; photo- 
graph gallery, i ; printing office, i ; drug store, 
I ; jewelry store, i ; restaurants, 5 ; fruit, con- 
fectionery, etc., 3; news stand, i; laundrys, 2; 
lime works, i ; brick yard, i ; ferry, i. 

The year 1897 was marked by a vigorous 
growth numerically, and healthy business con- 
ditions. It had been definitely settled during 
the summer of that year that the prospective 
smelter was to be located at Northport and this, 
naturally, aided materially in furthering the 
interests of all local enterprises. In the fall 
work on the smelter was begiin. Several hun- 
dred men were employed in its construction. 
At the same time the big bridge across the 
Columbia river, for the Nelson and Fort Shep- 
ard road, was constructed, giving employment 

to one hundred more people for several months. 
This structure was begiui January 25, 1897, 
and was not completed owing to the high 
water in May, until October. This bridge is an 
immense fabric, having 1,200 feet of spans, 
three of which are 250 feet in length, each, with 
three others of 150 feet to the span. The 
"trestle approaches are 500 feet in length, mak- 
ing an aggregate of 1,700 feet in length, be- 
sides the heavy dirt fill at the east approach, 
several hundred feet in length. The rail is 
sixty-nine feet above low water gauge. The 
highest pier is eighty feet. The piers are of 
concrete cased in heavy boiler iron. Tuesday, 
October 12, 1897, the first passenger train 
passed over the bridge. Previous to the com- 
pletion of this bridge trains were conveyed 
across the river by a railroad ferry. 

The controversy over the location of the 
smelter was of three years' duration and hotly 
contested. The company owning the Le Roi 
mines and who erected the smelter, were Eng- 
lishmen, and Canadians were very anxious to 
have the plant located on Canadian soil. Ow- 
ing to the immense supply of lime rock at 
Northport, the better transportation facilities, 
on account of grades, etc., Northport was 
selected as the site for the smelter, the company 
estimating that the plant could be operated 
here at an expense of many thousands of dol- 
lars yearly less than on Canadian soil. 

It appears that the smelter property tempor- 
arily, at least passed into the hands of Ameri- 
cans. In the winter of 1897-8 the North- 
port smelter was completed and operations be- 
gun. It was built by American capitalists who 
owned, also the Le Roi mines at Rossland. 
The cost of the smelter is said to have been 
about $250,000. It opened out with a force 
of about 200 workmen, but this number was 
gradually increased until between 500 and 600 
men found steady employment. This number 
is now employed when the smelter is running 
on full time, which is the usual condition. In 
1899 the Le Roi mines and the Northport 



smelter were disposed of to an English com- 
pany, and the enterprise at Northport became 
known as the Northport Refining & Smelting 
Company. The entire product of the Le Roi 
group of mines, the Kootenai and the Velvet 
mines, are smelted at this point, and it also does 
considerable custom smelting for other mines. 
During the first few years of its existence 
Northport suffered severely from three disas- 
trous fires. But the fourth and heaviest of 
them all was yet to come. Early Monday morn- 
ing, May 3, 1898, almost the entire business 
portion of the town went up in smoke. Busi- 
ness houses in three blocks were entirely de- 
stroyed, entailing a loss of about $100,000. 
Following is the Ne^vs' story of this confla- 
gration : 

At 4:20 o'clock, Monday morning four shots rang 
out on the air to arouse the town from its slumbers, and 
call them forth to battle for the protection of their 
property, their hard earned savings and their homes. 
Apparently the alarm was not well understood, for the 
people were somewhat slow in responding to the call. 
The fire was first discovered breaking through the roof 
of Madden & Riley's new building at the rear of their 
saloon, the fire apparently coming from the south roof 
over the barber shop occupied by Robert E. Stout. Many 
rumors were rife regarding the origin of the fire, some 
saying that it first broke out in the tailor shop occupied 
by Hattran ; others that it started in the blacksmith shop, 
while a few were of the opinion that it had originated 
between the barber and tailor shops. We have made 
careful inquiry, and there is little doubt but that it 
originated in R, E. Stout's barber shop. It seems that 
Mr. Stout has an assistant who sleeps in the shop, and 
on this night in question he did not retire until after 
two o'clock, and then in an inebriated condition. 
Whether he left a lamp burning, which exploded, or 
whether a smouldering cigar stub was so thrown that 
it ignited combustible matter, or just how it started may 
never be known, but it is certain that the fire broke out 
in the barber shop in question. 

Help came so slowly, and without organization when 
it did arrive, that the fire secured a start that soon made 
it clear that the building could not be saved. A de- 
termined fight was made to keep it from spreading either 
way. The blacksmith shop to the south was partially 
torn down, but the flames rushed past there and caught 
the building across the alley owned by William P. 
Hughes, and occupied by Mr. Dahl Strom with a stock 
of goods. The fire also escaped from the workers to 
the north, and caught into the Madden & Riley saloon 
building on the corner. Dynamite was freely used to 

blow up buildings in the path of the roaring flames, 
but with little avail, and in some instances this heroic 
treatment served to hasten the onward march of the 
flames. When the fire started there was but little wind, 
and that was blowing to the east and away from Fourth 
street. But little fear was felt that the fire would cross 
the street to the west, but when the flames reached the 
Alberta house the wind suddenly changed, blowing to 
the west. Soon the fire caught the large Broderius build- 
ing, when all hope was abandoned and the whole town 
surrendered to satiate the appetite of the fiery monster. 
Teams were in great demand to haul goods and per- 
sonal effects. Everyone worked as though his life de- 
pended upon saving the goods and personal belongings 
of the sufferers. In the main the larger proportion of the 
stocks of goods and personal effects were saved, al- 
though it would take several thousand dollars to replace 
those sacrificed to the flames. 

As is usual at fires a great many took more liquid re- 
freshments than decency and good manners would 
countenance, and there was considerable complaint of 
stolen property. We could not think of favorably men- 
tioning those who worked and fought valiantly to save 
property and to feed those who were working, for space 
will not permit. The fire was awful. It swept away the 
whole business portion of the town except the brick 
building of A. T. Kendrick & Co., located in the center 
of the burned district at the corner of Fourth street and 
Columbia avenue. There was no loss of life so far as 
can be ascertained. The losers by the fire, their losses 
and the insurance are about as follows : 

Thomas L. Savage, building, $1,900, stock of goods, 
$15,000, loss of goods, $2,500, insurance, $6,000. Charles 
Weaver, house, livery stable and effects, $500, no in- 
surance. F. Gribi, restaurant, $250, no insurance. C. C. 
Anderson, building and effects, $350, no insurance. 
Bartlett & Trullinger, cigars and store, $450, insurance, 
$250. Mrs. Wallace, lodging, $400, no insurance. 
George Thomas, Peerless building, $3,000, no insurance. 
Perdue & Thomas, building, meats and lard, $900, no 
Otis Arnold, building and goods, $1,200, no 
Mrs. Vance, merchandise. $100, no insurance. 
Amanda Swanson, restaurant and building, $350, no in- 
surance, Laura D. Blake, building, $250, no insurance. 
Hugo Moser, saloon and outfit, $300, no insurance. 
P. J. Lyons, building and stock, $750, no insurance. 
Harris & Haven, meat market and stock, $2,400, no 
insurance. A. H. Dawson, merchandise, $750, insurance, 
$250. Charles Trullinger, jewelry, insured to cover loss. 
Pat Devine, saloon, $450, no insurance. Macy Brothers, 
building and restaurant, $750, no insurance. Floyd 
Smith, barber shop and bath room, $150, no insurance. 
Madden & Riley, two buildings, $2,000. no insurance. 
Hattran, tailor, loss nominal. Ferguson & Company, 
saloon stock, $100, no insurance. Billy Moore, bowling 
alley, $250, no insurance. Northport State Bank, saved 
all effects. Mrs. Newland, lodging, $100, no insurance. 
R. G. Field, building and groceries, $800, no insurance. 
William Halbeis, harness shop and building. $800, no 



insurance. S. Sline, saloon building and stock, $2,500, 
insurance, $600. A. S. Sanderlin, barber, loss nominal. 
Cy Townsend, building, $1,200, no insurance. Parker & 
Brown, building and stock, $2,000, no insurance. M. R. 
Galusha, three buildings, no insurance. John A. Finch, 
two buildings, $1,400, insurance $500. A King, build- 
ing. $200, no insurance. Robert Remble, two houses, 
$400. no insurance. Neil McGinnis, Wigwam saloon, 
stock and fixtures, $900. Mrs. Eagan, hotel building. 
$1,500, insurance, $700. O'Connor & Cunningham, 
building, $900. no insurance. Thomas A. Parrot, two 
buildings, $500, no insurance. William Sluthour, build- 
ing and all effects, $600, no insurance. Jennie Crow, 
house and furniture, $500. E. Black, stock of goods, 
$1,600, insurance, $900. Deyarden & Cameron, black- 
smiths. $200. Adel Bishop, livery barn, $300. Mrs. 
Jean Harris, lodging house, $800. Almstrom Brothers, 
three buildings, barn, ice house, saloon stock, lodging 
house, $5,000, insurance, $750. Columbia Hardware 
Company, stock and buildings, $1,560. S. F. Davis, 
building and stock, $1,400, insurance $500. Albert 
Loiselle, Alberta House, $3,000, insurance, $600. Henry 
Hicks, tinner, $200. Theresa Klepsch, two buildings, 
$1,100. Charbenneau & Brassard, injury to stock. $250. 
A. K. Ogilvie, three buildings, $1,000, insurance. $250. 
A. A. Batterson, improvements, $75. A. W. Calder, 
dentist, loss of instruments, $100. W. L. Webb, loss 
on second hand goods, $100. Miss Stark, lodging, $150. 
Mrs. Ahlman, restaurant, $100. Dr. G. G. Travis, five 
cottages and partial loss on stock of drugs, $2,000. 
T. R. Welch, building and loss on drugs, $1,500, insured. 
Dr. Armstrong, furniture, instruments and books, $1,000. 
John and Henry Broderius, building, $1,500. Joseph 
Warsnict. buildings, $300. J. C. Harkness, $450. Will- 
iam P. Hughes, four buildings, $4,500, insurance $700. 
Miss Waters and Mrs. Honey, millinery, $75. 

Following this appalling disaster, such was 
the enterprise and energy of the citizens of 
Northport, that nearly all of the business 
houses at once opened up. some in private 
houses, and some in tents. In a more limited 
sphere the indomitable spirit exhibited after the 
great Chicago fire was exhibited in Northport. 
The city was prosperous at the time, and the 
people quickly rallied and set to work to re- 
build the town. The reason that there was so 
little insurance carried is that the town was a 
veritable fire-trap and insurance rates were held 
at ten per cent. 

In 1900 the office of the United States Im- 
migrant Inspector was located at Northport, 
with Major S. C. Walker as inspector. He 
was succeeded by C. E. Dooley, who at present 

holds the position. This office concerns itself 
with all immigrants coming to the United 
States at this point, and more especially China- 
men, many of whom have been ordered de- 
ported to China from this port by the United 
States Commissioner, W. P. Hughes. Con- 
nected with this office is an inspection commit- 
tee consisting of J. E. Daniels, W. H. Hutchin- 
son and A. J. Ferrandini. 

The year 1901 was accentuated in North- 
port by a strike in the smelter. It soon devel- 
oped into one of the memorable strikes of the 
country, and continued in force and varying 
intensity for nine months. The underlying 
cause of this trouble was simply the customary 
objection of the smelter company to the forma- 
tion of a union among the workmen. The lat- 
ter, however, insisted on the organization, and 
accordingly the Northport Mill and Smelter- 
men's Union was formed. Although not of- 
ficially announced, it had been freely given out 
by the smelter company that a connection with 
the union would be considered equivalent to an 
invitation for a discharge from the company's 
service. Despite this announcement a large 
majority of the company's employes associated 
themselves with the union. When the com- 
pany's officials came to survey the field it was 
discovered that a wholesale discharge of all 
the men affiliated with the new union would 
seriously cripple their business. So matters 
were, for a period, permitted to remain in 
statu quo, and the smelter work continued to 
be carried on alongside the Mill and Smelter- 
men's Union. Still, there was constant fric- 
tion. On one side were arrayed hearty oppo- 
nents of all forms of unionism; on the other 
a body of determined men led by a few agita- 
tors with whom nearly every industrial center 
in the United States is familiar. The press of 
the county, too, was divided, and each side to 
the controversy had its journalistic organ car- 
rying weekly inflammator\- articles into the two 
opposing camps. 

Then it was that the members of the Mill 



and Smeltermen's Union discovered that their 
ranks in the smeUer were being gradually, but 
surely decimated by periodical, yet significant, 
discharges of men, and the substitution in their 
places of non-union workmen. They at once 
grasped the situation, and contrived to check- 
mate this move, for a period, at least, by union- 
izing the new recruits from the far east. As 
fast as men could be imported they were in- 
duced to cast their lot with the Mill and Smel- 
termen's Union. As stated by the Stevens 
County Reveille, "It soon became a question as 
to who could master the situation the quickest, 
each playing at his own game." 

In July the smelter company made a whole- 
sale discharge of carpenters and the strike en- 
sued. Following this demonstration the smel- 
ter company immediately became active in se- 
curing skilled labor from the mills and fur- 
naces of the east. In this connection it should 
not be overlooked that the local authorities, 
well aware of conditions prevailing at North- 
port, regarding labor troubles, refused to inter- 
fere in behalf of either the smelter company or 
the union. Accordingly the company, which 
was an English organization, transferred its 
property to a corporation organized in the state 
of Idaho, ostensibly for the purpose of seek- 
ing protection from the United States courts. 
Necessary affidavits were procured in support 
of a petition for relief in the federal courts. 
The result was an injunction issued against 
those who were presumed to be the most active 
in opposition to the interests of the smelter com- 
pany. The order was issued by Judge Haii- 
ford, restraining the Mill and Smeltermen's 
Union at Northport from interfering with the 
management of the smelter, or their employes. 
Following is the text of the injunction : 

111 the meantime and until further order of the 
court herein, said defendants, and each of them, their 
aiders, attorneys, officers, agents, servants, and em- 
ployes, be, and they are severally restrained and en- 
joined from in any manner interferring with the com- 
plainant herein in and upon and about its said smelting 
plant, or in any part thereof, and from in any manner. 

by force or threats or otherwise, making any attempt or 
attempts, openly or covertly, to intimidate any employe 
of complainant herein, or from attempting to prevent in 
any manner any employe of said complainant and North- 
port Smelting & Refining Company, Ltd., from proceed- 
ing to work for said complainant in a peaceful, quiet 
and lawful manner, in and upon any part of aforesaid 
smelting plant, or upon any works of complainant there- 
in or thereabouts, or at all, and that they, the said 
parties aforesaid, be, and they are hereby further en- 
joined from sending any agents or any persons whatever 
to any of the employes of complainant herein, and from 
intimidating and threatening, enticing or persuading, or 
in any manner trying to prevent any employe of com- 
plainant herein, from working in or about aforesaid 
smelting plant and property, or any other property of 
complainant, or from preventing in a:iy manner any one 
from entering the service of complainant herein, or in 
any manner interfering with the business of said com- 
plainant in employing persons to work upon and about 
its property, or from going upon any part of com- 
plainant's property without permission from com- 
plainant, or its agents, or employes so to do, or in any 
manner entering the works of complainant without its 
consent or consent of its manager, agents or employes. 

To this injunction there was filed an answer 
by the Northport Mill and Smeltermen's 
Union. It was drawn by its attorneys, Robert- 
son, Miller & Rosenhaupt. The answer in part 
was as follows : 

That the Northport Smelting & Refining Company 
claims to be capitalized in the sum of $1,000,000, which 
is divided up into 1,000,000 shares of stock, at the 
par value of $1 per share; that a majority of the stock 
is owned by aliens who are citizens and residents of 
England and British Columbia, which places are foreign 
territories over which the state of Washington, nor the 
United States, have any control, and the persons and 
stockholders are subjects of his Majesty, King Edward 
VII, who is now the reigning king of the country. 

That the holding of lands by aliens is contrary to 
the constitution of Washington, and that the parties are 
by a few American abettors endeavoring to set the laws 
of Washington at naught and to do indirectly what they 
could not do directly in their attempt to hold lands in 
said state. The defendants admit that the Northport 
Mining & Smeltermen's Union is a branch of t;he 
Western Federation of Miners, and also they admit 
that they and each of them who have joined in this 
answer are members thereof. 

And as the complainant, comes into court with un- 
clean hands in this and other respects ; that one of its 
officers, Bela Kadish, a superintendent, called one of the 
members and officers of the union into his office, and 
sought by unlawful use of money to corrupt and bribe 
said member, and officer, for the purpose of securing 



his services and the services of other members, for the 
sum of $^000, to disintegrate and disorganize the union, 
and not succeeding in this purpose the management of 
the smelter closed one furnace after another until all 
of the employes, or nearly all, were locked out, and these 
defendants did not engage in any strike or any other act 
to prevent complainant from operating its works. 

That the union and the members thereof only claim 
the right to whomsoever is willing to hear them and tell 
the exact facts concerning the action of complainant 
toward them, and to persuade any and all persons by 
peaceable means that they are not in the wrong, qnd that 
the complainant locked them out after years of accept- 
able and faithful service, through either malice, whim 
or caprice, and that it is likely to do the same to un- 
suspecting persons taking the places which the defend- 
ants formerly occupied. Defendants do not claim the 
right to trespass upon the premises of the complain- 
ant or to intimidate the employes thereof. Defendants 
inform the court that they do not know, nor have they 
ever believed since they were locked out, that the com- 
plainant could get experienced men to fill their places, 
and that they have been desirous of not creating any 
cause for ill-feeling or friction between the manage- 
ment of the plant and the members of the union, and for 
the accomplishment of this purpose and end, as well as 
to conforni to law and order, they have counseled all 
of their members to be peaceable and law-abiding, and 
this they expect to continue to do. 

It must be frankly granted that the course 
of the smelter strike, on the part of the work- 
men, was almost above reproach so far as re- 
gards riots and disorderly conduct. At times 
conditions were gloomy and the fringe of riot 
was reached, but the record shows that at no 
time were the slumbering embers of riot fanned 
into the flames of lawlessness and crime. The 
first approach to such a deplorable condition 
occurred Septemljer 2. It appears that in the 
afternoon (jf that day sixty-two men were 
brought in from the east by one Oliver Lamb 
to fill places in the smelter deserted by strikers. 
At the depot they were accosted by a number 
of union men who endeavored to persuade them 
to refrain from work, and the union men were 
successful to the extent of sidetracking thirty- 
five of the new arrivals. While marching from 
the depot to the smelter one of the union men 
was accidentally hit by a gun in the hands of 
Deputy United States Marshal Guyton. In- 
stead of proceeding to personal retailiatinn the 

union men sought redress at the hands of the 
court and a warrant was issued for the arrest 
of Guyton. The document was placed in the 
hands of Deputy Sheriff Anderson. Guyton 
came quietly enough down town with the dep- 
uty sheriff, but when the latter attempted to 
disarm him he resisted. An altercation ensued 
during which six shots were fired, but without 
serious result. Guyton succeeded in effecting 
his escape and returned home. Anderson wer.t 
after him a second time, but was kept away 
from the premises by a \\'inchester in the 
hands of Guyton. Word was sent to Colville 
of the existing conditions, and Sheriff Ledger- 
wood was asked to repair to Northport for the 
purpose of "quelling a prospective riot" be- 
tween the union and the smelter employes. The 
sheriff arrived on the scene and with little dif- 
ficulty disarmed two forces who were, ostensi- 
bly, "on guard." Of the sixty-two men who 
came to Northport from Joplin, Missouri, 
forty-five of them declined to work for the 
sinelter company and sought other employ- 

Another incipient riot was broken up in its 
early stages Saturday, November 9. Shots 
were exchanged in a saloon on that day be- 
tween union and non-union men, and one man 
named Kennedy was seriously injured. Four 
men were accused of disorderly conduct and 
landed in jail. Prosecuting Attorney Bailey 
and Sheriff Ledgerwood came up from Colville 
and succeeded in bringing about a more peace- 
ful state 01 affairs, and subsequently Deputy 
Sheriff Graham appeared on the scene and dis- 
armed both contending forces. 

The Northport smelter strike was declared 
off Wednesday, March 12, 1902. An inter- 
esting account nf the causes which led up to this 
denouement, written evidently, from a non- 
partisan view point, was published in the 
Xorthport Kepnhlican of March 1 5 : 

"At a meeting of the Northport Mill & 
Smeltermen's Union Tuesday night, March 11. 
a unanimous \-ote declared in favor of continu- 



ing the fight to the bitter end, but hardly had 
the echo died from the loud cheering that fol- 
lowed the announcement of the ballot when it 
was learned that the Western Federation of 
Miners, with headquarters at Denver, had de- 
cided to cut off the weekly allowance of the 
Northport Mill & Smeltermen's Union. This 
sudden and very unexpected announcement 
nearly paralyzed the boys, and some could 
hardly believe that the federation would give 
them the cold shoulder so soon, but the follow- 
ing morning when the free eating house, con- 
ducted by the Western Federation, closed its 
doors they began to realize their predicament 
and a mass meeting was called for Wednesday 
night. At this meeting the question of declar- 
ing the strike ofif was brought up. * * * A 
vote was taken, but, alas, it did not correspond 
with the vote of the previous evening worth a 
cent. To cut off the rations made all the 
difference in the world, and when the ballots 
were counted it was found that a majority had 
voted to declare ofif the strike. The report of 
the vote caused dissension in the ranks, and a 
lively time ensued which at times looked threat- 
ening. It was with difificulty that order was 
preserved and when at last the storm subsided 
it was decided advisable to abandon the union 
altogether and surrender the charter. This 
ends the life of the Northport Mill & Smelter- 
men's Union." 

Northport is a bonded port of entry of the 
United States custom service. This sub-port 
of entry was first established in northeastern 
Washington in the 8o's, and Little Dalles, 
which was then a postoffice a few miles down 
the river from where Northport now stands, 
was the port. In 1893, shortly after the rail- 
road was completed to Northfield, that growing 
town became the port of entry. The following 
year it was removed to Marcus on account of 
a large wagon traffic between that point and 
points in British Columbia. In 1895. however, 
Northport again became the port of entry and 
has remained so since. Officials at this port 

have proved quite efficient in checking the 
smuggling of opium and the importation of un- 
licensed Chinamen. 

The public schools of Northport are of a 
high class and merit the evident appreciation of 
the people. The total enrollment is over two 
hundred ?nd fifty. There are five teachers oc- 
cupying two temporary buildings. A new and 
commodious brick edifice was erected during 
the summer of 1903. The ninth grade is com- 
posed of four students; the eighth grade will 
have a class of eight or nine to write in the 
spring examination of 1904. The teachers, 
with their grades, are these: Prof W. C. M. 
Scott, 9th, 8th and 7th grades ; Miss M. Link, 
6th and 5th; Miss June Jackson, 4th and 3d; 
Miss Belle Nesbitt, 2d and high first; Miss 
Mary Shields, ist grade. 

At present the city of Northport contains 
about one thousand population. It is lively, 
and the business portion has more of the ap- 
pearance of a city than most country towns. 
One can not gainsay the apparent fact that 
Northport has a future, and with a fuller de- 
velopment of adjacent mines the prospects of 
the town will be, indeed, flattering. The people 
are energetic and show their faith by their 
works, putting all of their surplus earnings into 
mine developments. The smelter, of course, is 
the central enterprise of the town, and at pres- 
ent is employing about three hundred men. 
Wages range from $2.75 to $5 per diem. The 
lime rock in this vicinity is a valuable resource ; 
a large amount of it is utilized in the local 
smelter and much of it is shipped to the smelter 
at Trail. Two marble quarries are located in 
the vicini<;y of Northport. They have been de- 
veloped to a considerable extent, but so far no 
shipments have been made. These quarries are 
the Chewelah Marble Company, seven miles 
southeast, on Deep Creek, and the Allen Mar- 
ble Company, two miles south of Northport. 
Several thousand dollars have been expended 
in developm.ent and machinery. 

While there are no developed mines in the 



immediate vicinity of Northport, some of the 
richest prospects in the country are located here. 
Eight miles from Northport, on Deep Creek, is 
a galena mine from which two thousand tons of 
ore has been shipped, and the mine is now be- 
ing more extensively developed. One mile 
north of the city, on the bank of the Columbia 
river, is located another rich mine from which 
shipment has already commenced. Northport 
is frequently referred to as the "Terminal 
City," it being the division point for three rail- 
roads, all of which belong to the Great North- 
ern system. These roads are the Spokane Falls 
& Northern, between Spokane and Northport, 
built into Northport in 1892; the Nelson & 
Fort Shepard, from Northport to Nelson, com- 
pleted in 1893. ^nd the Columbia & Red Moun- 
tain, tetween Northport and Rossland, built 
in 1807. The railroad machine shops and 
round house are located at Northport, which is, 
at present, headquarters for about seventy-five 
railroad men. 

Secret societies are well represented in 
Northport, there being the following orders: 
Foresters of America ; Improved Order of Red 
Men; Women of Woodcraft; Ancient Order 
United Workmen; Independent Order of Odd 
Fellows, Eagles and Masons. Three church 
societies hold regular meetings, Presbyterian, 
Catholic and Episcopalians. 

The four serious conflagrations which vis- 
ited Northport, the last and most damaging in 
1898, signified in no unmistakable terms the 
pressing need of a suitable fire department. 
One was organized in 1899. The efficiency of 
this organization is amply attested by the fact 
that, although a number of fires have secured a 
threatening opening since that time, in e\ery 
instance the flames have been confined to the 
buildings in which they originated. 

United States Commissioner W. P. Hughes 
resides at Northport, where he holds his 



The little town of Marcus, with its possibly 
two hundred people, located at the confluence 
of the Columbia and Kettle rivers, is the oldest 
town in Stevens county. To the south of the 
town is what is known as Marcus Flat, a rich 
agricultural tract of three or four square miles 
surrounded on all sides by high hills. In the 
center of this tract are the old buildings of the 
Hudson's Bay Company. Here in the early 
days of the 19th century the post known as 
"Fort Colville" was established, and from this 
point the company governed absolutely a ter- 

ritory comprising hundreds of sc|uare miles. 
They exercised autocratic ownership and con- 
trolled completely all the contiguous Indian 
tribes and monopolized their trade. 

The Hudson's Bay Company's fort at the 
Kettle Falls was named after Lord Colvil. an 
English nobleman high in the councils of the 
company. While it is not generally known the 
name of the Hudson's Bay Company's fort was 
spelled Cok'il, from the period of its founding 
until its abandonment. With the establishment 
of the United States military post, or fort, at 
Pinkney City the orthography of the name was 
clianged to Coh'ille. and has since remained 



so, and the Hudson's Bay Company's fort is 
at present generally referred to as Colville. 

The name Colville has, since the establish- 
ment of the old fort, been given to river, valley, 
mining district, Indian tribe, military post and 

The date of the establishment of Fort Col- 
ville, near Marcus, is still a matter of specula- 
tion. Most historians give the date as 1825 or 
1826. There are grounds, however, for the be- 
lief that it may have been built at an earlier 
date. Donald McDonald, who is the present 
owner of the old fort building, says that he has 
every reason to believe that the fort was estab- 
lished in 1816. Mr. McDonald is the son of 
Angus McDonald, the chief trader of the fort 
from 1854 to 1 87 1, and he has made his home 
at this old post since he was a boy, fifty years 
ago. His information is gained from conver- 
sation with former employees of the fort and 
ancient Indians. A visit to this old landmark 
is replete with interest. Perhaps the most at- 
tractive edifice in the little group is the main 
building or officer's quarters, although the 
house now standing was not built until 1863. 
It was erected at that time to replace the former 
one which was located just north of the present 
site. It is a fairly large building, and has two 
rooms. Upon entering either room the first 
thing that attracts the eye is a fireplace. These 
are composed of clay, and a space in the floor 
at the bottom, about three feet square, is made 
of stone and brick. Two huge chimneys, built 
entirely of stone, protrude from the roof. The 
floor is laid with two-inch hardwood strips, 
manufactured at the company's "whip-saw" 
mill. Standing in one of the rooms is a large 
hard wood desk, of ancient design, undoubt- 
edly brought from England nearly a century 
ago. The other room is embellished with a 
monstrous home-made writing desk. The sills 
of this house, of 12x12 timber, are still in an 
excellent state of preservation. 

A few steps from the officer's quarters is 
what was known as the "store house." This 

building was erected in 1858. Here the com- 
pany carried their stock of whiskey and other 
merchandise, which was traded to the Indians 
for furs. An iron 56-pound weight, used in 
weighing furs, may still be seen in this build- 
ing. Adjoining the "store" building is the fur 
house where the stock of furs and pelts received 
from the savages in trade was stored. The 
present fur house was not erected until 1862. 
This building, as well as the store building, 
was quite solidly built, the walls being made o£ 
ten-inch tamarack. Large doors, made of 
hea\'y plank and fastened with hand-forged 
spikes, guard the entrance to these buildings. 
The hinges are also of home construction. 
There still stands also a building that was 
known as the clerk's house, and this is one of 
the oldest structures at the fort, having been 
erected doubtless at the time the company lo- 
cated there. The powder magazine proves not 
the least interesting of the sights at the fort. 
This is an underground room not unlike a cy- 
clone cellar, and one might easily imagine that 
ammunition would be quite likely to dampen in 
such a subterranean apartment. The whole 
of the room is curbed by flat stones, the inter- 
stices being filled with clay. 

The block-house is the oldest structure at 
the fort, having been built by the company 
upon the establishment of the post. It is con- 
structed of ten-inch tamarack and has stood the 
test of time well. It is about ten feet square. 
Several rifle port holes, beveled from the in- 
side, command a good view of the surrounding 
country — or a possible enemy. Larger port- 
holes on the east side of the building were cal- 
culated for the artillery, which consisted of one 
brass cannon. This implement of destruction 
is still one of the relics of the fort. It is so 
small that it can easily be picked up and carried 
in one hand, and resembles a toy gun. It is a 
matter of history that there was never an attack 
on this fort and the little howitzer was never 
called into play in actual warfare. Sometime 
in the 6o's, however, during a celebration at the 



fort, the muzzle of this gun was blown off 
owing to an overcharge of powder. 

Surrounding the principal buildings of the 
fort, about eighty or one hundred yards, in 
former days was a stockade sixteen feet high 
made of trunks of trees, and some of these are 
still plainly in evidence. These are all of the 
buildings now in existence, but just south of 
the group is pointed out to the visitor the site 
of a row of houses which were once occupied 
by the employees of the fort. Time has de- 
stroyed these ancient structures, but there still 
remain on the spot numerous small flat stones 
which formed the chimneys of these houses. 
Another spot is pointed out where once stood the 
bakery. A slight depression in the ground 
shows where in the long ago, stood the com- 
pany's brewery, presided over by Thomas 
Stranger. A trifle northwest of the group of 
buildings which were surrounded by the stock- 
ade, is a pit where stood the historic whip-saw 
mill where trees were rudely fashioned into 
lumber for the buildings. A short distance 
north of the fort a circular depression locates 
the spot where stood a wind-mill that provided 
the power for grinding grain. 

A feeling of awe steals over the visitor as 
he gazes at these ancient landmarks, beyond a 
doubt the oldest buildings now standing in the 
state of \\'ashington. What pages of historical 
detail could they record were they animate and 
voluble! Chief Factor John Work established 
this historic fort, and was the first officer in 
charge. He was followed by Archibald Mc- 
Donald, granduncle of Angus McDonald; An- 
derson. Lewis. Desce and Angus McDonald, 
who had associated with him part of the time 
Chief Trader George L. Blenkinsop. A mem- 
orable occasion in the history of the fort was 
the consultation held here in 1855 between the 
Hudson's Bay people and Governor Isaac Ste- 
vens and George B. McClellan, the latter then a 
lieutenant in the engineer corps of the United 
States army. Stevens and McClellan remained 
at the fort two days. 

, In 1866 the Hudson's Bay Company sold 
out all their rights in this vicinity to the United 
States government. The purchase price is said 
to have been $800,000. In 1871, when the fort 
was abandoned, the buildings and land in the 
immediate vicinity became the property of An- 
gus McDonald, and his son, Donald McDonald, 
and they are still owned by the latter. 

The history of the present town of Marcus 
dates from the year i860. In that year the Brit- 
ish Boundary Commission, comprising a large 
party of men from the engineer corps of the 
English army, in charge of Colonel Hawkins, 
came to this part of the country. They first es- 
tablished themselves at a point a short distance 
south of the present town. In the autumn of 
this year the party moved to the banks of the 
Columbia river where Marcus now stands. 
Here they built a village of log huts, and some 
of them can still be seen. In 1862 the commis- 
sion completed its labors and retired from the 

The same year the initial store was estab- 
lished at Marcus by a man named Ferguson. 
He soon encountered opposition, for shortly 
afterward ^Villiam Vernon Brown opened a 
second store. Marcus Oppenheimer, the home- 
steader of the site of Marcus, soon purchased 
Mr. Ferguson's interests at this point, and sub- 
sequently took his two brothers, Samuel and 
Joseph, into partnership with him. The Op- 
penheimers and Mr. Brown continued to con- 
duct their respective mercantile establishments 
at Marcus for many years, and the town devel- 
oped into quite a lively trading point. Their 
stocks of goods were brought in by freighters 
from Walla \A^alla. Communication with the 
north was had by means of the steamer "49," 
which was built in 1865. This boat navigated 
the Columbia river from IMarcus to Canadian 
points above Revelstoke for twelve or fifteen 

June 27, 1890, Marcus Oppenheimer, for 

whom the place was named, and Joseph Monag- 

' han platted the town. Two ntlier town sites 



Near Marcus, as they appear to-day. The building on the left was the officers' quarter 

The one in the center was the storehouse. Directly behind this was 

the fur house. To the right is the Block House. 


Erected in 1872. replacing one built by 

the Hudson's Bay Company in 1830, 

which had taken the place of 

one erected in 1816. 



have also been platted in this vicinity, but no 
towns resulted. East Marcus, a short distance 
up the Columbia river, was platted August 5, 
1890, by E. D. Morrison and O. B. Nelson. 
Donald township, at the Kettle Falls of the 
Columbia, was platted by Donald McDonald 
December 5, 1891. Marcus continued to be a 
small trading post only, with its two stores, 
until 1896. Then the opening of the north 
half of the Colville reservation to mineral entry 
■caused a stampede to this point and the town 
began to build rapidly and attained to consider- 
able importance. 

At Marcus is an immense railroad bridge 
built by the Washington & Great Northern rail- 
road Company in 1901 when that road was ex- 
tended from Marcus to Republic. One hun- 
dred men were employed in its construction, 
which occupied a period of eight months. Mar- 
cus is located at the confluence of the Kettle and 
Columbia rivers fourteen miles northwest from 
■Colville. It is on the Spokane Falls & Northern 
railroad and is the eastern terminus of the 
Washington & Great Northern. Its elevation 
is 1,263 f^et. It has a population of about 200 
people, a good school with an attendance of 50 ; 
no churches; one lodge, the Red Men; and a 
■cable ferry. Across the river are fine forests — 
sufficient timber to supply saw mills for many 
years. None has been located here as yet, but 
it is only a question of time when lumbering 
will become the principal industry. There are 
a number of promising mines on the west side 
■of the river. 


Beautiful, historic Meyers Falls. 

And the material advantages of the town 
are, in their way, fully equal to the picturesque- 
Tiess of its location. With the possible excep- 
tion of Spokane Falls, ]\Ieyers Falls, about one 
mile south of the town of the same name, are 
the greatest falls, so far as concerns commer- 
■cial value, in the state of Washington. This 
immense power is, at present, following humble 

lines. It simply drives a saw mill and an elec- 
tric light plant. At the lowest water stage 
3,000 horse-power is available from the falls. 
The falls and surrounding land are o-wned ex- 
clusively by L. W. Meyers, who homesteaded 
the property. 

But it is not only the beauty of the falls and 
their possible utility that are to be considered 
in this work. The history connected with this 
romantic spot dates back as far, and possibly 
farther, than any point in Stevens county. On 
this subject the earlier pioneers of the country 
differ. Here the Hudson's Bay Company, per- 
ceiving the advantages' offered by the powerful 
falls, established a post and built a grist mill in 
1 81 6, which they operated for fourteen years. 
Then, about 1830, it was torn down and a new 
mill erected in its place. November 19, 1866, 
Mr. L. W. Meyers, who came here from east- 
ern Canada, secured control of the mill and 
operated it in this building until 1872 when the 
structure becoming rotten, he razed it to the 
ground and erected the present mill, using the 
floor and some of the timbers of the old edifice. 
Mr. Meyers operated this mill until about 1889 
when it was discontinued. In 1876 Mr. Meyers 
opened a store on his ranch, three miles due 
east from the falls, which he conducted until 

Another historical institution near the town 
of Meyers Falls is the Goodwin Mission, two 
miles east of the town. This was established 
about 1870, the original site being a trifle south- 
east of the present place. Its official title is St. 
Francis Regis Mission. On the first site se- 
lected the Catholic principals held their school 
for three years and then removed it to the pres- 
ent beautiful location. The priests in charge 
were Fathers Militry, De Grasse and Louis. 
Nine teachers were employed in 1902, the 
period of the last report, and there was an at- 
tendance of 1 50 scholars. The expenses for the 
yean 1902 were $8,500. There are two build- 
ings, commodious structures, one for boys and 
the other devoted to girls. 



In 1889 D. C. Corbin extended his railroad 
to Meyers Falls. It was his original intention 
to build the road along the Colville river past 
the falls and locate the town at the falls. Mr. 
Meyers offered to cede a large tract of land for 
this purpose. The company demanded a part 
interest in the water power, but this Meyers re- 
fused and the road was finally built through the 
present townsite of Meyers Falls. There is, 
however, some talk of changing the present line, 
a survey having been made at the falls, one mile 
south. This change is contemplated owing to a 
heavy grade between Meyers Falls and Marcus, 
which is 2.5 per cent, the distance being five 
miles. By the contemplated change the distance 
would be twelve miles and the grade .6 per cent. 

The town was named after L. W. Myers, 
who has been a resident of the county since 
1862. The first building erected within the 
limits of the townsite was for store and resi- 
dence purposes. It was erected in the winter 
of 1890 by Mrs. L. E. Blackmore, and in Jan- 
uary, 1 89 1, she opened a store there. The post- 
office was established the same year and G. B. 
Ide, now a resident of Colville, was made post- 
master. Mr. Ide built a small real estate office 
and utilized a portion of the space for postal 
purposes. In 1892 this building burned and 
only the Blackmore store remained in the town. 
June 16, 1893, the Blackmore building also 
burned and, until she could erect a new edifice, 
there was no town of Meyers Falls. In 1897 
the second store was established by George E. 
Meyers, son of L. W. Meyers, the pioneer. 
The former is still in business, as is Mrs. Black- 
more, now Mrs. White, but still conducting the 
business under the name of Blackmore. 

Meyers Falls is a town of about 300 souls, 
picturesquely located and is a good shippping 
point. There are no organized churches. The 
Woodmen of the World and the Modern 
Woodmen of America both have local camps. 
The town is provided with an excellent school, 
employing two teachers with an average attend- 
ance of seventy. A stage line runs to Kettle 

Falls and other points south, a distance of sev- 
enty miles. 


At the opening of the year 1888 only one 
small and humble log cabin stood among the 
sombre pines on the present site of Kettle Falls. 
The cabin had been erected by the Hon. Marcy 
H. Randall. This man was convinced that such 
a massive water power must, sooner or later, 
be utilized and he squatted on the picturesque 
bluff overlooking it determined in his convic- 
tion that "everything comes to the man who 
waits." The little cabin still stands, moss- 
grown and weather beaten. The writer, while 
visiting the falls, climbed the bluff to this pio- 
neer residence. The walls are of logs, the 
joints, inside and out, being "pointed" with 
clay. Rough boards cover the roof ; spaces be- 
tween them are overlaid with tar paper. The 
site is picturesque — a bit of charming western 

Soon others saw the possibilities of a loca- 
tion in this vicinity. Mr. Randall was joined 
by John Kinzie, Captain James McCormick, 
Vernon Glass, Louis Blue, Christ McDonald 
and others. They secured homesteads, or 
rather squatted upon land on this level plateau 
o\erlooking the mighty Columbia, near which 
the town of Kettle Falls is now built. Others 
who secured locations here were Mrs. L. C. P. 
Haskins, w-ho built a cabin lower down at the 
confluence of the Colville and Columbia rivers ; 
James Budd and Peter Hacking, who took land 
on which the original townsite was platted. 
Doubtless the country in the immediate vicinity 
of the Kettle Falls of the Columbia would have 
been thickly settled before now but for a certain' 
ruling of Land Commissioner Sparks in March,. 
1888. At that period the whole of the country 
tributary to Kettle Falls, twenty-two townships 
in all, was thrown out of the market as a fraud- 
ulent survey. It was, however, accepted by a 
later administration as correct, thus giving the 



squatters — for they were nothing more than 
squatters — an opportunity to prove up and se- 
cure titles to their lands. This was done in the 
fall and winter of 1889. 

"Why D. C. Corbin did not build his rail- 
road by way of the Kettle Falls ?" is a question 
that will probably never be answered. A sur- 
vey had been run to include the falls, and close 
to the site of the present town. But this plan 
was changed and a much more unsatisfactory 
route selected owing to the heavy grade to be 
overcome. Whatever the reason for this 
change the fact remains that Kettle Falls was 
left to one side and as a consequence the town 
suffers. The first sign of activity in Kettle 
Falls was manifested in the autumn of 1889 
when the townsite was platted. The Spokane 
Falls Revieiv of January i, 1890. said : "Three 
months ago about forty souls could be counted 
within a radius of three miles, while today 
there is a population of four hundred inhabi- 
tants." While the change had been wonderful 
in these three months what a greater change 
was witnessed in the growth of the town dur- 
ing that year! Where a few months before 
there was nothing but gloomy, sighing forests, 
in 1 89 1 appeared a city! Pines, spruce, firs 
and tamaracks disappeared. In their places the 
most enterprising town in the western part of 
the United States made its magical appearance. 
Broad streets and avenues lined on either side 
by handsome business blocks, public buildings 
and princely residences sprung up to attract the 
attention of an entire state. Twelve miles of 
twelve-foot plank sidewalk were constructed. 
The handsomest and best appointed hotel west 
of Helena, Mont., was located where a few 
months before the foot of man had not trod. 
This hotel was constructed at a cost of $18,000. 
The furnishings, which are described as magni- 
ficent, were purchased in Saginaw, Mich., at a 
cost of $9,200. Two houses of worship and a 
public school building of handsome architect- 
ural design were built. A public library build- 
ing of brick, containing several hundred vol- 

umes, was located in the central portion of the 
town. A system of water works was estab- 
lished. An electric lighting system, conducted 
on a magnificent scale, was in operation. Hugh 
Monro, one of the pioneers of this magic town, 
in conversation with the writer, said that one of 
the most picturesque sights he ever witnessed 
was the town of Kettle Falls at night during the 
"boom" times. Standing on the bank of the 
Columbia ri\-er the view that met his eyes was 
one never to be forgotten. The forests on the 
mountains formed a background, and for miles 
and miles the scene was illuminated by electric 
lights. On every corner of the business section 
of the city (and the business section included 
no small amount of territory) was an arc light, 
and throughout the residence portion of the 
town, which included about one thousand acres, 
every other corner was supplied with an arc 
light. On the ridge to the north and east of the 
town was a row of electric lights which formed 
a quadrant around the city. A newspaper was 
established and for one week a daily paper was 

Here then, was a city of perhaps one thous- 
and people sprung up, it might be said, in a 
night, supplied with all the conveniences and 
luxuries of a metropolis. Here was civilization 
in its most pronounced effects. Across the river 
and within a few hundred rods of the brilliantly 
illumed city were howling savages from the 
Colville reservation, who gazed in wonder at 
the spectacular transformation of the wilder- 
ness. Coyotes howled at the tresspassers on 
their territory. 

But what was the reason for the appearance 
of this municipal blossom in the wilderness? 
There had been many "boom" towns in the 
west, especially in mining camps, which had 
sprung up luxuriantly and acquired a large pop- 
ulation in a remarkably short time. But there 
had never been anything in history to equal the 
spontaneity of this coltish town in the magni- 
ficence of its planning and the elaborateness of 
its buildings. To John W. Goss, who, in 1889, 



was a member of the wholesale hardware firm 
of Holly, Mason, Marks & Company, of Spo- 
kane, and who was also interested in banking 
in that city, belongs the honor of originating 
the idea of building the metropolis of the north- 
west at Kettle Falls. He had visited the place 
and recognized the value of the falls as a source 
of driving power for manufacturing industries. 
Mr. Goss had formerly been engaged in the 
wholesale hardware business at Rochester, N. 
Y.. and he decided to interest his friends in the 
formation of a company to build a city at this 
point. With this end in view he corresponded 
with Mr. W. B. Aris, who had formerly been 
a traveling salesman for his company, and in 
whom he recognized a suitable man to promote 
the scheme. Mr. Aris became interested in the 
proposition, visited the site with Mr. Goss, and 
returned to New York with glowing accounts 
of the possibilities of the state of Washington 
and the Columbia river — Kettle Falls in par- 

Mr. Aris found no difiSculty in financing 
the enterprise and organizing the Rochester & 
Kettle Falls Land Company, which was capi- 
talized at $500,000. It may be well to state 
here that the company was formed from friends 
of Mr. Aris and that after organization Mr. 
Goss, who was the originator of the scheme, 
never had a controlling interest in the company, 
and had very little to do with it. It had been 
Mr. Goss's intention to interest Spokane capi- 
tal, but this did not eventuate. The officers and 
members of the Rochester &: Kettle Falls Land 
Company were : 

George Walter Weaver, president: Horace 
C. Brewster, vice president : William C. Wait, 
secretary ; William B. Aris, treasurer and gen- 
eral manager. The trustees were George Wal- 
ter Weaver, Rochester; Horace C. Brewster, 
William C. Wait, William B. Aris, H. P. Ran- 
ger, George S. Morley, Arthur Luetchford, 
Bernard Felock. Conrad Eckhardt, L. C. Hu- 
ber. all of Rochester, N. Y. ; F. D. Sherwood, 
Hnrnellsville, N. Y. : Harvey Hoag, Medina, 

N. Y.; W. H. Dick, Dansville, N. Y. The 
executive committee comprised W. B. Aris, 
Horace C. Brewster, H. P. Ranger and George 
S. Morley, all of Rochester, N. Y. 

Mr. Aris, as general manager, became the 
practical head of the concern, and it was prin- 
cipally through his instrumentality that Kettle 
Falls bloomed into existence, and under his di- 
rection that all these marvelous improvements 
were made. Forty acres each were donated 
from the ranches of Mrs. L. C. P. Haskins, 
James Budd and Peter Hacking to the Roches- 
ter company for townsite purposes and the com- 
pany acquired in all about one thousand acres 
of land. It was the first intention of the organi- 
zation to locate the town at the falls, but this 
land was owned by the Jesuits and could not be 
procured at any price. It was then decided to 
plant the city on the present site. 

More funds were required by the company 
to further the elaborate plans for the building 
of the city. Mr. Aris concluded to interest 
other eastern capitalists in the enterprise. He 
repaired to New York for the announced pur- 
pose of procuring an excursion train of possible 
investors to visit the new town and, also, to 
bring out those who had already invested. IMr. 
Aris did not meet with the success that he ex- 
pected, but he induced most of those already 
interested and a few others to form a party ami 
make the trip to Washington. Two special 
cars were chartered and in the spring of 1891 
they arrived in Kettle Falls. Following their 
arrival the Kettle Falls Pioneer issued a daily 
edition — for a week. To these easterners the 
town, as viewed from handsome half-tone cuts, 
and imagined from the perusal of flamboyant 
booklets, as they sat in their comfortable homes 
in the Empire State and the town of Kettle 
Falls as it really was in 1891, were two entirely 
different propositions. They were fatigued 
with the long ride, sore and disgusted. A meet- 
ing of the stockholders was held at the Roches- 
ter hotel, where the different parties interested 
voiced their views. They appeared ready to 



throw up the sponge, and unequivocally de- 
clared that they would invest no more money 
in the enterprise. In vain did Mr. Aris elo- 
quently voice his belief and enthusiasm. Those 
who had already invested in the town could see 
no possible future benefit in contributing more ; 
those who had come looking for investment 
could not but be influenced by the others. The 
Rochester party remained but a few days and 
then turned their faces toward Genessee Falls, 
New York. 

The effect of this visit was depressing. 
Town lots which sold for $1,500 on the day of 
the arrival of this distingiiished party, could on 
the following day be purchased for from $300 
to $400 apiece. During the fall of 1903 Ste- 
vens county held a sale of property acquired by 
delinquent tax proceedings and lots in Kettle 
Falls sold at from fifty cents to $10 each. 

For a short period the town was at a stand- 
still; then began retrogression. The sumptu- 
ous Hotel Rochester was closed and the gorge- 
ous upholstery removed. Many residence 
houses which had sprung up in the thriving 
town now became vacant. Some of the owners 
of these houses to prevent them from going to 
waste, and in order to realize something on 
them, disposed of them at great sacrifice to new 
settlers and they were removed to ne^r-by 
ranches. It is said that at least forty houses 
were thus taken from this once glorious, but 
ephemeral city. 

Kettle Falls is four miles from Meyers Falls 
and twelve miles from Colville. Its elevation 
is 1,200 feet above sea level, the climate mild 
and dry. The town derives its name from the 
falls which have always been known as Kettle, 
which name originated from the hollows 
formed in the rocks. These depressions were 
caused by boulders brought down by the current 
of the river, and rotating rapidly, wearing a 
number of wells in the rocks, each of which is 
about three feet in diameter and ten feet deep. 
These are technically known as "pot-holes," the 
natives giving them the name of "kettles." 

The river is nearly half a mile wide at this point 
and in some places one hundred feet deep, with 
islands in the center. A vast body of water 
passes over these falls and the power facilities 
are almost incalculable. 

Following the granting of a petition for in- 
corporation, signed by seventy-two electors of 
Kettle Falls, a special election was called for 
December 8. 1891. Although the result of the 
vote was in favor of incorporation the election 
was declared void, and another one was called 
for May 20, 1892. The result was favorable to 
incorporation, and the town was declared to be 
in the fourth class. The following officials 
were elected : Robert Ledgerwood, mayor ; 
Peter Hacking, James J. Budd, Henry D. 
Quinby, Charles A. Phipps and S. M. Hinman, 
councilmen ; George W. Washburn, treasurer. 

As one wends his way from the present 
town of Kettle Falls to the falls in the Columbia 
he encounters a large frame building situated 
in the heart of the woods. This structure is 
all that remains, or in fact all that ever was, of 
the town of Stevens which was intended to 
have become the metropolis of the northwest, 
and of which a historical sketch is given in 
another portion of this work. 

The site of the old Jesuit chapel is a most 
beautiful spot. A grassy field surrounded by 
open timber near the end of a high promontory, 
and commanding a magnificent view of the 
Columbia Valley, the great river stretching 
away to the north and the valley dotted with 
farms and skirted by mountain ranges ; this is 
the view from the ancient site. This historic 
landmark is situated a few hundred yards back 
from the eastern bank of the falls. The mission 
was known as St. Paul's Chapel, and was 
erected in 1858. A former building once stood 
on the same site, erected as early as 1846. The 
present chapel is built entirely of logs and not a 
nail was used in its construction, wooden pegs 
being utilized instead. Therein can be seen 
a huge fireplace, and outside a chimney made 
of sun-dried brick. 



The first fair under the auspices of the 
Stevens County Industrial Association was held 
at Kettle Falls in September, 1895. The dis- 
play of fruits, vegetables and other agricultu- 
ral products was excellent. Many of these ex- 
hibits were taken to the Spokane Fruit Fair of 
that year where they captured prizes. 

The present Kettle Falls is a town of about 
350 inhabitants. It lies scattered over an exten- 
sive territory extending from the confluence of 
the Colville and Columbia rivers up the latter 
stream for a distance of at least a mile. The 
immense and ornate Hotel Rochester building 
stands, like "Tara's halls." deserted, the melan- 
choly scene of the Rochester & Kettle Falls 
Land Company's Waterloo. Thanks to the 
boomers the town has now a handsome school 
iDuilding, two commodious church edifices and 
a public library. As a rule the citizens are firm 
in their conviction that the town has a future, 
and there is no reason to gainsay this hope. 
There is every reason to believe that the Spo- 
kane Falls & Northern Railroad Company will, 
within a short time, change the course of its 
road to avoid the heavy grade between Meyers 
Falls and Marcus. Should this eventuate the 
line will strike within a short distance of Kettle 
Falls. The town has a bank. Presbyterian and 
Seventh Day Adventist churches, one hundred 
and one pupils enrolled in the public schools 
which employ two teachers; W. O. W., Odd 
Fellows and Masonic lodges, the latter having 
a fine new hall erected in 1903, and an O. E. 
S. chapter recently organized. There are stage 
lines to Meyers Falls and all points along the 
Columbia river. 


The first white man who ever looked upon 
the site upon which the town of Chewelah is 
located was, beyond a doubt. Solomon Pelcher. 
The date of his arrival here is uncertain. To 
some of the settlers who came to this point in 
T8S2 Pelcher made the surprising statement 

that he had first visited the site of Chewelah 
forty years previous to that date, which, if true, 
would fix the date of his advent in 1842. Mr. 
Pelcher died several years since and is buried 
near Chewelah. To Mr. Tom Brown, of Chew- 
lah, belongs the honor of being the surviving 
pioneer of this town. Outside of the employees 
of the Hudson's Bay Company there are only 
one or two white men whose arrival in Stevens 
county antedates that of Mr. Brown. 

In 1854 a party comprising Brown, his 
wife, three daughters and one son, and James 
Sickler, entered Stevens county. They were 
of Scottish birth, on their way from Canada 
to the gold fields of California. Brown had 
with him a number of head of stock. The win- 
ter was severe and Brown decided to pass the 
cold weather where they were, which was near 
the present site of Addy. Sickler pushed on to 
the south and a few years later was killed in 
Portland, Oregon. Renouncing the California 
trip Brown concluded to make his home here, 
and he built a cabin in the wilderness near .\dcly 
where he engaged in farming and stock rais- 
ing. In 1859, with his family, he removed to 
the future Chewelah where he has since resided. 
Purchasing a farm from an Indian he founded 
a home. For a number of years he was in the 
government service carrying the mail from a 
point below Spokane Falls to Fort Colville. 
He also secured a contract from the go\-ern- 
ment to furnish forage rations for troops on 
their way to and from Fort Colville. His place 
became a kind of public inn where he accommo- 
dated wayfarers on their way between the old 
military fort at Pinkney City and other points. 
For many years Brown was the one lonely white 
settler in this part of Colville Valley. But in 
the 6o's a few white men had located here and 
a public school was established, IMiss Mary, 
daughter of Thomas Brown, being the teacher, 
her school room a portion of Brown's house. 
A government Indian agency was established at 
the place where now stands Chewelah in 1873. 
.\ stone grist mill was erected to which the In- 



dians brought their grain to be ground. Por- 
tions of this ancient structure are still to be seen 
in Chewelah. Major Sims was the first gov- 
ernment agent. He remained in charge until 
1882. Aside from the agent a number of other 
gentlemen held positions at the agency. John 
McFadden was in charge of the mill ; Dr. E. 
L. Morgan was physician and attended to the 
ailments of the Indians. Major O'Neil, an- 
other of the men at the agency, had for his 
duties the instruction of the Indians in the art 
of farming. There was a supply department 
connected with the agency from which farm- 
ing machinery and seeds were distributed. 
There was no store, however, and the nearest 
trading point was Fort Colville. Major Sims 
was superseded as agent in 1882 by Major 
Waters, who continued in charge two years. 
He, in turn, relinquished the position to Major 
Moore, but shortly after the latter assumed 
charge the agency was abandoned here and re- 
moved to the Nespelim country. This was in 

Not until 1882 was there a store established 
at Chewelah. That year J. T. Lockhard built 
a small log structure and opened a store, the 
principal stock being whiskey. The building 
still stands in Chewelah, in Kieling's addition, 
on the west side of the river. The same year 
Mr. Lockhard disposed of his business to D. C. 
Bird. The succeeding business enterprise was 
inaugurated in 1883 by Joseph Oppenheimer, 
who since that period has been engaged in the 
mercantile business in Chewelah. In those 
early days the country round about Chewelah 
was known far and wide by the French name, 
Prairie du Foo; translated into English it be- 
comes "Fool's Prairie." Quite an event in the 
history of this community was the naming of 
the place. As late as 1883 it was known by the 
Spokane Indians as Cha-we-lah, signifying 
water-snake. That year the settlers held a 
meeting at the store of Joseph Oppenheimer 
and discussed the matter of naming the town. 

Cha-we-lah was changed to Chewelah, and the 
business of the meeting was completed. 

The third store in the place was opened in 
1884 by James Graham. Within the year he 
was burned out. Until the building of the Spo- 
kane Falls & Northern railway business enter- 
prises "lagged superfluous on the stage." But 
following the completion of the road in 1889 
settlers began to pour in and the town to build 
up. During the early days "Father" Eells, the 
Congregational minister, so well and favorably 
known in the Colville Valley, and who did so 
much for the educational interests of eastern 
Washington, held services in Chewelah and do- 
nated a bell to the first church established there. 

Among the industries in the immediate vi- 
cinity of Chewelah, hay undoubtedly ranks first, 
timber second, stock raising third, these fol- 
lowed by mining, marble, etc. The incorpora- 
tion of Chewelah was declared January 26, 
1903. Election had been held on the 26th inst. 
The signers of the petition to the county com- 
missioners were D. Van Slyke, F. L. Reinoehl, 
W. W. Dickson and sixty-one others, asking 
to be incorporated as a town of the fourth class. 
The following officers were elected : W. W. 
Dickson, mayor; Fred Kieling, H. E. Mcln- 
tyre, H. T. Spedden, Henry Pomeroy, George 
H. McCrea, councilmen ; H. S. Spedden, treas- 

The Chewelah creamers- and cheese factory 
is owned and operated by W. B. Stuart, and the 
plant is a credit to the town, having a capacity 
of 5,000 pounds of milk per diem. The planing 
mill, owned by Smith & Houston, was estab- 
lished early in 1903. The company supplies 
all kinds of dressed lumber to the local trade, 
and a large planer has recently been received 
to accommodate the shipping demand for 
dressed lumber. Stock is purchased from the 
local mills. Other enterprises are a brick yard, 
lime kiln, bank, brewery, newspaper, baken,'; 
fifteen flourishing business enterprises in all. 
The Yellow Pine Milling Company's mill. 



three miles southwest of Chewelah, employs, 
including logging crew, twenty men. There is 
a large quantity of standing timber tributary to 
this mill. Following is a list of promising 
mining properties now being opened, and which 
are tributary to Chewelah : 

Copper King. Eagle, Widow's Mite, Rev- 
enue Group, Jay Gould, Ben B., United States 
Gold Mining Company, Windfall, Single 
Standard, Nellie S., Juneau and Echo, Moni- 
tor Group, Mayflower, Bird's Eye Group, Bun- 
ker Mining Company Group, Nevada, Jolly 
Boy Group, Bay State, Lake Shore Group, 
Aetna Group, Helena, Hartford Group, Aurora, 
The Finley, New Era, Dewey Group. 

Some of the richest mines of the state are 
located in the Chewelah District. In past 
years when people \vere looking for free gold 
the mines in this vicinity were "wild catted," 
and the camp acquired a bad name. Develop- 
ment is now being resumed, and there are 
rumors of the establishment of a smelter at 
this point. There are three churches in Chewe- 
lah, Congregational, Catholic and Free Metho- 
dist. The fraternal societies comprise the Mod- 
ern Woodmen of America, Independent Order 
of Odd Fellows. K. O. T. M., Highlanders, 
and G. A. R. Chewelah Camp No. 7841, M. 
W. A., has a membership of 54. There is, 
also, an auxiliary camp of Royal Neighbors, 
carrying a good membership. Chewelah 
Lodge No. 176, I. O. O. F., was instituted in 
1 89 1, and has a membership of over 40. Union 
Tent No. 49, K. O. T. M.. is one of the oldest 
and strongest lodges in the town. It, also, 
has a ladies' auxiliary with a good member- 
ship. The Highlanders erected a new hall in 
1903. Union Post G. A. R., No. 70, has been 
organized for several years, and now has a 
membership of less than fifteen. The post 
owns its own hall. 

At Chewelah was established one of the 
first schools in the county, and at a period 
when the county limits were vast and compre- 
hensive. Here was opened the second union 

high school in Stevens county. In 1901 the 
district was bonded for $3,000, and the money 
applied to the erection of a brick building for 
school purposes that reflects great credit upon 
the community. There is at present an at- 
tendance of 131 pupils, taught by five teachers. 
Wednesday evening, November 10, 1903, 
the Chewelah Commercial Club, convening at 
Van Slyke's hall, elected a governing board of 
five members, viz : Dr. S. P. McPherson, W. H. 
Brownlow?, J. F. Lavigne, Emanuel Oppen- 
heimer and F. L. Reinohl. A committee was, 
also, appointed on highways leading into 


This is one of the towns in Stevens county 
that came into existence with the building of 
the Spokane Falls & Northern railroad in 1889. 
Previous to the completion of the line to this 
point C. O. Squires homesteaded the land where 
Springdale now stands, and the first building 
erected was his saw-mill. In July, 1889, Mark 
P. Shaffer and Charles Trimble formed a part- 
nership, built the first store building, and 
opened a general mercantile store. Late in 
the fall the second business enterprise was pro- 
jected by John S. Gray^ — a general store. The 
third store was opened by J. H. Keller, March 
6, 1890, and he is the sole remaining pioneer 
business man in town. 

The town was platted by C. O. Squires 
and named "Squires City." But the station 
was recognized by the railroad company as 
Springdale, and so was the postoffice. Here 
was a serious complication. A majority of 
the citizens desired that the town should be 
christened Springdale. and following the plat- 
ting, they petitioned the legislature for a change 
of name, which petition was granted. Among 
the industries hay ranks first. Timber takes 
its place a close second. In 1890 occurred the 
only fire of any consequence in town ; the hotel 
owned by Joseph Cook was burned. The tovm 
was incorporated at an election held January- 



26, 1903, as a town of the fourth class, and the 
following officials elected : I. S. Clark, mayor ; 
J. \\". Gillingham, Zell Young, J. O. Kennett, 
James Key, O. T. Smith, councilmen; J. O. 
Cline, treasurer. The population of the town 
is about 400. From this point the famous 
Cedar Canyon mines ship their ore. The only 
church organization in Springdale is the Con- 
gregational and they have a fine house of wor- 
ship. Fraternal societies are represented by 
the G. A. R., K. O. T. M.. I. O. G. T., 
M. W. A., Camp No. 10606, R. N. A., H K. 
O. W., L. O. T. M., I. O. O. F. and the 
Springdale Lumbermen's Union. Springdale is 
supplied with excellent schools employing three 
teachers. There is a stage line between the 
town and Deer Trail, in Cedar Canyon. The 
place is supplied with a system of waterworks 
installed in 1902. The water is pumped from 
Sheep Creek by means of a hydralic ram to a 
reservoir located on a hill contiguous to the 
town. The plant was put in by M. Collins, and 
was afterward purchased by P. M. Cartier Van 
Dissell. who now owns and conducts the same. 
Springdale has a volunteer fire company well 
supplied with hose and other fire-fighting ap- 
paratus. The resources upon which Spring- 
dale draws are many and varied. Among ^ 
them may be mentioned the Butte-Anaconda 
mine, seventeen miles west, but which is not [ 
shipping ore at present; D. Merchant & Wil- 
man, five miles west, a lumber mill shipping } 
direct from Springdale; a number of contig- 
uous dairies; Washington Brick & Lime Com- 
pany, next to the largest institution of the 
kind in the state, employing fifty men in the 
summer and thirty-five in the winter months, 
located one mile east of town ; brick yard within 
the corporate limits, established in 1903, J. W. 
Gillingham, proprietor; J. E. Craney's log- I 
ging camp, two miles west of town, which ] 
furnishes logs for the Sawmill Phoenix, of 
Spokane, and which employed 300 men during 
the winter of 1902-3. 

This is a compact, well-built little town of 
about 400 inhabitants, situated twenty miles 
north of Colville, on the Spokane Falls & 
Northern railroad. In 1888, at its inception, 
it was known as Young America, named after 
the Young America silver mine, which was a 
remarkably good paying proposition. Its most 
prosperous period was between the date of its 
fo-,nding and 1892, when it contained a popu- 
lation of about 800 people. A stamp mill was 
put in, and to this fact is due the change of 
name to Millington. Under this name the town 
was platted, May i, 1893, by the Consolidated 
Bonanza Mining & Smelting Company, through 
its ofificers, J. E. Foster, president, and C. H. 
.\rmstrong, secretary. The town was, later, 
named Bossburg, in honor of C. S. Bo^s, one 
of its most prominent citizens. In 1896, owing 
to activity in mining and other industries, the 
town of Bossburg again witnessed an era of 
prosperity which continued until 1900. From 
1897 to 1901 the Bossburg Journal was pub- 
lished by A. A. Anderson. There are ex- 
cellent mining prospects in the vicinity of this 
town, and also a fairly good farming country. 
Bossburg exports lumber, wood, lime, ore, 
fruit and other produce. A sawmill and lime 
kiln afiford employment to a number of men 
here. The town is supplied with a good school. 
Congregational church, public hall, etc., and 
there is a cable ferrv across the Columbia river. 

The present population of Newport is in 
the neighborhood of six hundred people. It is 
the metropolis and principal town of eastern 
Stevens county. It is important because it is 
the shipping point for the productive Calispell 
Valley, it being necessary to ship via Newport 
from all points in the valley to a distance of 
sixty miles to the north. It is surrounded by 

1 62 


an extensive lumbering country, and is known 
as the "Planing Mill Town." Only a short 
distance down the Fend d'Oreille river are ex- 
tensive cement works, of which a full descrip- 
tion is given in another portion of this work. 
Ore from the famous Metaline District is ship- 
ped from Newport, which is the terminus of 
a line of steamers which ply the Pen d'Oreille 
river. The Newport building boom occurred 
in 1903. An electric light plant has recently 
been installed, the power for which is ob- 
tained from one of the numerous planing mills. 
M. C. Kelly built the first store in Newport 
and for a year he was without a competitor. 
At the period Kelly run up his store he thought 
he was in the state of Washington, but it sub- 
sequently developed that he was in Idaho. This 
complication is explained as follows by the 
Stevens County Reveille, of Februar}^ 14. 1901 : 
"The town of Newport, Idaho, is now New- 
port. Washington. An official in Washington, 
D. C, by the scratch of a pen has removed 
the town more than 3,000 feet, wiping it off 
the map of Idaho, and placing it on the map of 
Washington. Just why this was done does not 
appear clearly. In a small section of the daily 
bulletin of changes affecting the postal service 
the story of the work is told as follows : 'New- 
port. Kootenai county, Idaho, moved 3.175 feet 
southwest into Stevens county, \\^ashington.' 
The deal places Newport in the southeast corner 
of this county, and gives us another town of 
some little size." 

At present the postoffice, depot and nearly 
all of the business houses are in Washington ; 
the docks are still in Idaho. It is a state-line 
town in every sense of the word. The church 
organizations are the Congregational, Metho- and Catholic, the Congregationalists hav- 
ing the only church edifice at present. The town 
was incorporated .\pril 13, 1903, and declared 
a town of the fourth class. The officers elected 
at the time of incorporation were T. J- Kelly, 
mavnr: S. W. Sutherland. A. \\\ McMorran, 
Evan Enoch. R. P. Scott, H. A. Noyes, coun- 

cilmen; W. E. Talmage, treasurer. The fra- 
ternal societies comprise the I. O. O. F., M.W. 
A., and Newport Lumbermen's Union, No. 


This is a town of about 150 inhabitants 
situated on the Spokane Falls & Northern rail- 
road, fourteen miles south of Colville and nine 
miles north of Chewelah. While Addy did not 
evolve into a town until 1890 the site is one 
well known to the old timers of Stevens county. 
It was near here that Tom Brown, now of 
Chewelah, located with his family and run up 
a house in 1854. But the place is best remem- 
bered as the site of the Fatzer grist mill, es- 
tablished sometime in the late 70's, and patron- 
ized by settlers for many miles around. This 
mill continued in operation until the flood of 
1894, when it was taken out. On three dif- 
ferent occasions during the years 1892 and 
1893 the mill dam was destroyed by dynamite. 
Large rewards were offered for information 
concerning the guilty parties, but they were 
never apprehended. In July, 1890, one year 
following the completion of the railroad, George 
W, Seal and E. S. Dudrey formed a co-part- 
nership and opened a general mercantile store. 
In November of the same year a postoffice was 
established at .\ddy. and IMr. Dudrey became 
postmaster. This firm continued in business 
until 1896, when Mr. Seal purchased his part- 
ner's interest in the store. Two years later 
Mr. Dudrey opened the second store in Addy. 
The town never enjoyed a boom and its growth 
was gradual. The years 1898, 1899 and 1900 
were prosperous, for at that period the Le Roi 
mine, at Rossland, was experiencing great 
activity, and .\ddy became one of the principal 
shipping points on the railroad for produce, 
etc., to the mine. The principal industries in 
the vicinity of the town are lumbering, marble 
and agriculture. Three large saw mills are 
operated within two miles of town, the 
Dearinger & Bruner. the Root and tlie Spencer 



mills. Three marble quarries are in close prox- 
imity to Addy, and this town is the shipping 
point. A new school house was recently com- 
pleted to accommodate forty pupils who are 
now in attendance. There is a Methodist 
church organization, and a camp of the Wood- 
men of the World, the latter owning their own 
hall. The business of Addy is embraced in 
three general stores, one meat market, one 
millinery store, one drug store, one blacksmith 
shop, two saloons, one livery barn, two hotels, 
postoffice and depot. 


Here is a cluster of beautiful little towns, 
the principal industry of which is fruit culture. 
Fruitland is in the southwestern portion of the 
county, contains a few stores and postoffice, 
and is surrounded by arable farms and stock 
ranches. Bissell postofBce is twelve miles 
south of Daisy, with a general store and one 
hotel. It ships from Meyers Falls, thirty-five 
miles distant, and is on the stage route to 
Kettle Falls and Spokane. Waterloo was es^ 
tablished in 1894; thirteen miles southeast of 
Harvey and nineteen miles south of Kettle 
Falls. It is in the midst of a fine agricultural 
country. Rice is sixteen miles south of Meyers 
Falls : is supplied with a fine water power, 
saw mill, one general store, and its resources 
are fruit, grain, lumber, hay and produce. 
There is a Baptist church organization. Har- 
vey, located in the Columbia river valley, was 
settled in 1883. It ships from Meyers Falls, 
fifteen miles distant. It has a saw mill, flour- 
ing mill, one general store, and is in the midst 
of a fine fruit and farming country. The town 
exports hay, fruit, grain, produce, lumber and 
flour. Azina is a small place on the Colurhbia 
river, fifteen miles south of Kettle Falls, in a 
fine fruit country. It has a Presbyterian church 
organization, and the postoffice was estab- 
lished in 1900. Hunters is a town of 150 peo- 
ple, situated in the fertile Columbia river valley. ) 

It is forty-three miles from Meyers Falls, from 
which point it ships its produce. The sur- 
rounding territory is devoted to stock raising, 
and gold and silver mining. Hunters has a 
saw and feed mill, three general stores, Metho- 
dist church, hotel, and a cheese factory. From 
here a stage route is extended to Kettle Falls. 
Daisy is one of the most prosperous little 
towns in the Columbia river country of Stevens 
court}-. It is located twenty-two miles from 
Meyers Falls, which is its shipping point. It 
is in the center of the fruit area and surround- 
ing it are, also, some eligible stock ranches. In 
the immediate neighborhood are a number of 
promising mining properties. Daisy has a gen- 
eral store, hotel, Methodist church and post- 


This is a town of 200 population situated 
in the extreme southern part of Stevens county, 
on the Spokane Falls & Northern railroad. It 
is the principal manufacturing town in the 
county. It came into being as a municipality 
with the building of the railroad in 1889. Clay- 
ton has the largest brick manufacturing plant 
in the state of Washington — if not on the 
Pacific coast — the Washington Brick, Lime & 
Manufacturing Company. This extensive 
plant was established in 1893. Four years 
later it was burned, but immediately rebuilt. 
When this industry is running on full time 
sixty men are employed. Another concern of 
importance is the Standard Stoneware Com- 
pany, manufacturing pottery. This was estab- 
lished in 1 90 1. The Holland & Holland saw 
mill company, beginning operations in 1894. 
employs a large number of men. The mill 
burned in September, 1903, but was at once re- 
built. Clayton is a typical manufacturing town, 
and as a shipping point it ranks above many of 
the larger towns of the county. It is supplied 
with an excellent public school in which forty 
pupils are enrolled. The only church organi- 
zation in town is that of the Congregationalists. 



One and one-half miles frum the town site is 
the Norwegian Lutheran church, a handsome 
edifice, and it is, practically, a Clayton church. 
Tliere are three general stores. 


At Loon Lake, in the southern part of the 
county, on the Spokane Falls & Northern rail- 
road, forty miles from Spokane, is located 
Stevens county's summer resort. The town 
is a place of about one hundred inhabi- 
tants, has a general store, three hotels and a 
saloon. The lake, a quarter of a mile distant 
from the town, is a beautiful body of water, 
and since the opening of the railroad in 1889, 
it has been an outing spot for thousands. For 
a number of years, D. C. Corbin, who built 
the railroad, owned and operated the park on 
the bank of the lake as a kind of picnic 
grounds. Excursions were run to this place 
every summer and it became a recreation resort 
for all kinds and conditions of men, women and 
children. The park is at present owned by 
Evan Morgan, who purchased it from Mr. 
Curbin in 1897. The park now has all the con- 
\eniences and comforts of a modern summer re- 
sort, or "breathing place," and the location is 
picturesque and attractive. On the bank of the 
lake is a spacious pavilion, where guests are 
entertained during the summer months, and 
many bathing and boat houses, from one of 
which plies a pretty steam launch. Lining the 
bank of the park are a number of handsome 
summer cottages where people from Spokane 
and other points pass the heated term. Many 
acres of heavily wooded land are within the 
limits of the park, especially along the shores 
of the lake. 

One of the principal industries of Loon 
Lake is lumbering. There are three saw mills 
within a short distance of the town. The ice 
business is no unimportant factor in the 
economics of Loon Lake. The lake water is 
clear as crystal, and the quality of ice cut there- 

from can not be excelled. Ice-houses of large 
capacity line the shore and winter employment 
is furnished many men in this industry. The 
product is shipped to Spokane and other towns 
within an extensive territory. 


Valley is a small town located on the 
Spokane Falls & Northern railway, thirty-one 
miles south of the county seat. While the 
country surrounding Valley is one of the old 
settled portions of the county, the town was 
awakened to life by the building of the rail- 
road. It was platted by D. C. Corbin, July 29, 
1891. There are a few general stores, and the 
inevitable saw mill. The population is about 
one hundred and fifty. Valley is developing 
into quite a shipping point, and in this particu- 
lar ranks high among the smaller towns of the 
county. One of the principal industries is the 
cutting and shipping of timothy hay. Other 
exports are marble, onyx, grain, wood, produce 
and lumber. 

The town of Boundary was highly prosper- 
ous during the period in which the railroad was 
building. The "boom" lasted six months. Col- 
onel Pinkston was then the most prominent 
citizen in Boundary, which is situated one mile 
south of the international boundary line be- 
tween the United States and British Columbia. 
During the "boom" the town gained a popula- 
tion of 1,200 people. At that period the citizens 
led a most strenuous life, and the place gained 
a rather unenviable notoriety on account of its. 
many dance halls, saloons, gambling houses and 
other resorts of immorality. With the decadence 
of prosperity the residents gradually moved 
away, many of them to Rossland. The build- 
ings of Boundary were torn down, and the 
lumber taken to the Canadian town, many of 
the first structures of which were erected with 
lumber brought from the sacked town of 
Boundary. The present hamlet consists of a 
postoffice, a small store and one family. 



Orin postoffice, at the \\'inslo\v saw mill, is 
four miles south of Colville. The town of Gray 
is five . miles north of Springdale, on the 
Spokane Falls & Northern railway. Here are 
a postofhce, store and a few houses. The post 
office was established in 190 1. It is quite a 
shipping point, with an adjacent saw mill, and 
exports considerable hay. Arden is a station on 
the Spokane Falls & Northern railway, six 
miles south of Colville, with an adjacent saw 
mill. Usk is a small town on the Pend d'Oreille 
river, nineteen miles northwest of Newport. 
It has a hotel, creamery, and two general stores. 
The town was platted June 9, 1903, by George 
H. Jones. 

Frontier is located on Sheep Creek, and also 
on the Columbia & Red Mountain railroad, 
seven miles north of Northport and near the 
international boundary line. The postoffice was 
established in 190 1. M. A. Rush is the home- 
steader of the property. Frontier is the ship- 
ping point for the Velvet mine. 

Rockcut is a postoffice on the Kettle river, 
thirty miles northwest of Colville. The town 
was established in 1902, the point immediately 
across the Kettle river, in Ferry county, being 
the terminal of the Washington & Great North- 
ern railway for a few months at that time. It 
has one store and a postoffice. 

Marble is a station on the Spokane Falls & 
Northern railway, nine miles southwest of 

Northport, and was established in 1898. A 
saw mill, general store and postoffice are located 
at this point, which is also accommodated by a 
row boat ferry. Acorss the Columbia river is 
a country rich in mining prospects and marble 

Ryan is a postoffice and flag station on the 
Spokane Falls & Northern railway, fifteen 
miles southwest of Northport. This town was 
established in 1896. There are, in the vicinity 
of the town, several marble quarries and many 
good prospects. There is a saw mill two or 
three miles south of town. Here there is a 
cable ferry across the river, and it is the 
shipping point for ore which is brought across 
the river via the ferry. The town is named 
after Daniel Ryan, who homesteaded the prop- 
erty where the hamlet now stands. There is 
one general store. 

lone is a small place on the Pend d'Oreille 
river, twenty-six miles northeast of Colville. as 
the crow flies, and fifty-two miles northwest of 
Newport. The town was settled in 1894. It 
has one general store and a hotel, and adjacent 
are some extensive cement works and marble 

Blue Creek, postoffice and station, on the 
Spokane Falls & Northern railway, is seventeen 
miles south of Colville. It has a saw mill and 
one store. Its exports are lumber, wood, min- 
ing timber and produce. 



The political history of Stevens county is 
decidedly complex, and at times indefinite and 
confusing. This present condition arises from 
the fact that political records of eirlier days 

have been loosely kept, or not collected at all. 
Representatives to the legislature have been 
elected and not seated ; while on the other hand 
there are instances where thev have been seated 

1 66 


without going through the formahty of an elec- 
tion. The county has weathered nearly all the 
changes in political complexion incident to other 
localities east and west. Clianges from repub- 
licanism to democracy have been sharp and 
accentuated by the elements of surprise, and 
again the populists have developed strength to 
command for a period, the distribution of 
county patronage in their favor. 

Isaac Ingalls Stevens was the first Terri- 
torial governor of Washington, appointed in 
1853 by President Franklin Pierce. But up to 
i860 Stevens county had never been represented 
in the Territorial legislature, nor was it then, 
although an attempt was made toward such a 
consummation. That year some of the settlers 
assembled and selected H. W. Watson as the 
representative from Stevens county, made up a 
purse for his expenses and dispatched him to 
Olympia. Owing to the irregularity of his 
election Mr. Watson was not seated, but was 
given the position of door-keeper in the house. 
An account of his subsequent murder while 
returning home from Olympia may be read in 
Chapter I. Part II, of this work. Until 1864 
the territi ry embraced by Stevens, was known 
as Spokane county. In July, 1861, J. R. Bates, 
republic; ii, was elected representative. Bates 
was the first man seated in the Territorial legis- 
lature as an accredited representative from 
Stevens, or rather Spokane county, jointly with 
Wallu Walla county. In 1862 Charles H. 
Canfidd. republican, ran for the legislature 
against B. F. Yantis, democrat. Canfield 
received 48 votes and Yantis 38, but the latter 
contested the election. At that period the 
family of Yantis resided at Olympia, and 
thither he went to pass the winter with them. 
Canfield did not put in an appearance; the 
contest went by default, and Yantis secured the 
seat, serving one term. 

In 1863 and 1864 Isaac L. Tobey was 
elected representative from Stevens county, 
Walla Walla having been cut out of the repre- 
sentative district. In 1864. for some unex- 

plained reason, Tobey resigned and no one was 
elected to fill the vacancy. In 1865 W. V. 
Brown was elected as representative from 
Stevens county, but did not take his seat, which 
was subsequently filled, in 1866, by J. J. H. 
Van Bokkelem. He was a resident of Port 
Townsend, coming to Colville that summer as 
custom house officer. When he concluded to 
return he decided, also, to represent Stevens 
county in the Territorial legislature and draw 
the mileage. The political pathway appears 
to have been an easy one in those primitive days, 
and strewn with roses. There is no record in 
the Colville archives of Van Bokkelem's elec- 
tion, but he seems to have made a persuasive 
talk to the members of the house and secured 
the seat. The Territorial legislative assemblies 
then became biennial, and the following gentle- 
m°n represented Stevens county successively : 
W. P. Winans, 1867; C. H. Montgomery, 1869; 
W. P. Winans, 1871. The councilmen elected 
from Stevens, in conjunction with other coun- 
ties, were: John A. Simms, 1861-2; Daniel 
Stewart, 1863-4; Anderson Cox, 1865-6; J. M. 
Vansyckle, 1867-8; H. D. O'Bryant, 1869-71. 
In 1873 Ml"- Favorite, of Rosalia, Spokane 
county, served in the legislature, representing 
Stevens county. In 1875 Hon. Robert H. 
Wempy was elected the first member from 
Stevens county, which then embraced Spokane, 
Lincoln, Douglas and Okanogan. D. F. Per- 
cival and L. W. Meyers were elected county 
commmisssioners ; James N. Glover, justice 
of the place; John U. Hofstetter, sheriff. In 

1877 Marcus Oppenheimer, republic-m. an'l 
Henry Wellington, democrat, were opposing- 
candidates for the office of representative to the 
lower house of the Territorial legislature. 
Wellington won the contest but resigned. In 

1878 a special election was called to fill the 
vacancy, and James Monaghan was nominated 
by the democrats ; D. F. Percival by the repub- 
licans. The contest resulted in the election of 

Nothing of great political significince oc- 




curred in Stevens county during the years inter- 
vening between 1878 and 1889. Admission to 
the union as a state was, at this period, loudly 
and emphatically demanded by the people of 
Washington. July 4, 1889, the constitutional 
convention of the state of Washington, com- 
posed of 75 members, assembled at Olympia. 
This body continued in session fifty days and the 
result of its labors was the adoption of a con- 
stitution. S. H. Manly, republican, now a 
practicing physician in Republic, Ferry county. 
was one of the members from Stevens county. 
W. W. Waltman, democrat, of Colville, was 
selected, also, as a delegate, but his seat was 
declared vacant, after six days, and J. J. Travis, 
democrat, of Chewelah, was seated in his place. 
In 1890 a new apportionment was made by the 
state legislature, Washington having then been 
admitted to the union. The second senatorial 
district, acccording to this new apportionment, 
comprised the county of Stevens, and the 
following precincts in Spokane county : Twin 
Prairie, Five Mile Prairie, Pleasant Prairie, 
Chatteroy, Bridge and Peone Prairie. The 
county of Stevens constituted the first repre- 
sentative district and was entitled to one repre- 

The member of the first state senate from 
the district composed of Stevens, and portions 
of Spokane counties, was H. E. Houghton, 
republican, a resident of Spokane Falls. The 
member of the first house of representatives, 
following the admission of the state, 1889-90, 
from Stevens county, was M. H. Randall, 
republican, of Colville. In 1891-2 James 
O'Neil, republican, of Chewelah, was elected 
state senator from the second senatorial district, 
comprising Stevens county and si.x precincts 
in Spokane county. At this session of the legis- 
lature John Metcalfe, republican, of Squire 
Citv, now Springdale, Stevens county, was the 
representative in the house. In 1893 Charles 
H. Montgomery, of Chewelah. was appointed 
a member of the state World's Fair commission. 

The election held No\'ember 6, 1894, proved 

a surprising victory for the populist party in 
Stevens county. The vote for representatives in 
congress was: Samuel C. Hyde, republican. 
618; William H. Doolittle. republican. 573; N. 
T. Caton. democrat. 290; B. F. Heuston, dem- 
ocrat, 288; J. C. Van Patten, populist, 841; 
W. P. C. Adams, populist, 818. 

The vote for members of the state legisla- 
ture was in about the same proportion. With 
the exception of sheriff and one commissioner 
the populists captured all the county offices. 
Republicans, democrats and populists each had 
nominees for every office. For county attorney 
Charles A. Mantz defeated L. B. Reeder, 
republican, and Jotn B. Slater, democrat, by 
154 plurality. Lafayette Ledgerwood was 
elected county clerk, and George F. Bottoriif, 
republican, and A. V. Shepler, democrat, 
defeated by a plurality of 169. For auditor 
John S. McLean was elected over E. D. Miner, 
republ'can, and W. C. Starkey, democrat, 
receiving a plurality of 1 50. The only officers 
the populists lost were one commissioner and 
sheriff, the vote for sheriff being : J. C. Yenter, 
republican, 474; C. R. McMillan, democrat, 
671: William Graham, populist, 640. Joseph 
Lavigne secured the treasurership. defeating 
William Campbell, republican, and Frank B. 
Goetter. democrat, and receiving a plurality of 
igi. Otis J. Smith received a plurality of 62 
for superintendent of schools, defeating John 

A. B-irry, republican, and Con M. Durland, 
democrat. For assessor David F. Pankey was 
elected over Frank Ferguson, republican, and 
J. F. Jarvis, democrat, with the largest plurality 
of any candidate, 240. James B. Thomas 
defeated Ralph Damp, republican, and Richard 

B. Thomas, democrat, for surveyor; plurality 
67. Louis J. Walford, populist, and Robert 
Fountain, democrat, were elected county com- 
missioners. James O. Gifford, populist, was 
elected coroner. 

In the presidential election of 1896 the 
McKinley electors received 433 votes to 1880 
for W. J. Bryan. For governor P. C. Sullivan, 

1 68 


republican received 537 votes to 1774 for John 
R. Rogers, democrat. The election was held 
November 3, 1896. Three tickets were in the 
field for county ofiicers, republican, populist 
and union tickets, the populist ticket being 
generally successful, the following being the 
result : 

County auditor — David C. Ely, republican, 
440: John L. Metcalfe, populist, 962; Robert 
Fountain, unionist, 918; Metcalfe's plurality, 

Treasurer — James N. Rogers, republican, 
425; S. S. Beggs, populist, 1139; C. S. 
Boss, unionist, 764. Begg's plurality, 375, 

Attorney— E. C. Nordyke, 1062; H. G. 
Kirkpatrick, 1104. Kirkpatrick's plurality, 

Assessor — Kendrick S. Waterman, repub- 
lican, 406; D. F. Pankey, popuhst, 1124; 
C. A. Duffy, unionist, 794. Pankey's plurality, 

Sheriff — Fred S. Phillips, republican, 383; 
E. M. Denny, populist, 1058; Frank Habein, 
unionist, 913. Denny's plurality, 145. 

County Clerk — Elmer D. Hall, republican, 
354; Lafayette Ledgerwood, populist, 1032; 
William B. Dingle, unionist, 942. Ledger- 
wood's plurality, 90. 

Superintendent of schools — Evalyn E. 
Church, republican, 479; Otis J. Smith, pop- 
ulist, 1024; John A. Barry, unionist, 835. 
Smith's plurality, 189. 

Coroner — Thomas C. Green, republican, 
434; J. A. Lung, populist, 1064; J. J. Travis, 
unionist, 799. Lung's plurality, 265. 

Surveyor — J. B. Thomas, republican, 
1 281: George H. Skeels, 840. Thomas' 
plurality, 441. 

Commissioner, First District — Joseph W. 
Reynolds, republican, 643; Harris T. Rey- 
nolds, populist, 993 ; Fletcher Barton, unionist, 
667. H. T. Reynold's plurality, 326. 

Commissioner Third District — Jacob Kel- 
ler, republican. 443; T. E. Irish, populist. 

1095; Orin Belknap, unionist, 753. Irish's 
plurality, 342. 

In the general election of 1898 the ticket 
was headed by candidates for congress. 
Stevens county was swept by the democrats so 
far as the state ticket was concerned. The vote . 
for representatives to congress was as follows : 
Wesley L. Jones, republican, 740; Francis W. 
Cushman, republican, 697; James Hamilton 
Lewis, democrat, 1169; William C. Jones, 
democrat, 1082. For county officials the tickets 
in the field were two, populist and fusion ; the 
fusion being between republicans and demo- 
crats. This contest was close and exciting, 
with the result that the offices were handed 
round between the two factions, as follows : 

Sheriff — Elijah M. Denny, populist, 1032; 
James Ferguson, fusionist, 1006. Denny's 
plurality, 26. 

County Clerk — Thomas E. Dulin, populist, 
925; W. H. Jackson, fusionist, 1046. Jack- 
son's plurality, 121. 

Auditor — James W. Sneed, populist, 945; 
D. C. Ely, fusionist, 996. Plurality for Ely, 


Treasurer — Sydney S. Beggs, populist, 
1039; Frank Habein, fusionist, 950. Pulrality 
for Beggs, 89. 

Attorney — Merton E. Jesseph, populist, 
898; H. G. Kirkpatrick, fusionist, mo. Kirk- 
patrick's plurality, 212. 

Assessor — George Byers, populist, 926; 
O. T. Smith, fusionist, 1009. Smith's plural- 
ity 83. 

Superintendent of Schools — William L. 
Sax, populist, 1017; J. N. Sinclair, fusionist, 
951. Sax's plurality, 66. 

Surveyor — C. N. Park, populist, 899 ; L. L. 
Tower, fusionist, 1031. Plurality for Tower, 

Coroner — Frank R. Ballard, populist, 1041 ; 
Leopold De Rudder, fusionist, 877. Ballard's 
plurality, 164. 

Commissioner. First District — Henrv W. 



Sparks, populist, 920; W. H. Jeffreys, fusion- 
ist, 961. Plurality for Jeffreys, 41. 

Commissioner Second District — Charles 
Alban, populist, 800; George W. Reynolds, 
fusionist, 1124. Plurality for Reynolds, 324. 

Returning to 1892, when Stevens county 
was republican, let us in a perfectly unbiased 
and non-partisan manner, trace the history of 
the various parties down to 190 1. In 1892 the 
republicans were generally successful over 
their opponents, the democrats, although the 
populists had then begun to manifest consider- 
able strength, backed by intense enthusiasm. 
The financial stringency of 1893-4 awakened 
a general clamor throughout the United States 
for a reversal of things political all along the 
line. In common with the rest of the country 
this feeling was manifested in Stevens county 
10 a certain degree, although with no more 
intensity than in other parts of the union. At 
this period the administration of Stevens 
county affairs was in republican hands. In the 
election of 1894 republicans, populists and dem- 
ocrats had separate tickets in the field. In the 
contest of the fall of 1894 the People's Party, 
or Populists, were eminently successful, and it 
may be said that the prestige then lost by 
republicans in the county has never been 

In the election of 1896 again three tickets 
appeared in the field. It -was a national cam- 
paign year; free silver was the dominant issue; 
every effort was made to unite the silver forces, 
"but the populists, relying on their decisive vic- 
tory of two years previous, repulsed all over- 
tures looking toward fusion, and put a straight- 
out, middle-of-the-road ticket in the field. For 
mutual defense the democrats and free silver 
republicans effected a combination under the 
name of unionists and placed a union ticket in 
the field. The gold republicans had a straight 
ticket of their own, although perfectly aware 
that they were leading a forlorn hope. In this 
sensational election L. B. Andrews, republican 

presidential elector, received in Stevens county 
433 votes ; the highest vote cast for a republican 
elector. On the democratic side N. T. Caton 
received 1880 votes; a majority of 1319. The 
vote for Caton included democrats, populists 
and free silver republicans; they having com- 
bined on state and national issues; the same 
majorities ruled on other state officers. Coming 
to county affairs, the straight, or gold republi- 
can vote, ranged between 400 and 500, while 
the populist and union tickets were about even, 
say an average of 900 votes each, the advantage 
being slightly in favor of the populists. 

Remarkable features embellished this elec- 
tion of 1898. Chief among them was the fusion 
of gold republicans, silver republicans and dem- 
ocrats, under the trite name of "Citizens' 
Ticket." Again the populists jumped into the 
field with a straight ticket. The number of 
votes cast at this election in Stevens county 
was about 1800, or nearly 500 votes less than 
had been cast two years previous in the "Bryan 
campaign." Candidates on each of these 
tickets were elected, although the advantage 
remained with the "Citizens' Ticket." The 
second remarkable feature of the campaign was 
the refusal of the populist auditor to place the 
names of candidates of the opposing parties, 
"Citizens' Ticket." on the official ballot. Nat- 
urally this created a storm of indignant protest 
throughout the county, and it is frankly 
admitted that it did much to weaken the pop- 
ulist party within itself, while) more firmly 
cementing the half-hearted union between those 
strange bed-fellows, republicans and demo- 

The fusionists who were frienedly to the 
"Citizens' Ticket," appealed to Judge Richard- 
son, of the superior court, asking for an order 
compelling Auditor Metcalfe to place the names 
of their nominees on the official ballot. Judge 
Richardson decided against them, and, prob- 
ably, upon good legal grounds. Attorney 
Kirkpatrick, candidate for presecuting attorney 



on the "Citizens' Ticket," wired for a mandate 
from the supreme court at Olympia compelling 
Auditor Metcalfe to place the rejected names 
on the official ballot. The mandate was issued. 
Acting on the advice of his attorney, Frank 
Graves, of Spokane, Auditor Metcalfe still 
refused to obey the mandate. He was subse- 
quently cited to appear before the supreme 
court to answer the charge of contempt; the 
case against him was dismissed. The names 
of the nominees of the citizens' party did not 
appear on the official ballots. 

How then did the members of the citizens' 
party vote? This question brings us to the 
third and last remarkable feature of this sensa- 
tional campaign, the use of "stickers" by those 
who voted the "Citizens' Ticket." Although 
numerous mistakes were made by this bungling 
method of conducting a general election, it 
speaks well for the average voter of Stevens 
county that in a long list of offices to be filled 
so many right names were put in the right 
places on the ballots. 

A comparison of figures for 1898 shows 
considerable change in the complexion of the 
parties of Stevens county. Frank W. Cush- 
man, republican candidate for congress, re- 
ceived 677 votes. There being no fusion 
between republicans and democrats aside from 
the county offices, this vote represents the 
putative strength of the republican party in the 
county at that period. J. Hamilton Lewis, 
Cushman's opponent, received 11 69 votes, a 
majority of 472. It should be remembered 
that the vote of 1898 was nearly 500 less than 
in 1896, yet the republicans jump from 433 
votes in 1896 to 697 in 1898, a gain of 61 per 
cent. At the same time the fusion forces drop 
from 1880 to 1 169, a loss of 38 per cent. 

The fusion of democrats and republicans 
lasted for one campaign only. When party 
lines were drawn for the momentous cam- 
paign of 1900. democrats and populists fused 
all along the line under the name of "Dem- 

ocracy." Republicaiis put a straight ticket in 
the field. The vote that fall was the heaviest 
ever polled in Stevens county. On the 
republican ticket the highest vote polled 
for presidential electors was that given 
S. C. Cosgrove, 1121. N. G. Blalock, 
democrat, received 1612, a majority of 491- 
The republican gain over 1898 was 424, a gain 
of 60 per cent, and a gain of 1 59 per cent, over 
the vote of 1896. The democratic gain over 
1898 was 443, a gain of 38 per cent, and a loss 
of 268 votes, compared with 1896; a loss of 14 
per cent. 

The election of 1898 gave rise to a number 
of contests. One of them was between C. A. 
Mantz and W. C. Gray, opposing candidates 
for state senator from the second senatorial 
district. This case was taken to the state 
legislature and decided in favor of Mantz. 
Other contests for county offices were as 
follows: Thomas Dulin vs. W. H. Jackson, 
contest for clerkship; C. N. Park vs. 
Louis L. Tower, contest for the office of county 
surveyor; J. C. Harkness vs. G. M. Welty, 
contest for representative; H. W. Sparks vs. 
W. H. Jefifry, contest for office of county com- 
missioner, first district; James W. Sneed vs. 
D. C. Ely, contest for the office of county 
auditor; M. E. Jesseph, vs. H. G. Kirkpatrick, 
contest for the office of county attorney. 

The complaints filed. with the various con- 
tests were, practically, the same in substance, 
and after setting up the statutory grounds for 
contests, went on to state that in all the precincts 
in Stevens county circulars containing printed 
language abusive of the populist party and its 
candidates were passed out to voters by the 
election boards, and circulated in the voting 
booths and elsewhere within fifty feet of the 
polls, while the election was in progress. It 
was also alleged that money was employed to 
influence voters against the populist candidates, 

In January, 1899, these contest cases came 



lip for hearing before Julge C. H. Neal. 
Previous to this a recount of the votes had 
been commenced and was under way at the time 
of the original hearing of the cases. Many 
bahots were counted whicli were protested by 
either one side or the other, and all such pro- 
tested ballots were filed away for future 
consideration. The recount gave Ferguson a 
majority of twelve votes over Denny, thus 
temporarily changing the result so far as the of- 
fice of sheriff was concerned. According to pre- 
vious stipulation introduction of evidence and 
arguments of counsel became necessary. This 
had occurred previous to the holidays, and the 
court had adjourned until January 3. On that 
date the question of counting or rejecting such 
baltots as had been protested w'as taken up and 
considerable evidence introduced. Arguments 
of counsel occupied half a day. The decision of 
Judge Neal, however, gave Denny a majority 
of seven votes over Ferguson. The other con- 
tests instituted by defeated populist candidates 
were all dismissed by consent at plaintiffs' 

The presidential election in Stevens county 
in 1900 resulted as follows: For presidential 
electors, republican, 1121: democratic, 1612; 
l)rohibitionist, 38; social labor, 9; social demo 
crats, 29. For go\-ernor, J. M. Frink, republi- 
can, 987; John R. Rogers, democrat, 1743; 
plurality for Rogers, 756; R. E. Dunlap, 
prohibitionist, 29; William McCormick, social 
labor, 10; W. C. B. Randolph, social democrat, 
23. Throughout the county the democrats 
swept the field as the following returns will 
show: Auditor — D. C. Ely, republican, 1089: 
Richard Nagle, democrat, 1669; majority for 
Nagle, 580. 

Sheriff — Frank Ferguson, republican, 1244: 
Christopher A. Ledgerwood, democrat, 15 18. 
Majority for Ledgerwood, 274. 

County clerk — W. H. Jackson, republican, 
1274; Fred Y. Wilson, 1482.' Majority for 
\Vilson, 208. 

Treasurer — George W. Harvey, republican. 

1083; Joseph L. Lavigne, democrat, 1668. 
Majority for Lavigne, 585. 

Attorney — John A. Kellogg, republican, 
1 195; J. E. Morris Bailey, democrat, 1568. 
Majority for Bailey, 373. 

Assessor — K. S. Waterman, republican, 
1 187; Marshall B. Jaques, democrat, 1561. 
Majority for Jaques, 374. 

Superintendent of schools — J. W. Smith, 
republican, 1016; William L. Sax, democrat, 
1759. Majority for Sax, 743. 

Coroner — M. R. Peck, republican, 1185; 
Frank R. Ballard, democrat, 1553. Majority 
for Ballard, 360. 

Surveyor — L. L. Tower, democrat. 1688; 
J. B. Thomas, independent, 418. Majority for 
Tower, 1270. 

Commissioner, second district — George W. 
Reynolds, republican, 1232; J. C. De Haven, 
democrat, 1522. Majority for De Haven, 290. 

Commissioner, third district — J. T. Graves, 
republican, 1049; Thomas E. Irish, democrat, 
1699. Majority for Irish, 650. 

The election of 1902 revealed a marked 
change in the political complexion of the 
county. There was no democratic landslide 
such as had accentuated the election of 1900. 
The returns tell the story. 

For representative to congress the republi- 
can vote ranged from 1285 to 1304: the demo- 
cratic vote from 1176 to 1194; the socialists 
from 312 to 316. There were three tickets in 
the field for county ofiicers with the following 
results : 

Sheriff' — Christopher .\. Ledgerwood, dem- 
ocrat, 1 192; Frank Ferguson, republican, 
1344: C. C. Anderson, socialist, 311. Fergu- 
son's plurality, 152. 

County clerk — H. R. Crozier, democrat, 
1253: F. Y. Wilson, republican, 1260; John 
O'Leary, Jr.. socialist. 318. ^^'il.son's plurality, 

Auditor — Richard Nagle, democrat, 1353; 
I'red L. Reinoehl, republican, 1223; John M. 
Smith, socialist, 285. Nagle's plurality, 130. 



Treasurer — George W. Seal, democrat, 
1355; J. F. Lavigiie, republican, 1217; Floyd 
C. Smith, socialist, 298. Seal's plurality, 138. 

Attorney — A. J. Fenandini, democrat, 
1 122; H. G. Kirkpatrick, republican, 143 1; 
J. C. Harkness', socialist, 301. Plurality for 
Kirkpatrick, 309. 

Assessor — A. L. Knapp, democrat, 1330; 
Marshall B. Jaques, republican, 1194; E. A. 
Vanslyke, socialist, 304. Knapp's plurality, 

Superintendent of schools — F. L. Grin- 
stead, democrat, 1365; James E. Pickerel], 
republican, 1247; W. L. Sax, socialist, i. 
Plurality for Grinstead, 118. 

Surveyor — Clair Hunt, democrat, 11 65; 
'vValter L. Brown, republican, 1361 ; W. B. 

Stuart, socialist, 306. Hunt's plurality, 166. 

Coroner — R. D. McRea, democrat, 1320; 
J. J. Travis, republican, 1171 ; B. L. Brigham, 
socialist, 324; McRea's plurality, 149. 

Commissioner, first district, Thomas R. 
Major, democrat, 12 16; J. M. Fish, republican, 
1309; H. T. Reynolds, socialist, 303. Plurality 
for Fish, 93. 

Commissioner, third district — George H. 
Bobier, democrat, 1203; M. C. Kelly, republi- 
can, 1327; Zell Young, socialist, 307. Kelly's 
plurality, 124. 

The republicans elected the state senator, 
M. E. Stansel, and the democrats captured the 
two representatives, Martin J. Maloney and 
Jerry Cooney, the latter of Springdale. Mr. 
Maloney resides in Colville. 



One of the most interesting subjects in the 
history of any community is that relating to 
its educational matters, and this is especially 
true in the case of Stevens county. From the 
early days when there was not a public school 
in all the vast territory then known as Spokane 
county to the present time, when the conipar- 
itively small territory now embraced in the 
boundaries of Stevens county has 107 school 
districts and school property valued at $71,605, 
and when thousands of children are daily 
pursuing their studies in its public schools, the 
educational history of Ste\-ens county proves 
an interesting study. 

However, it is not as plain as an open book. 
Prior to 1891 there is nothing of record in the 
office of the county superintendent of schools 

along educational lines. In the early days, if 
the county superintendents made reports of 
their official acts, as they doubtless did, the 
reports were destroyed and no public record of 
them was kept. Even the names of the gentle- 
men who occupied the position of super- 
intendents of school are not to be obtained with 
any assurance that they are correct. Among 
those who occupied this position in the days of 
the county's infancy were George Taylor, F. W. 
Perkins, David Stuart, Park Winans. Moses 
Dupuis, John U. Hofstetter and James Mon- 
aghan. These gentlemen, and possibly others, 
presided over the destinies of the Stevens county 
schools from the formation of the county in 
i860 to, 187s, but the dates of their incumbency 
cannot be obtained. 



To Mr. Francis Wolff, who came to Stevens 
county in 1856 and who for nearly 50 years 
has been identified with its growth, many 
years in an official capacity, we are under obli- 
gations for data in regard to the schools of the 
county in the pioneer days. Mr. Wolff informs 
us that the first institution of learning in 
Stevens county was established in the year 
1856. At that time Angus McDonald, who was 
head trader for the Hudson's Bay Company at 
Fort Colville (Kettle Falls), established a 
private school. His primary object was the 
education of his own children, but several 
others also took advantage of the school, prin- 
cipally children of the employes at the fort. 
A teacher was hired by Mr. ^IcDonald and for 
several years the school was maintained. 

The first public school established in the 
county was at Pinkney City in 1862. The 
court room in the county building was used for 
a school room and the first teacher was Mr. 
Boody, who conducted the school two terms. 
Mr. Boody is described as a first-class 
instructor "of the old school," and conducted 
the county's first institution of learning in a 
manner satisfactory to all the patrons. There 
were 18 or 19 scholars in attendance at the 
first term. After Mr. Boody retired from the 
management of the school others took up the 
work and there never was a suspension after 
its establishment. 

The first person to occupy the office of 
county supereintendent of schools was George 
Taylor. His incumbency appears to have been 
of short duration and unsatisfactory, as we find 
that at a meeting of the board of county com- 
missioners held on January 15, 1863, he and 
F. W. Perkins appeared before the board to 
contest the office of school superintendent. 
They both made their plea and the board de- 
cided that Mr. Perkins was the county school 
superintendent, "because George Taylor had 
voluntarily left the county, had never made 

any report to the board, and was not in the 
county to report at their May term in 1862." 

Mr. Perkins then presented a report of 
what he, as school superintendent, had done, 
accompanied by maps. The report was 
accepted and the maps approved. The board 
urged Mr. Perkins to advance the cause of 
education by establishing schools in all the 
districts of the valley of the Colville. 

The superintendent found that owing to 
the thinly settled condition of the valley he 
would not be justified in establishing more 
schools, and so stated in his report to the com- 
misssioners at their meeting on November 2, 
1863. He further advised that the school fund 
be appropriated to the building of a jail, as no 
schools were wished for by the people of the 
valley. This the commissioners did, and it was 
not until 1872, during the incumbency of Moses 
Dupuis as county superintendenet, that this 
fund reverted to the use of the schools. 

For a number of years the school at Pinkney 
City was the only public school in all the vast 
territory first known as Spokane county, but 
later as Stevens county. This was the only 
educational institution within a radius of 
hundreds of miles. Pinkney City was the politi- 
cal and educational center of a territory larger 
than most of the eastern states. In 1864 or 
J 865 the county's second school was established. 
Quite a settlement had sprung up in the vicinity 
of Chewelah (then written Cha-we-lah) and 
a school was established there l)y the county 
superintendent. ]\Iiss Mary Brown being 
employed as teacher. 

The next school established was a private 
one under the supervision of Father Militry. 
The father in 1865 petitioned the board of 
C(?unty commissioners for permission to open a 
ijrivate school. He was informed that the 
school fund could not be used for any other 
purpose than that of paying masters, or pur- 
chasing libraries and instruments, but he was 



advised to open a subscription to build the 
buildings and that the county would petition 
the legislature for the right to use the fund for 
the benefit of the school. Whether or not 
Father Militry received any county or ter- 
ritorial aid is not a matter of record. At any 
rate that same year he established the school 
and it continued in existence two or three 
j'ears. The school was held at the Catholic 
mission near Pinkney City and was taught by 
the four sisters at the mission, who adopted 
this occupation as a means of support. 

Two years after the beginning of the 
school at Chewelah a new district was formed 
and the third public school of the county was 
established at Marcus. During the next decade 
the growth of schools in the county was slow, 
for at the beginning of the year 1876 we find 
that there were but seven public institutions 
of learning. 

On January 8, 1864, upon the recommenda- 
tion of School Superintendent F. W. Perkins, 
before referred to, the commissioners took 
from the schol fund $600 with which to build 
a jail. But this was not the only money appro- 
priated from the school fund by the commis- 
sioners for other purposes than that of the 
maintenance of the schools. On December 5, 
1865, $444 was taken and used for other 
purposes. On July i, 1869, the commissioners 
appropriated the sum of $332 from the same 
fund with which to build county roads. In 
1872, when Moses Dupuis became school 
superintendent, he demanded of the commis- 
sioners that they turn over these different 
amounts to him for school purposes, together 
with accrued interest at ten per cent. The total 
amount of the principal and interest at the date 
of his demand, May 8, 1872, was $2254.97. 
At the August meeting of the board this matter 
was taken up for consideration, and the amount 
of the principal, $1376.00, was ordered trans- 
ferrred to the school fund. The auditor was 
instructed to draw 54 county orders in the sum 

of $25 each and one order in the sum of $26, 
payable to the superintendent of schools, and 
to place the orders in the hands of the county 
treasurer to be credited to the school fund and 
subject to apportionment by Mr. Dupuis. Thus 
the moneys, which had been irregularly taken 
from the school fund in the earlier days when 
there was very little need for them, were 
restored, and Mr. Dupuis was enabled to do 
much good in the establishment of new schools 
in the county. 

Mr. John Rickey tells some pretty good 
stories to illustrate how the county's educational 
matters were conducted in the early days when 
the pupils were few and far between and when 
the school funds were being used to build jails 
and county roads and the school superintendents 
had to fight for these funds. Among the early 
superintendents was John U. Hofstetter, who 
has been identified with the history making of 
Stevens county from its organization to the 
present time. Mr. Rickey is authority for the 
statement that one day during the incumbency 
of Mr. Hofstetter, Father Grassi, a Catholic 
priest, came to the county seat to take a teacher's 
examination from the superintendent. The 
father made his mission known to ^Ir. 

"Well," said the superintendent, "you know 
how to teach, don't you." 

The priest replied that he thought he did. 
but that he belie\-ed it was customary for the 
school superintendent to ascertain this fact 
Ijefore the teacher was allowed to enter his 

"Well, vou must know more about school 
matters than I do." 

"I do not know that I do." replied the 

"If you hold to that assertion. Father Grassi, 
I cannot issue you a certificate to teach." 

The candidate for a teacher's certificate 
took the matter under advisement, reconsidered 
his former staten-.ent, and finally admitted that 



perhaps he was better informed in the matter 
of instructing the young than the superinten- 
dent, whereupon Mr. Hofstetter issued the 
certificate without further examination. 

Another of Mr. Ricke)-'s stories is to the ef- 
fect that one day, during the reign of Mr. James 
Monaghan as superintendent, that gentleman 
had occasion to make a trip to Walla Walla. 
He had progressed but a few miles on his 
journey from Fort Colville when he met a 
young man named Spangle who inquired of 
Mr. Monaghan the way to the county seat. 
Upon being informed the young man asked if 
he knew the superintendent of schools, stating 
that he was on his way to Fort Colville to take 
a teacher's examination. Mr. Monaghan 
introduced himself and proceeded to give the 
young man an examination. 

"What per cent of the earth's surface is land 
and what per cent water?" asked the superin- 

The question was answered correctly. 

"What positions on the map do the direc- 
tions north, south, east and west occupy?" was 
the r.ext question. 

This was also answered to the satisfaction 
of the superintendent, and he at once pro- 
ceeded to fill out a blank certificate he had with 
him authorizing Mr. Spangle to teach in the 
county. Mr. Monaghan then proceeded on his 
way to Walla Walla, the newly made teacher 
accompanying him as far as his home in the 
southern part of the county. 

The report of County Superintendent 
James Monaghan for the year ending December 
31, 1875, is the earliest report in anything like 
a complete form, and proves interesting from 
the fact that it gives a clear idea of the condi- 
tions of the county schools at that early date. 
From Mr. Monaghan's report we learn that 
there were 319 scholars in the county and that 
of this number 105 attended school. There 
were five school houses in the county, but seven 
schools were maintained during the year. For 

the maintenance of these schools $850.57 was 
apportioned by the county and $94.49 was 
raised by subscription. The report further 
states that $945 was paid to teachers, which 
left a balance of six cents for the other running 
expenses of the schools. 

Mr. Monaghan further reported as follows 
concerning the schools: 

"The principal books used are Sanders' 
series and Davis' geography. Branches taught 
are reading, writing, spelling, grammar, geogra- 
phy, arithmetic and history. Some of the dis- 
tricts are so thinly settled and the school fund 
so small that it is difficult to give all the chil- 
dren the advantage of the public schools, hence 
the small attendance of scholars. But the de- 
sire to promote the cause of education is steadily 
growing stronger amongst the people of the 
county, and there appears to be a disposition 
at present to increase the school fund by private 
contributions and special taxes, especially in 
the sparsely settled districts, that will, if per- 
se\-ered in, give better facilities for all the chil- 
dren to attend school than at present exist. I 
have prepared a school map of the county with 
district boundaries plainly defined in the alter- 
ing of boundaries and establishing new dis- 
tricts. I have to the best of my ability arranged 
the lines for the benefit of all the scholars re- 
siding in the county. I would respectfully call 
your attention to section 7, page 424, school 
law of 1873, requiring county superintendents 
to visit all the schools in the county once a year, 
and state that there is no provision requiring 
clerks or directors to notify the superintendent 
during the time the schools are going on. In 
a county like this, having a large territory and 
very little mail facilities, it is difficult to know 
when a school in a remote district is in active 
operation. I have the honor to be, very re- 

"Your obedient servant, 

"J. Monaghan, Supt." 

For the next 16 years no records are 



obtainable in regard to the school system. From 
the report of Thomas Nagle for the year ending 
June 30, 1 89 1, we leani that during these years 
the schools increased from seven to 35, and the 
number of scholars attending from 105 to 743. 
Where there were live school buildings in 1875, 
we now find 23. 

In his report to the superintendent of public 
instruction of Washington, Mr. Nagle says : 

"Owing to the fact that many of the district 
clerks have made incomplete reports, I find it 
impossible to make mine complete. No superin- 
tendent of schools can live on $350 a year. 
This office requires all of the superintendent's 
time and attention in this county and the 
mileage and other fees will not pay traveling 
expenses. I have formed ten new districts 
and in doing so was compelled to travel 500 

During the school year 1891 there were in 
the county 1557 children of school age, and less 
than half of these, 743, were enrolled in the 
public schools, the average daily attendance 
being 444. Ninety-six resident pupils were 
students at private schools. 

There were 28 teachers employed during 
the year. None of these held state or ter- 
ritorial certificates or diplomas : three were 
accorded with having first grade county certifi- 
cates; sixteen had second grade county certifi- 
cates and nine third grade. The average 
monthly salary paid male teachers was $46.76, 
and female teachers received an average salary 
of $46. 

Mr. Nagle estimated the value of school 
property at this time to be $10,298, divided as 
follows : School houses and grounds. $8,620 ; 
school furniture, $1,098; apparatus, maps, 
charts, etc, $571. There were no school 
libraries in the county and only two of the 
districts were the possessors of unabridged 

.\t the time of the report there was $5,000 
in school bonds outstanding, and the average 

amount of interest paid on these was 8 per cent. 
No insurance was carried on any of the school 

There were 35 districts in Stevens county in 
1 89 1 and school was maintained in all of them. 
On an average school was held loi days during 
the year, and of the 35 districts 28 held school 
at least three months during the year. There 
was one graded school. Two private schools, 
employing three teachers, were in existence. 

An interesting item in this report is in 
regard to the school houses. There were 23 
in the county and of these 14 were log struc- 
tures, eight frame and one brick. Nine school 
houses had been built during the year — six 
log, two frame and one brick. With the 
erection of these nine buildings during the year, 
there were still 12 districts which were not 
supplied with buildings. At this time there was 
only one district in the county having a bonded 

Mr. Nagle reports that he organized 14 
new districts during the past year and paid 90 
visits to the schools of the county in an official 
capacity, these visits including all but four of 
the districts. The superintendent stated that 
none of the districts were well supplied with 
apparatus and that there were no teachers' 
associations maintained in the county. The 
following financial exhibit was included in the 
report to the state superintendent of schools: 


Balance on hand in the county treasury June 30, 

1890, to the credit of school districts $ 2,410 06 

Amount apportioned to districts by county 

superintendent 9-499 7t> 

.Amount received from special tax 3-493 03 

Total $15-40.2 85 


Total amount paid out during the year $1 1,632 81 

Balance on hand June 3, 1891 3-7/0 04 

Total $15-402 85 

.\ number of institutions of higher learning' 



have been established in Stevens county during 
the past ten years. Some of these met with 
flattering success for a time, being well patron- 
ized by students and in a financial way, but 
most of them in time were abandoned for lack 
of funds. 

One of the earliest of these institutions was 
the Rochester academy at Kettle Falls, which 
was established in the fall of 1893. The Rev. 
Thomas M. Gunn, of Spokane, synodical mis- 
sionary of the Presbyterian church, was the 
fiiunder. A committee of Spokane gentlemen 
had been appointed to visit the town of Kettle 
Falls and inquire into the feasibility of estab- 
lishing an academy at that place, but doubting 
the advisibility of the move, the committee 
declined to go. This aroused the reverend 
gentleman's mettle and he came to Kettle Falls 
on his own responsibility, formed a stock com- 
pany of Kettle Falls people and in a very short 
time had forwarded to the secretary of state the 
articles of incorporation for the Rochester 
academy of Kettle Falls. Those who interested 
themselves in the enterprise with Rev. Gunn 
as incorporators were L. C. P. Haskins, C. A. 
Phipps, J. J. Budd, P. M. Hacking and C. H. 
Nelson, all of Kettle Falls. Any resident of 
the town who should contribute $100, or its 
equivalent, and comply with certain other con- 
ditions, was entitled to membership. 

The Hotel Rochester, a 62 room building, 
■was purchased for the use of the academy, and 
on November 27, 1893, the academy opened 
with 50 scholars. The school was maintained 
as a christian school of learning for the educa- 
tion of the young of both sexes in all the 
English branches, sciences, bookkeeping, com- 
mercial law, typewriting, shorthand and the 

The officers of the institution were C. A. 
Phipps. president: L. C. P. Haskins, secre- 
tary; J. J. Budd, treasurer; The school was 
conducted under Dr. Gunn's personal care, as 
financial agent and adviser, and he had associ- 

ated with him as instructors William Chalmers 
Gunn, A. B., professor of classics and sciences ; 
J. M. Powell, A. M., M. D., professor of 
English and penmanship; and a competent 
matron in charge of the girls' dormitory. 
Pupils were received at any time and board, 
room and tuition were provided at the remark- 
ably low figure of $20 per month. 

After continuing for a period of one year 
the Rochester academy, owing to a lack of 
support, was discontinued. 

Considerable improvement was noted in the 
condition of the public schools of Stevens 
county during the year 1894, notwithstanding 
the prevailing hard times. M. B. Grieve was 
county superintendent during 1893 ^nd 1894 
and in his report for the latter year he said that 
there had been more than the usual interest 
taken in the schools by parents, pupils and 
officers, and the average school term increased 
from 3M months to 4% months. The districts 
were supplied with better school houses, furni- 
ture and apparatus, and a better grade of 
teachers were employed than formerly. Mr. 
Grieve stated that the only thing lacking was 
money. Five new districts were organized 
during the year and 17 school houses were 

In 1895 there was established in Colville 
a school known as the Northeastern A\''ash- 
ington academy. A stock company composed 
of Colville people, and of whom Prof. Pickerell 
and C. M. Durland were the principal stock- 
holders, was formed. A commercial course 
was taught, embracing shorthand, bookkeeping 
and commercial law. 

On Monday morning, April 8, the first 
term was begun, the Colville public school 
building being the temporary home of the 
academy. Thirty-five scholars were present on 
the opening day and the attendance rapidly 
increased until 70 students were in regular 
attendance. Beginning the school at this season 
of the year was a "trial trip," but the prospects 


seemed bright for the success of the academy. 
A tuition fee of $2 per month was fixed for all 
the branches taught. Prof Pickerell, who 
graduated from the Uuiversity at Valparaiso, 
Ind., in 1888, and who for some time was 
principal of the Colville public schools, became 
the principal of the new schools, and had 
associated with him as instructors C. M. 
Durland and Mrs. Tolton. 

Shortly after the opening of the North- 
eastern Washington academy the third of the 
Rickey block was secured for school purposes. 
Notwithstanding the bright prospects of the 
school at the start, the venture proved a losing 
investment to its promoters and in 1896, after 
one year of life, it was discontinued, and the 
school furniture and apparatus was purchased 
by the Eells academy, which was organized 
the following year. 

The "hard times" seriously hampered the 
public schools of Stevens county. County 
Superintendent O. J. Smith, in his report for 

1895. says in part: "The greatest drawback 
is the large amount of delinquent taxes, occa- 
sioned by the financial depression, and the 
consequent shortage of funds. With 72 
districts in the county, 68 maintaining school 
last year, we received but $7,307.98 from the 
general fund for the year just closed." 

Pephaps the most important of the private 
schools that have been established in Stevens 
county was Eells academy at Colville, and its 
history is well worth considering at some length. 
In 1896 there was no high school in Stevens 
county, and it was due to the fact that the 
young people could not receive better than a 
common school education in the county that 
the institution was founded. 

The first movement toward the establish- 
ment of the academy was made on March 25, 

1896. Rev. A. J. Bailey of Seattle, Rev. T. W. 
Walters of Colfax, Rev. William Davies and 
Rev. E. J. Singer of Spokane, all Congrega- 
tional ministers, met in Colville with Rev. T. 

G. Lewis, pastor of the Congregational church, 
for the purpose of holding a fellowship meeting. 
A large congregation was at the meeting, where 
eloquent addresses were made by the clergymen 
and animated speeches by the citizens, in which 
the crying need of a high school for the young 
people of the county was declared. That 
evening is was decided to found a christian 
institution at Colville under the auspices of 
the Congregational society. 

No time was lost in carrying out the 
decision of the gentlemen who were so enthusi- 
astic in the matter and the following morning a 
meeting was held at which the trustees, advisory 
board and building committee were appointed. 
It was decided to name the institution Eells 
academy in honor of Cushman Eells, known so 
well and respected so highl)' throughout the 
valley. One thousand, two hundred and thirty- 
seven dollars, including work and material, was 
immediately subscribed for the erection of the 
school building. John U. Hofstetter and L. J. 
Wolfard generously gave the building site, 
over three acres of land beautifully situated 
on the hillside in the western part of the town 
of Colville. On the 4th day of October, 1896, 
Eells Academy opened with about twenty 
pupils and three teachers. E. S. Woodcock 
was principal. Miss Boss assistant and Miss 
Cobleigh musical instructor. For the first two 
terms the school was held in the two lower floors 
of the Colville hotel building. They were not 
at all adapted to school purposes, consequently 
most uncomfortable and inconvenient. This 
was a trying period for Eells" Academy and it 
was often referred to in after years as the 
"Valley Forge" of that institution. For the 
beginning of the spring term of the second year 
the academy building was completed. Miss 
Boss resigned her position and the vacancy was 
filled by Mr. Howard. In October, 1897, 
another change took place in the school. Mr. 
Davis assumed charge of the academy and was 
assisted by Mr. Kieman. 



With the opening of school October 6, 
there were enrolled only thirteen pupils, but 
during the winter term method classes were 
originated for the benefit of teachers, and 
several of the best instructors of the county 
availed themselves of the opportunity, and the 
enrollment reached forty-six. In the spring 
the attendance became lighter. Thus the school 
founded in honor of that venerable preacher 
and educator, "Father" Eells, struggled on for 
four years to its first commencement. Tuesday 
evening, June 12, 1900, marked the close of the 
first four years of the Eells Academy work. 
A class of four, the Misses Flora Aimee Dingle 
and Charlotte Rosaline Wolff in the scientific 
course, and George Stitzel Backus and David 
Hughes Lewis in the special course, having 
completed the studies prescribed, were grad- 
uated with the highest honors. 

The next year was a trying one for Eells 
Academy. Debts were piling up and the pros- 
pect was not bright for the academy's contin- 
uance. Heretofore the citizens of Colville and 
vicinity had subscribed various amounts to 
make up deficiencies in the finances of the 
school. This year the local members of the 
board individually resolved to close the academy 
and dispose of the property to the school 
district unless the academy was accorded some 
substantial aid from abroad. A meeting was 
held in July, 1901, by the trustees and it was 
finally decided to continue the school. In one 
week funds were subscribed to pay off the 
indebtedness, and it was decided to open the 
academy in September. S. B. L. Penrose, 
president of Whitman College, was made a 
member of the board of trustees, as was also 
Jerry Cooney, of Springdale. With the assur- 
ance of active outside interest in the welfare of 
Eells Academy the outlook at the beginning of 
the September term, in 1901, was better than 
at any time since the institution was established. 
At the head of the institution during the last 

year of its life were Mr. Dow, a graduate of 
Oberlin, and Mr. Rode, who had been grad- 
uated from an Illinois college and taken his 
A. M. degree at Columbia. They worked hard 
for the school at great personal sacrifice and did 
much to maintain the high standard of excel- 
lence of the school. 

During the fall and winter of 1901 efforts 
were made to secure aid for the school from 
the Congregational Educational Society of 
Boston, and from the churches of eastern Wa;sh- 
ington. A meeting of importance to the future 
of ' the academy was held in Spokane in 
December. There were present Revs. George 
R. Wallace, F. W. Walters, F. V. Hoyt and 
Clarence Ross Gale, of Spokane, Rev. S. G. 
Krause, of Hillyard, Rev. J. Owens, of Mullan, 
Idaho, W. H. Short, of Deer Park, S. B. L. 
Penrose, of Walla Walla, and J. T. Percival, 
of Spokane. The situation and prospects were 
discussed and a memorial was drawn up and 
signed calling upon the Congregational Educa- 
tional Society and the churches of eastern 
Washington to come to the aid of the academy. 
Some assistance was received but not sufficient 
to warrant a continuance of the school, and it 
was closed. 

At a special meeting held in Colville and 
district 36, north of that city in April, 1902, 
the proposition of forming a union high school 
carried. Colville also voted to purchase the 
property of Eells Academy, including about 
three acres of land, the two-story frame scho6l 
building, library, school furniture, etc. Thus 
after six years of the hardest kind of a struggle 
Eells Academy went under. The people of 
Colville loyally supported the institution from 
first to last and many of the instructors per- 
formed their duties at great personal sacri- 
fice. With commensurate assistance from out- 
side sources the school would have been an 
institution to point to with pride. 

The year 1897 witnessed greater activity 



in educational matters in Stevens county than 
for many years. Bossburg and Northport 
fuund it necessary to build new .school houses 
on account of increased patronage, and for the 
same reason the capacity of the Colville public 
schools was doubled. The Eells Academy 
reopened under a new management that year, 
and all over the county interest in educational 
matters was manifest. Another academy was 
established in Stevens county in 1898. The 
Columbia Academy, an Adventist school, 
opened its doors at Kettle Falls that year. A 
building combining a church and school was 
erected and for four years the school continued. 
During the first two years the attendance was 
light, Ixit later the school met with better 
success and there was a liberal attendance. 
Miss P.eith was principal in 1899, I. C. Colcord 
in 1900 and James Barclay in 1901. 

:\Iay iS, 1900, was the date of the fiirst 
commencement ever held in Stevens county. 
At that time a class of fourteen completed the 
grammar school work of the Colville public 
school, and were presented their diplomas. 
The salutatory address was given by Miss Mary 
Surig, and George Zent delivered the valedic- 
tory address. The same year witnessed the 
establishment of the first high school in the 
county. Colville has the honor of being the 
initial town to organize a school in which were 
taught higher branches than the common 
school afford. Only the first year's course of 
high school work was established at the time, 
but later a second years' course was added. 

The report of County Superintendent W. 
L. Sax for the school year ending June 30, 
1903, contains many items of interest in regard 
to the standing of the public schools of Stevens 
county at the present time. The total number 
of children between the ages of five and twenty- 
one years residing in the county was 4,483, and 
of this number 3,743 were enrolled in the 
county's schools, the average daily attendance 
being 2,289. On an average school was main- 

tained six and one-quarter months during the 
year. One hundred and twenty teachers were 
employed. The average monthly salary of 
male teachers was $51.50; female, $48.75. 
During the year eighty-five pupils were grad- 
uated from the common schools of the county. 
Two log and seven frame school houses were 
built during the year; making a total in the 
county of ninety-four — twenty-seven log struc- 
tures and sixty-five frame and two brick. The 
estimated value of these buildings, including 
the grounds, is $53,055, and they have a seating 
capacity of 4,058. Mr. Sax estimates the value 
of all the county's school property, including 
buildings, grounds, furniture, apparatus, maps, 
charts, libraries, etc., at $71,605, and the prop- 
erty is covered by insurance to an amount of 

There are at this date 107 school districts 
in the county, of which ele\fen were organized 
during the past year. Six of these districts, 
furnish free text-books to the scholars. Thir- 
teen of the districts have no school houses. The 
number of teachers that would be required to 
conduct all the schools of the county, were they 
in session at the same time, is one hundred and 
twenty-six. Four of the county's instructors 
hold state certificates, eight have elementary cer- 
tificates from the normal department of the 
State University, twelve have first grade county 
certificates, thirty-six second grade and twenty- 
one third grade. The following is an exhibit 
of the schools' finances for the year ending 
June 30, 1903 : 


Balance in hands of county treasurer July I, 

1902, to credit of school districts $24,901 8i 

Amount apportioned to districts by county sup- 
erintendent — state funds 32,873 34 

Apportioned from county funds 5,771 39 

Amount received from roads having special 

levy 18,142 02 

.\mount received from sale of bonds 5,300 00 

.\mount received from others sources i, 443 93 

Total $88,432 49 



Teachers wages $28,592 30 

Rents, repairs, fuel, etc 6,460 35 

Sites, buildings, furniture, apparatus, libraries 11,978 78 

Interest on bonds 2,276 62 

Interest on warrants 1,920 93 

Redemption of bonds 3,400 00 

Amount on all other funds paid, including 

funds transferred to other districts 683 25 

Total paid out SS,3i2 23 

Balance on hand June 30, 1903 33,120 26 

Total $88,432 49 

Graded schools are maintained at Colville, 
Springdale, Chewelah, Northport, Newport, 
Kettle Falls and Meyers Falls. At Colville on 
September 3, 1900, the first high school in the 
county began. Only the ninth grade was or- 
ganized at that time, but later the tenth, or 
second year in the high school, was added. At 
Northport and Chewelah the first year's high 
school course is maintained. 

The first teachers' institute convened at Col- 

ville on July 9, 1890, with only ten teachers in 
attendance. Since that time much interest has 
been taken in these training schools and they 
have come to be considered essentials of the 
teacher's work. Institutes have been held in 
1891, 1892, 1893, 1894, 1899, 1900, 1902 and 
1903. During the past few years there has 
been much interest taken in the matter of school 
libraries. As late as 1891 we find that there 
was not a school in the county supplied with 
a library. In fact the superintendent's report 
for that year states that there were but two 
districts in the county having unabridged dic- 
tionaries. Since that time, however, there have 
been rapid strides in the way of procuring 
school libraries. We find that in 1903 there are 
2,059 volumes in the libraries of Stevens 
county's public schools, an increase of 594 vol- 
umes over the previous year. The districts 
maintaining the largest libraries are Colville, 
300; White Lake, 157; Springdale, 107; Union 
Falls, 150; Bossburg, 109; Northport, 108; 
Marcus, 116; Clark's Lake, 107. 







Stevens county's most wealthy and influential 
stock men and agriculturists is tlie subject of 
this article. He is also one of tlie earliest pio- 
neers and his people were the first white lamily 
to settle scuth from Chewelah. Since those 
early days, Mr. Weatherwax has devoted him- 
self steadily to business and has been blessed 
with the prosperity that belongs to industry and 
wisdom. He located a squatter's claim on a 
piece of land, the right to which he had pur- 
chased from the last settler and which he later 
homesteaded. To this he added by purchase 
until he now has seven hundred and eighty acres 
of first class land. Five hundred acres of this 
domain are laid under tribute to produce grain 
and hay and Mr. Weatherwax reaps annually 
bounteous crops. His farm is improved in a 
manner commensurate with its extent and he is 
one of the most substantial men of the valley. 
He handles about one hundred and fifty head of 
cattle each year and now has one hundred head 
of fine thoroughbreds and grades. 

Henry Weatherwax was born in Jackson, 
Michigan, January i8, 1846, the son of Henry 
and Christiana Weatherwax, natives of New 
York and descendants from German ancestors. 
They were the parents of six children and are 
now deceased. Their children are Betsy, Elsy, 
Mary J., Caroline, Robert and Henry. Our 
subject received his education in Michigan and 
Illinois and when a lad of twelve started out 
to meet the battles of life alone. At the be- 
ginning of the war he enlisted in Company G, 
One Hundred and Twenty-ninth Illinois and 
among other campaigns, participated in that of 
General Sherman's march to the sea. In this 

he was in all of the battles that occurred as well 
as many others. In 1865 he was mustered out 
at Louisville, Kentucky, then rented land in 
Illinios until 1871. In that year he went to 
Kansas, then to Nebraska, and freighted to the 
Black Hills and Leadville. Here he met the 
noted western characters. Wild Bill, Kit Car- 
son and Doc Middleton. Later he went to Wy- 
oming and took land which be sold and then 
came to Washington. The year of this last 
move was 1882. He came at once to his pres- 
ent place and located as stated above, and since 
that time has devoted himself assiduously to 
farming and stock raising. 

In 1866 Mr. Weatherwax married Miss 
Anna Anthony, whose parents were natives of 
Ohio. To our subject and his wife three chil- 
dren have been born. Julia, Frank and Louis. 
Mr. Weatherwax is a life-long Republican and 
has been a committeeman ever since commg to 
the county. He has also served in various in- 
fluential capacities, among which may be men- 
tioned that of county commissioner in 1885. 
He is a member of the G. A. R., and is a highly 
respected and honorable man. In addition to 
his successful labors, of which mention has 
been made, we may state that Mr. Weatherwax 
has done much good in introducing fine breeds 
of stock, and in the excellent management of 
his laree estate has stimulated others in this 

HENRY KELLER resides about two 
miles south from Calispell. In addition to be- 
ing one of the earliest pioneers of the valley, 
Mr. Keller is at the present time one of the 

1 84 


heaviest land owners and is a leading and 
prominent citizen. He was born in Jefferson 
county, New York, on February 24, 1835, the 
son of Matthew and Catherine (Zeinmerman) 
Keller, natives of New York. In 1856 they 
moved to Dodge county, Minnesota, where 
they resided for twenty years, then made an- 
other move to South Dakota. Nine chfldren, 
named as follo\\-s, were born to them, Barbara 
A., Henry, Mary, James, Benjamin F., Dar- 
win, Isaac, Betsey and George. His ancesters 
came to this country over two hundred years 
ago and participated in the struggle for inde- 
pendence. The mother's grandfather was 
taken prisoner in the Revolution and suffered 
the loss of his scalp, but even with this loss 

Our subject received his education in the 
common and select schools. At the age of 
twenty-one he settled on government land in 
Minnesota and for twenty-five years followed 
farming and threshing. In 1862 he enlisted in 
the Tenth Minnesota Volunteers and fought 
the Indians one year, then went south and con- 
tinued in the service until August 21, 1865, 
having participated in many battles, among 
which were Mobile and Nashville. He was 
mustered out at Fort Snelling and carries the 
mark of a wound received on his head. Fol- 
lowing the war, he returned to agricultural pur- 
suits and also became interested in the manu- 
facture of cheese. Later he was employed by a 
harvester company in Minneapolis, after which 
he operated a summer resort at Lake Minne- 
tonka. In 1886 Mr. Keller came to Spokane 
and operated a meat market for one year. It 
was in 18S7 that he settled on his present place, 
put up a large amount of hay and shipped 
stock clear from the east. From that time until 
the present Mr. Keller has devoted himself to 
the related industries of farming and dairying 
and now owns four hundred acres of fine land 
together with much stock. His son and son-in- 
law own enough land adjoining to make the 
sum total one thousand acres. 

In 1872 Mr. Keller married Miss Margaret 
Harper, whose parents were natives of Ireland. 
Mr. Harper is dwelling in Illinois and is about 
ninety years of age. The following children 
have been born to this couple : Bertha, Roy H. 
and Nina. 

Mr. Keller is a stanch Republican and cast 
his first vote for Abraham Lincoln. He has 

always taken great interest in the affairs of his 
party and has held various responsible positions 
such as county commissioner, school director, 
etc. Mr. Keller is a member of the A. F. 
and A. M. 

RICHARD P. SCOTT, who has spent his 
entire life in the northwest and has traveled 
through and operated in many of the various 
mining camps in this vast section, is a man of 
much experience. His sterling energy, ag- 
gressiveness and executive ability have been 
manifested in many ways and on various occa- 
sions. A detailed account of his life will be in- 
teresting to our readers. 

Richard P. Scott was born in Benton coun- 
ty, Oregon, on May 7, 1859. His parents 
crossed the plains in 1845 and located a dona- 
tion claim near where the town of Corvallis. 
Oregon, now stands. They remained there 
until the tune of their death, the mother pass- 
ing away in 1888 and the father in 1891. They 
were honorable and self sacrificing pioneers, 
and had passed the dangers and hardships of 
that life, doing much to develop and open the 
country. Thirteen children were born to them, 
ten of whom are now living and named as fol- 
lows : John, Frank, Mary, James, Richard P., 
Wilson, Sarah, Walter, Edgar and Nye. Dur- 
ing the winter months of his early life Richard 
acquired his education in the common schools 
of Benton county, while the summers of these 
years were spent in toil with his father. At the 
tender age of twelve years he began the duties 
of life for himself, his first venture being work 
on a cow ranch in Lake county, Oregon. He 
was there during the Modoc war and knew 
what it was to experience the trying times of 
those early days. After that he returned to 
his father's farm and in 1881 came to the vi- 
cinit}' of Rosalia, Washington. He was in the 
first excitement in the Coeur d' Alenes, later re- 
turned to the Palouse country and next 
searched for gold in the Elk City district, Ida- 
ho. After this we find him in the Slocan dis- 
trict, British Columbia. About this time Mr. 
Scott went into partnership with E. T. Bar- 
nett and took a raft of eight thousand feet of 
lumber down through Box Canyon and over 
the big falls of the Pend d' Oreille river. The 
raft was smashed to pieces on this journey and 
they gathered the material by row boats later 


■on. They hauled this lumber up a mountain 
for half a mile, two boards at a time and built 
a flume for hydraulic mining. In 1894 Mr. 
Scott chartered the steamer Dora, and did a 
general freight and passenger business on the 
Pend d' Oreille river. In 1895 Mr. Scott was 
on the steamer which ran down through Box 
Canyon on the trial trip to ascertain if the river 
was navigable at this point. For three weeks 
they struggled to get the craft back again and 
came very nearly sinking it. Three different 
crews quit their service, but the captain, our 
subject, and the engineer remained with the 
craft mitil it was moored in peaceful waters 
above the danger. Mr. Scott then went to min- 
ing in the Yack district, and after two years of 
this he returned to Newport where he has since 
been engaged in operating a hotel and dray line. 
On May 31, 1889, Mr. Scott married Mrs. Jessie, 
widow of John Cass. Her mother, aged eighty- 
nine is living with her and at this advanced age 
is hearty and able to read readily without spec- 
tacles. Politically Mr. Scott is a Democrat and 
active. In 1892 he was appointed sheriff under 
C. A. Ledgerwood, and is now city councilman. 
Fraternally he is a member of the I. O. O. F. 
and K. O.' T. M. Mr. Scott is a man entitled 
to and receives the respect and condence of all 
Avho know him. 

The Cottage House, the home of Mr. and 
Mrs. Scott, was the first house built in New- 
port and is one of the most beautiful and mod- 
ern structures in the Pend d' Oreille valley. 

CLARENCE E. ROSS. One of the in- 
dustries which has been most prolific of revenue 
to the dwellers in the great state of Washing- 
ton is the manufacture of lumber and lumber 
products. One of the well skillled and deeply 
interested promoters of this business in Stevens 
-county is the gentleman whose name appears 
at the head of this page. He resides about five 
miles north from Chewelah, and has there a 
valuable estate improved with good buildings. 
In addition to this he owns near the estate, a 
fine sawmill and shingle mill and a residence in 

Clarence E. Ross was born in Canton, Illi- 
nois, on November 15, 1867. the son of Stephen 
M. and Matilda (Blackburn) Ross, natives of 
Virginia and Maryland, respectively. The 

father was a nephew of the noted Indian 
fighter. General Morgan, and traces his ances- 
try back to early days of Scotland. The Mrs. 
Ross, who designed the flag for General Wash- 
ington, which now proudly floats over the 
grandest nation the world has ever seen, was a 
member of this family. The father was a 
miller, operating both saw and flour mills, 
which is tf:e secret of the ability possessed by 
our subject. He died in Bogard, Missouri, in 
1895 and three years later at the same place 
his widow followed the way of all the earth. 
Two children were born to this marriage: Le- 
land, now on the old homestead at Bogard, 
Missouri, and Clarence E., the subject of this 
review. The parents were both married prev- 
ious to this union and the father's child by his 
first wife was George T. To the mother were 
born two children, W. F. Davey, deceased ; C. 
A. Davey, manager of the American cigar fac- 
tory in New York city where he handles six 
hundred men. Our subject was educated in 
Carroll county, Missouri, and when twenty- 
three left the parental roof. We see him next 
in Spokane, Washington, where he did various 
work until 1891, the date of his advent to 
Stevens county. In 1892 he bought a man's 
right to the place that he now occupies. In 
1895 "T company with E. J. Arrington, he built 
a sawmill, and two years later purchased his 
partner's interest. He has conducted the mill 
since and in addition to his quarter sections has 
purchased eighty acres more of land. 

On April 30, 1890, Mr. Ross married Miss 
Edna E., daughter of Sexter and Roxania 
(Huntley) Millay, natives of Maine and Illi- 
nois, respectively. They lived in Illinois for 
twenty years and then moved to Carroll county 
where they now abide. On March 27, 1903, this 
venerable couple celebrated their golden wed- 
ding. They are the parents of the following 
children: Mattie Gaines. Harlow, Cynthia In- 
gram, Hattie Hood, Viola McPherson, Lena 
Lytle. Our subject and his wife were parents 
of eight children: Laura, Ella, Fay, Steven, 
Viola, Matilda, Ruth, deceased, and Dexter. 
Mr. Ross ever manifests a keen interest in all 
local affairs and in general politics. He is satis- 
fied with the principles of the Republican party 
and is a stanch member of the same. Frater- 
nally he is affiliated with the I. O. O. F. and the 
M. W. A., being one of the moving spirits in 
the erection of the M. W. A. hall in Chewelah. 



Mr. Ross is just completing a beautiful res- 
idence on his farm. It is a twelve-room struc- 
ture of modern architectural design and pro- 
vided with all conveniences known to the 
science of building now. Each room will be 
well supplied with water, while the entire house 
will be lighted with a special electric plant. 
Without doubt it is the finest rural abode in the 
Chewelah vallev. 

SAM MOON. Among the agriculturists 
of western Stevens county, those who have in- 
dustriously and assiduously labored for the good 
of the country and the opening up of homes, it 
is right that we should mention the gentleman 
whose name initiates this paragraph. He dwells 
six miles from Scotia upon land secured 
through the homestead right and devotes his 
attention to raising hay and stock. The prem- 
ises are well improved, with residence, sub- 
stantial outbuildings and so forth, and the thrift 
of the owner is manifest. 

Sam Moon was born in Dubuque, Iowa, on 
October lo, 1856, the son of George H. and 
Mary Jane (Winslow) Moon, natives of Ohio 
and descendants from titled ancestors of Scotch 
blood. In early days they settled in Eau Claire 
county, Wisconsin, whence they journeyed in 
1889 to Deer \^alley. Washington, where they 
now reside. They are the parents of seven 
children named as follows : George, deceased ; 
Samuel, Emma, Henry, Frank, Wallace and 
Horace. During the summer months of his 
youthful days, our subject engaged in assisting 
his father, while the winter months of those 
years were spent in gaining his educational 
training from the schools of Eau Claire county 
and other places where the family lived. He 
remained with his parents until nineteen, then 
inaugurated independent action, his first ven- 
ture being well digging. So successful was he 
in this industry that he continued it for several 
years. Then eight years were spent in handling 
rock for building purposes. After this he was 
occupied as section foreman on the railroad and 
in 1890 he came to Washington and located 
on a piece of land which he afterward found to 
be railroad land. He abandoned it and located 
on his present place in 1892. Since then Mr. 
Moon has continued here and is one of the good 
substantial citizens. 

In 1878 Mr. Moon married Miss Sarah^ 
daughter of John and Mary (Sentry) Bugbee, 
natives of America and Switzerland, respective- 
ly, and now deceased. They were early set- 
tlers of Wisconsin and remained in that state 
until their demise, having been the parents of 
six children, Sarah, John, George, Anna, Jacob 
and Allen. To I\Ir. and Mrs. Moon have been 
born seven children, named as follows : Mar- 
tha I\-erson, John, Roy, Lowel, I\Iary, Flavia 
and Leonard. Mr. Moon is a Republican, and 
an active one. He has been school director ever 
since the district has been organized and is al- 
ways interested in the welfare and progress of 
the community and the development of educa- 
tional facilities. 

IRA B. ELLIS is one of the real pioneers 
of the eastern portion of Stevens county, hav- 
ing settled on his present place in 1891. He 
resides about six miles west from Scotia and 
devotes himself to general farming and raising 
stock. He has a quarter section of land, which 
he hewed out of the native wilds and improved 
by dint of hard labor and industry. Some thirty 
or more acres are devoted to general crops, 
while he also raises hay and stock. 

Ira B. Ellis was born in Benton county, 
Oregon, on September 2, 1865, the son of 
Thomas E. and Calista (Howell) Ellis, natives 
of Tennessee and Ohio, respectively. The 
father crossed the plains to the W^illamette 
valley in 1852, and the mother came a decade 
later. For six years the home was in Benton 
county, and then they removed to Linn county, 
whence they returned to the early place of 
abode, and in 1887 the journey to Spokane was 
taken. Four years later they removed to 
Stevens county and are now substantial citizens 
of this section. The father'is a minister of the 
gospel and for a good many years was pastor 
of the local church. Five children were born 
to them, Ira, the subject of this article, Frank 
A., Sarah E., Effie B. and Gertie S. 

Ira B. was educated in the common schools 
of Benton county and remained with his par- 
ents until he was twenty-five years of ag'e. 
Then he took up farming for himself, having 
come previously to Washington with his par- 
ents. Later we find Mr. Ellis renting a farm 
on Moran prairie and in 1891 he came to his 
])resent place. He had to hew his way through 



the forests and blaze a trail out, as there were 
no roads through this section. In" addition to 
improving his place he has devoted himself to 
various other occupations, as lumbering, etc. 

In 1893 occurred the marriage of Mr. Ellis 
and Miss Sarah Felland, whose parents were 
natives of Norway, but now dwell in Stevens 
county. Four children have been born to Mr. 
and Mrs. Ellis, Thomas, Frank, Estella and 
Benson. Mr. Ellis is a stanch Republican and 
has been road supervisor and school director 
since the organization of the districts. He is a 
man of good standing and has the esteem of all 
who know him. 

OTTO BRINSER is one of the leading 
agriculturists and industrious men of the Dia- 
mond Lake country. He lives four miles west 
of Scotia and devotes himself mostly to farming 
and stock raising. Mr. Brinser is a iirst-class 
machinist and excellent engineer and has been 
occupied in this capacity variously since coming 
to this country. 

Otto Brinser was born in Lancaster countv, 
Pennsylvania, February 24, 1872, the son of 
Ephram and Annie (Bierbrower) Brinser, na- 
tives of Pennsylvania. They are descended from 
prominent and well to do people and are still 
living in Lancaster county, being prosperous 
farmers. They are the parents of the follow- 
ing children, Otto, Fanny, Kate, Ralph, Erwin, 
Clenton, Vincent and David. The primary 
education of our subject was obtained in the 
common schools of Lancaster county and then 
he was favored with a fine training in the state 
normal. At the age of eighteen he stepped 
from the school room into the machine shops 
and became a master mechanic. For a- number 
of years he followed this business and in 1891 
came west to Colville. Shortly after that he 
located at Buckeye, in Stevens county, and 
took up engineering. In 1892 he settled on his 
present place, consisting of two hundred acres, 
half of which is excellent meadow-, the balance 
being timber. He does general farming and 
raises hay and stock. 

The marriage of Mr. Brinser to Miss Effie, 
daughter of Etheldred and Calista Ellis, oc- 
curred in 1898. Mr. and Mrs. Ellis are natives 
of Missouri and crossed the plains to Oregon in 
an early day. In 1897 they came to Spokane 
and now dwell in Stevens countv. south of 

Scotia. Mr. Ellis has been a minster of the gos- 
pel for many years. They are the parents of 
five children, Sadie. Irie. Frank, Efiie and 

Mr. Brinser is a good Republican, a man of 
stability and enjoys the confidence and esteem 
of his fellows. Mrs. Brinser is a member of the 
Methodist church. 

GEORGE D. COULTHARD, who resides 
about five miles west of Scotia on Diamond 
Lake, was one of the first settlers of this portion 
of Stevens county. As early as 1888 he pene- 
trated the wilds of the Diamond Lake country, 
selected a favorable location, and settled upon 
unsurveyed land. He at once began to make 
improvements and two years later brought the 
first lumber into that country, which on account 
of there being no roads was a very difficult 
undertaking. Mr. Coulthard was engaged in 
general farming and stock raising, continuing 
with the latter until the present time, and is 
one of the prosperous and substantial citizens. 
He owns several hundred acres of good land, 
two hundred of which are excellent meadow. 
In addition to this he has other valuable prop- 
erty, and also raises stock. 

George Coulthard was born in Shakopee, 
Minnesota, January i, 1867, the son of Chris- 
topher and Minerva (Reines) Coulthard. na- 
tives of Prince Edward Island and New York, 
respectively, and of Scotch descent. They came 
to Minnesota in very early days and in 1870 
went to California, where the father now lives, 
the mother died in 1874. They were the par- 
ents of four children. Bruce W., deceased, 
Clara M., Christopher Pevill, and George D., 
the subject of this article. George D. was edu- 
cated in the common schools of Lake county 
and Middleton, California. At the age of six- 
teen he laid aside his school books and began 
the more responsible labors of real life. In 
1886 we find him in Spokane, whence two years 
later he came to his present place as stated 

On June i, 1891, Mr. Coulthard married 
Mrs. Alice Lewis, widow of John W. Lewis, 
and daughter of Philip and Sarah Kirby. She 
died in 1897, leaving four children, Grace, 
Albert, Donald and Alice. In 1901, Mr. 
Coulthard married Miss Jessie Lewis, and one 
child has been born to this union, Dorothv. 

1 88 


Mr. Coulthard is a good active Republican 
and takes the interest that becomes the inteUi- 
gent citizen in pohtical affairs. He was the 
first elected justice of the peace in his precinct 
and has held that office for eight years. He is 
a member of the I. O. O. F. 

RALPH BETHURUM is one of the 
younger men of the Pend d'Oreille valley and is 
an industrious and capable citizen, whose 
labors have wrought out good results. He 
dwells about nine miles east from Westbranch 
on a quarter section that he took as government 
land. The same supports about one million feet 
of excellent saw timber and is a valuable piece 
of land. Mr. Bethurum took this homestead in 
1901 and has devoted himself to clearing por- 
tions of it. He has erected a beautiful resi- 
dence and has various other improvements in 

Ralph Bethurum was born in Dade county, 
Missouri, on January 30, 1878, the son of Isaac 
and Margret (Lawson) Bethurum, who are 
mentioned elsewhere in this volume. He was 
educated in the various places where the family 
lived, as in Dade county, Missouri, Spokane, 
and other places. He continued his studies 
until he had attained the age of sixteen and 
then was forced, on account of the failure of his 
eyesight, to abandon further training in the 
schools. From that time until he had attained 
his majority, he continued with his parents and 
then, as stated above, he took his present place. 

Mr. Bethurum is a true blue Republican and 
is always interested in the questions of the day. 
He is one of the stable young men of the com- 
munity and has the respect and esteem of all. 

Mr. Russell has not been in the Pend d'Oreille 
valley as long as some, still he has manifested 
during his residence here the true pioneer spirit 
and is properly classed as one of the substantial 
men of the community. He resides about one 
mile west from Dalkena, where he devotes him- 
self to farming and stock raising, having one 
hundred and sixty acres of land. This land 
was secured lay the homestead right in 1900 and 
since that time he has been making excellent 

improvements, and the fact that he has cleared 
thirty acres in three years manifests his indus- 
try and thrift. 

William K. Russell was born in Ontario, 
Canada, on July 29, 1867, the son of Andrew 
and Clara Russell, natives of Canada. They 
were the parents of three children, William K., 
Fred and Nellie. They died when our subject 
was but six years old. The father was a pro- 
fessor in the academy in Napanee, Ontario, and 
our subject received his education in the world 
famed schools of that province. As stated, 
when he was six years of age he was left an 
orphan and was thus early thrown out to meet 
the hardships and responsibilities in the world. 
After completing his education, at the age of 
seventeen, he began clerking in a general store, 
later devoting himself to canvassing, and in 
1890 took up lumbering, which he followed 
until 1900, when he came to the Colville valley. 
Mr. Russell has been appointed deputy county 
assessor and in 1902 was elected road super- 
visor, and in both these capacities has mani- 
fested ability and integrity. In political mat- 
ters, Mr. Russell pulls with the Republicans 
and manifests a deep interest in the welfare, 
both of his party and the community. He is 
a young man of sound principles and has won 
the confidence and respect of all who know him. 

ISAAC BETHURUM dwells in Stevens 
county, about nine miles east from Westbranch. 
He owns a good farm, which is improveed with 
good buildings, fences, and so forth. Thirty 
acres of the place are under cultivation and in 
addition to handling this, Mr. Bethurum de- 
votes attention to raising stock. He is a man 
of energy and has done much for the welfare 
of the community as well as manifesting good 
industry and wisdom in his own enterprises. 
He has served as justice of the peace and the 
people of the district have chosen him as road 
supervisor, in both of which positions he has 
shown good ability. 

Isaac Bethurum was bom in Lincoln county. 
Kentucky, on July 26, 1838. the son of William 
and Alidia (Herren) Bethurum, natives of 
Kentucky. The father died in 1849 and left 
a widow and five children, William, Mar\^ J.. 
Rebecca. Tames nnd Isaac, the subject of this 
article. Mrs. Bethurum married again and 



came out to Kansas. Two children were born 
to that union, L. F. and John. Isaac received 
his education as best he could get it, the facili- 
ties for that training being meager. He re- 
mained with his parents until twenty-one and 
then rented land and began life for him- 
self. On April 24, 1861, he enlisted in the 
Tenth Illinois. Company H, and immediately 
went to the front. He participated in the battle 
at Fort Donelson, as well as in others, and also 
did much scout duty and work as a spy, which 
was very dangerous. He served all through 
the war, and on October 19, 1865, was mus- 
tered out at Leavenworth to again take up the 
duties of the civilian. He farmed for a time, 
then freighted and finally went to Missouri and 
worked, learning the mason trade. In 1889 
he located in Spokane and began work at his 
trade. The next year he took a homestead, 
where he now dwells, and since that time has 
given his time and attention to the improvement 
of his farm. 

In February, 1866, ^Ir. Bethurum married 
Miss Catherine Lawson, a native of Tennessee, 
and one child was born to them, John W., now 
in Spokane county. Mrs. Bethurum died in 
1875. The next year Mr. Bethurum married 
Miss Margret E. Lawson, a sister of his for- 
mer wife, and to this union there have been born 
three children, Ralph, Josephine and Harry. 

Mr. Bethurum is a strong and ardent Re- 
publican and has always manifested a keen in- 
terest in the welfare of the party and the inter- 
ests of the community. He is a member of the 
G. A. R. and his wife, with himself, belongs to 
the Methodist church. 

GEORGE O. BRACKETT is certainly to 
be classed as one of the pioneers of the Pend 
d'Oreille valley. He dwells at present one mile 
west of Dalkena and has there a farm of eighty 
acres well improved with buildings, fences and 
so forth. In addition to this he owns another 
farm in the valley. Mr. Brackett came here in 
1887 and brought with him about seventy head 
of horses. He at once began to open up a farm 
and he has steadily given his attention to farm- 
ing and raising stock. In this latter capacity 
he has had excellent success and has done much 
for the advancement of the community's inter- 
ests in that he has shipped thoroughbred cattle 

and horses to the valley and has always mani- 
fested great skill in raising the same. He is 
rightly considered one of the successful men 
and leading citizens. 

George O. Brackett was born in Augusta, 
Maine, r)ecember 26, 1837, the son of James 
S. and Eunice (Densmore) Brackett, natives 
of Maine and descendants of Scotch and En- 
glish ancestors. The great-great-great-grand- 
father of our subject was the first settler in 
what is now Portland, Maine. The family was 
among the very first settlers on the Atlantic 
coast and it is with a pardonable pride, Mr. 
Brackett remarks, that there never has been a 
member of the family as far back as known 
who was ever incarcerated in any penal institu- 
tion. The great-great-grandfather of our sub- 
ject was killed in his orchard by the Indians. 
George was educated in Madison Bridge, 
Maine, and there resided until seventeen with 
his grandparents. Then he went to live with 
his parents, remaining there three years, after 
which he crossed the plains to Pike's Peak in 
1859 and went thence to California. He was 
engaged in packing to the mines for four years 
and in 1863 he enlisted in the First California 
Volunteers and served two years and three 
days. In 1866 he returned to Maine, remain- 
ing there ten years. In 1876 he came to Ore- 
gon and gave his attention to raising horses and 
a? stated above he brought his band to the Calis- 
pell valley. 

On June 2, 1867, Mr. Brackett married 
Miss Jane E., daughter of Abbot and Catherine 
Doyne, natives of Maine and of English and 
Irish ancestry. Politically Mr. Brackett is 
untrammeled by the tenets and ties of any party 
and manifests an independence of thought 
while he reserves for his own personal decision 
questions and issues of the day. He and his 
wife are members of the Methodist church and 
he belongs to the G. A. R. 

JOHN T. ROGERS is one of the leading 
men of Stevens county and has manifested a 
wisdom, skill, and industry since settling here 
that have commended him to all. His fine 
estate of over one section is located about three 
miles west from Scotia and the same bears evi- 
dence of much labor and taste in improvements 
of a valuable nature. 



John T. Rogers was born in Dallington, 
Sussex county, England, on October 10, 1861, 
the son of Henry and Rosamond (Harris) 
Rogers, natives of England. The father was a 
country gentleman and owner of a valuable 
estate of one thousand acres. It required the 
services of thirty-five men all the year round 
and as high as four hundred in some seasons 
to handle this magnificent domain. The moth- 
er's people were also large property owners. 
Fifteen children w-ere born to this worthy 
couple. Our subject was well educated arid 
remained on the estate until he was twenty-five, 
having been manager of the same during the 
last years of his stay. Then came the time 
when he sought the world for himself, and 
America was the chosen land to migrate to. 
Portions of Canada were explored and also the 
northwestern part of the United States, and 
finally Mr. Rogers decided to settle on his 
present place. He was obliged to use the 
squatter's right to secure the first quarter sec- 
tion. Later he purchased a section from the 
railroad company and since then he has devoted 
his entire time and attention to the improve- 
ment of the estate and to bringing it to a 
productive point. Mr. Rogers has also raised 
much stock and has now a large band. His 
land produces many tons of hay each year, be- 
sides other crops. 

In 1897 Mr. Rogers married Miss Her- 
menia Selan, a native of Stockholm, Sweden, 
where her parents reside now. She came to 
the United States in 1889. 

Mr. Rogers is a Republicai: and always 
evinces a commendable interest in local matters 
and the questions of the day. He assisted to 
organize the first school district and has been 
clerk or director continuously since then. He 
and his wife are adherents of the Episcopal 
church and are highly respected people. 

ANTHONY J. RUSHO, who dwells 
about one mile north of Usk. is a man of ex- 
tensive experience and wide research. Tie has 
dwelt in various portions of the United States 
and has ever been imbued with the spirit of the 
true pioneer and in various places has done the 
good work of opening up farms and preparing 
the way for civilization. He is one of the sub- 
stantial and leading citizens of the Calispell 

valley and is respected and esteemed by all. 
Anthony J. Rusho was born in Montreal, on 
March 16, 1840, the son of Anthony and Mary 
(Morris) Rusho, natives of Canada. In 1845 
the family came to the United States, locating 
in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, where they remained 
until 1863, then the parents journeyed to Rice 
Lake. Minnesota, and after eighteen years came 
to Rathdrum, Idaho, where the father died in 
1900, aged eighty-seven. The mother died 
at Rice Lake, Minnesota, in 1878. They were 
the parents of the following named children: 
Anthony J., the subject of this sketch ; Francis, 
deceased; Almira, Philima, Joseph, Mary, 
Flora, Charles, and Maggie. Our subject re- 
ceived his education in the public schools near 
Milwaukee and remained with his parents until 
his majority. His first venture after that was 
laboring in the lumber woods, at fifteen dollars 
per month, then saw milling occupied him for 
one year, and then he operated a stave factory 
in West Bend, Wisconsin. In August, 1862, 
Mr. Rusho responded to the call for troops and 
enlisted in Company G, Twenty-sixth Volun- 
teer Infantry, and was immediately sent to the 
front. He had received but one drilling exer- 
cise before participating in the stem reality of 
the battlefield. He was mustered out at Phila- 
delphia on account of disability and returnd 
to his home for a time, then he came to Minne- 
sota and remained in the latter place for thir- 
teen years. The next mo\'e w'as to Nebraska, 
where he remained on the frontier for five 
years. In 1883 he came to Washington and 
settled in the Big Bend of the Columbia, which 
was then very new. In 1888 he came to Calis- 
pell valley. Three years later he went to Rath- 
drum, where the family home was for twelve 
years, for the purpose of educating his children. 
Mr. Rusho's daughter, Kitty, was so proficient 
in her studies that at the age of fifteen she be- 
gan teaching school and for eight years was 
engaged in that occupation. She is a graduate 
of the Cheney normal school. In 1898 Mr. 
Rusho removed his family to the Calispell val- 
ley again and devoted himself to raising stock 
and dairying. He owns four hundred acres 
of excellent hay land, a large band of stock and 
is one of the successful men of this region. In 
1870 Mr. Rusho married Miss Ellen, daughter 
of Moses and Ellen (Burdick) Cheesebrough, 
natives of New^ York. Mr. Cheesebrough re- 
moved from New York to Wisconsin and later 


to Nebraska, then to California, where he now 
lives. His wife died in 1902. Mrs. Rusho has 
the following brothers and sisters : Myron C, 
Mett. Charles, Ida, Elton, Oscar and Ellen. 

To Mr. and Mrs. Rusho have been born the 
following named children : Ada James, Ella 
Cusick, deceased, Kittie Bryden, Lura Duns- 
mi :ore and Ray. • 

Mr. Rusho is an active and ardent Repub- 
lican and is ever laboring for the good of his 
party. He cast his first vote for Abraham Lin- 
coln. Mrs. Rusho is a member of the Baptist 

RICHARD G. RAMEY is properly 
classed as one of the pioneers of the Fend 
d'Oreille valley. He has a generous estate 
of two hundred and eighty acres, about 
two miles south from Usk, and is one of the 
prosperous farmers and stockmen of the valley. 
Mr. Ramey has had vast and extensive experi- 
ence all over the west and a full outline of his 
career would form a volume in itself. We 
would be pleased to grant, in this connection, 
a complete recital of his life, but regard for 
space forbids anything more than a brief re- 
view. Richard G. Ramey was born in Missouri 
July 20, 1840, the son of Daniel and Jane H. 
(Gentry) Ramey, natives of Kentucky and 
Missouri, respectively. They were pioneers to 
Missouri and remained in that state until the 
time of their death. From 1818 to 1820 they 
were in Cooper's Fort, near St. Louis. They 
were the parents of ten children, Elizabeth, 
Reuben, Elzira, William, Martilis, Sarah, Mary, 
Anna, Richard G. and Alzira. The father was 
killed by Quantrell's band and the mother re- 
mained with our subject until her death. Dur- 
ing the first se\'enteen years of Mr. Ramey's life 
he received his education in the common 
schools, then in 1857 started west to Salt Lake 
as night herder for an expedition. In 1858 he 
was in the first excitement at Pike's Peak and 
helped whipsaw the lumber for the first building 
in and helped lay out the now great city of 
Denver. After this he prospected one year, 
then returned to Missouri, and in i860 crossed 
the plains the second time, being in the employ 
of Governor Bent, Indian agent. The follow- 
ing year he returned again to Missouri and 
joined the state militia. He was not able to 
participate in military service, and in 1862 he 

again came west, this time as hunter for a train 
to Mexico. He worked for Kit Carson in the 
following winter. In the winter of 1863-64 he 
was variously engaged in frontier occupations. 
In 1864 he saw the Plumer gang hung. He 
came on horseback from Colorado to Wild 
Horse, in British Columbia, and in 1866-7 
mined on the Salmon river in Idaho. In 1869 
he was among the first to mine on Libby creek, 
then he was at various points on Puget Sound. 
In 1870 he went via Cape Horn to New York, 
then returned to Missouri and bought a farm, 
which he cultivated for a number of years. It 
was in 1886 he came to Spokane and soon set- 
tled on his present place in the Calispell valley. 
His farm is well improved and he handles con- 
siderable stock. 

The marriage of Mr. Ramey and Miss 
Ag-nes Penney occurred in 1871. Mr. James 
Penney was a native of Kentucky and his wife, 
Mary Ann (Beazley) Penney, a Virginian. 
They lived in the former state until their death, 
having been the parents of the following chil- 
dren: Almeda, Ann, Sally, Mary, Thomas, 
\\'illiam and Agnes. To Mr. and Mrs. 
Ramey three children have been born, as fol- 
lows : Richard T., Ida. J. Jared and Albert. 
Mr. Ramey had great experiences in hunting 
buffalo on the plains and participated in many 
wild exploits and thrilling adventures. Politi- 
cally he is a good strong Republican, while in 
fraternal affairs he belongs to the Knights of 
Honor. Mr. and Mrs. Ramey are members 
of the United Brethren church and have the 
respect and esteem of the entire community. 

GEORGE W. ZIGLER came to the Calis- 
pell valley in 1891. Possessed of the real pio- 
neer spirit he at once located on go\'ernment 
land and took hold with his hands to make a 
valuable and beautiful estate. He has now two 
hundred and forty acres lying four miles south- 
east from Calispell postoffice, and by industry 
and careful attention to business he has im- 
proved it in excellent manner, good buildings, 
fences and so forth being in evidence. Mr. 
Zigler devotes himself to general farming and 
stock raising and is one of the substantial citi- 
zens of this county. George Zigler was born 
in Bartholomew county, Indiana, on December 
II, 18=;^, the son of Jacob and Susan (Halts- 



house) Zigler, natives of Pennsylvania. They 
settled in Indiana in early days and there they 
remained the balance of their lives. Seven chil- 
dren were born to them, Catherine, Sarah, 
Mariah. Henry, Ursula, George W. and 

George W. Zigler was educated in the 
common schools of his native place and at the 
age of fourteen began to devote his whole time 
to the assistance of his father, continuing in 
the same until he had reached his majority. 
In 1876 he joined the regular United States 
army and served five years. After that a decade 
was spent in driving teams for the gov- 
ernment and in 1891 he came to Spokane. 
Ver}' shortly after that date we find him 
settled on his present place and since that 
time he has been known as one of the in- 
dustrious and capable men of this section. Mr. 
Zigler has had good success in handling stock 
and now has a nice band. 

In 1882 occurred the marriage of George 
W. Zigler to Miss Lydia A., daughter of John 
and Rebecca (SwitzerJ Tichbourne, natives of 
Canada. They came to the United States in 
1 88 1 and settled in Dakota. In 1890 they came 
to Spokane, where they are now dwelling. 
They are the parents of the following named 
children: Belle, Mary I., William, Lydia A., 
Rebecca, Rachel, Margaret, Lavina, George, 
Carrie and Joseph. Mr. and Mrs. Zigler have 
eleven children, named as follows : Edward, 
Florence, Laura, Maggie, Belle, W^alter, LTr- 
sula. Sherman, (ieorge. Joseph and Theodore. 
Mr. Zigler is an adherent of the Republican 
party and always manifests a becoming interest 
in local affairs and educational matters. Fra- 
ternally he is affiliated with the A. F. and A. 
M. In religious persuasion he belongs to the 
Lutheran church, while his wife belongs to the 

ROBERT P. JARED. Without perad- 
venture every commonwealth of the United 
States has contributed to the population of the 
Inland Empire and the subject of this .article, 
who dwells about three miles south from Usk, 
is one who owns Putnam county, Tennessee, as 
his native place. He was born on October 6, 
1842. the son of William and Martha P. (Jett) 
Jared, natives of White county, in the same 
state. The father was a preacher of the gospel 

and died at the age of lifty-two. The mother 
died in 1901. They were the parents of the fol- 
lowing named children : Eliza, R. P., Thomas 
D., Sarah, Overton, ^lary, John M., Joseph G. 
and William. 

Our subject received a good educational 
training in the public and private schools 
of his native place and when nineteen 
enlisted in the Rebellion and served three 
years. This service was fraught with all 
the hardships and trying incidents of a 
soldier of that period. He was captured by the 
enemy at Fort Donelson, and served seven 
months at Port Morton, after which he was ex- 
changed and fought at Raymond, Missionary 
Ridge, Chickamauga, Atlanta, and in various 
other battles and skirmishes. Following the 
war, he went to Ft. Henry and in 1876 removed 
to Texas, whence a decade later he removed to 
Spokane county, Washington. The same year 
Mr. Jared came to the Calispell valley, settled 
on unsurveyed land and since that time has 
devoted himself to general farming and stock 
raising. He has been amply prospered on ac- 
count of his industry and close attention to busi- 
ness and now owns two hundred and fifty acres 
of land, over half of which is good meadow. 
He has nearly one hundred head of cattle, while 
the estate is well supplied with buildings and 
other improvements. Mr. Jared has always 
taken a keen interest in local matters and was 
the second assessor of the real estate in range 
42 east of the Willamette meridian in his town- 

In April, 1866, Mr. Jared married !Miss 
Sarah A., daughter of John and Martha (Den- 
ton) Campbell, natives of Tennessee, where 
they remained until their decease. Mrs. Jared 
has the following named brothers and sisters. 
Chestina, James, Delia, ]\Iartha. Isaac and 
Jesse. To Mr. and Mrs. Jared there have been 
born six children, Emmet, deceased, Martha, 
\\'illiam, John, Thomas and Mallia. 

Politically Mr. Jared is a Democrat. He 
took the first census of the valley, was the sec- 
ond assessor, the first justice of the peace, and 
in this capacity he is still acting, having been six 
years in that office. Mr. Jared helped to organ- 
ize the first district in this part of the county, 
and it was twenty miles wide by sixty long. 
Mr. Jared is a man of excellent standing, is 
popular among the people and has always 
shown marked uprightness and principle. 



JOHN H. COVELL. About one mile 
south of Usk we come to the estate of Mr. 
Covell. It consists of two hundred and 
seventy-five acres, two hundred of which are 
excellent meadow land. The farm is well im- 
proved with fences, outbuildings, and so forth, 
and has been conducted in a very successful 
manner. In addition to general farming and 
stock raising, Mr. Covell devotes considerable 
attention to dairying and handles a score or 
more of cows. Politically, he is a strong 
Republican and a faithful expounder of the 
principles of that party. On various occasions 
he has been chosen for different ofiices and the 
same marked wisdom and stability characterized 
him in discharge of the duties incumbent upon 
him in those capacities as have been displayed 
by him in his private life. He is a member of 
the United Brethren church but the wife and 
daughter belong to the Methodist church. 

When the call came for patriots to defend 
the Stars and Stripes, Mr. Covell was one of 
the first to press to the front and ofTer his 
services for his native land. He enlisted in the 
One Hundred and Fifty-fourth New York Vol- 
unteers under Colonel Jones, in 1862. For 
three years he served faithfully and endured the 
hardships and trials of the soldier's life. He 
participated in the battles of Chancellorsville, 
Gettysburg, Kenesaw Mountain, New Hope 
Church, Peach Tree Creek, Atlanta, and others. 
He marched with Sherman to the sea and in 
June, 1865, at W'ashington, he was mustered out 
as a veteran. At the battle of Gettysburg a por- 
tion of a shell struck Mr. Covell in the side and 
crushed his ribs, which caused him to languish 
in the hospital for six months. 

John H. Covell was born in Warren county, 
Pennsylvania on January 25, 1832, the son of 
John and Serena ( Rice) Covell, natives of Ver- 
mont and Massachusetts, respectively. In a 
\-ery early period they settled in Cattaraugus 
county New York, where they remained until 
their death, having been parents of the following 
children, Augusta, Lomisa, John H., Louis, 
Emma, Washington, Edmund, Lucy, Frank, 
Seth and Charles M. John H. Covell was 
educated in the common schools of Cattaraugus 
county until twenty, when he devoted his entire 
time to the assistance of his father, who died 
two years later. After that he was the main 
support of the widowed mother and her children 
until he was thirty years of age. Following 


the war, Mr. Covell gave his attention to car- 
pentering for a period and then went to farming. 
In 1892 he came west to the Calispell valley 
and bought a squatter's right to which he has 
added until he has the estate mentioned. 

In 1866, Mr. Covell married Miss Charlotte, 
daughter of Frederick and Sarah (Clark) 
Moore, natives of New York and Massa- 
chusetts, respectively. Mrs. Covell has seven 
brothers and sisters. To Mr. and Mrs. Covell 
three children have been born, John J., Leslie 
L., and Berenice M. 

of the representative men of Stevens county it is 
with pleasure that we mention the subject of 
this sketch who has been one of the potent 
factors in the development of the eastern 
portion of this county. In 1895 Mr. ^Vin- 
chester bought a quarter section five miles 
north from Cusick and three years later added 
one hundred and sixty acres more. Since his 
first settlemenet here he has devoted himself 
to farming and stock raising and his valuable 
estate, together with improvements and stock, 
shows that he has had marked success. ■ 

Reverting more particularly to the personal 
history of our subject we note that Frank Win- 
chester was born in Seward county, Nebraska, 
on March 24, 1870, the son of E. and Angen- 
nette (Clark) Winchester, natives respectively 
of Indiana and New York. The parents were 
married in Nebraska and that state was their 
home until 1881, whence they crossed the plains 
to the Grande Ronde valley Oregon. Thence 
they came to Spokane county and in 1887 
located in Stevens county. A decade later they 
returned to Spokane county and are now living 
near Waverly. The following children were 
bom to them, Frank the subject of this article, 
Alice Wall, Hamilton, Winfred, Minnie 
McKenzie, and Ervin P. The father served 
three years in the Civil war. 

Our subject received his primary education 
in Harlan county, Nebraska, and completed his 
training in the schools of Union county, 
Oregon. ^Vhen he had attained his majority 
he worked for wages two years then rented 
land and lost heavily during the panic of 1893-4. 
Again he worked for wages for a time, then 
came to Stevens county and purchased the land 



mentioned above. Mr. Winchester has im- 
proved his land in nice shape and raises 
considerable hay. 

The principles of the Democratic party 
appeal to Mr. Winchester and he has traveled 
in that harness for some time. For five success- 
ive terms he has been road supervisor of his 
district and three times has been constable. He 
is of good standing in the community and has 
always manifested uprightness and sound 

ERNEST H. SCHUTZE. It is interest- 
ing to trace the influence of the excellent 
resources and fine government of freedom of this 
country on the dwellers of the European na- 
tionalities. Many of the most enterprising have 
forsaken the native land and have through 
hardships pressed their way to the frontiers of 
our own land and have there been the stalwart 
ones whose labors ha\-e aided in the rapid 
development of this region. Among those who 
come to our sliores, there are none more worthy 
and substantial than those native to the I'-ather- 
land. The subject of this article is one of that 
vast number and certainly a review of his 
career,will manifest his skill and industry since 
coming here and it is with pleasure we trace 
an eiiitome in this connection. 

Ernest H. Schutze was born in Germany, 
on May 1 1. 1855, the son of Carl E. and Amelia 
F. (Haval) Schutze, natives of the same 
land. The father died there in 1875 ^""^ ^'""^ 
mother in 1886. The brothers and sisters of 
Ernest H. are Osweld H.. Theodore H.. Annie 
M., Amelia, and jMary. The earlier education 
of our subject was obtained in the primary 
schools but later the excellent educational insti- 
tutions of Berlin contributed a first class 
training to him. Then he learned the 
machinist's trade, after which he was in the 
armv for se\-eral years. 1883 marks the date 
of his arrival in America. Buffalo, New York, 
was the scene of his labors for a year, then he 
journeyed to St. Louis, later to Chicago, and 
afterward we see him managing an estate for 
John B. Hersey. After four years in this 
capacity he went to Kansas and there operated 
an estate of eight hundred acres for several 
yeirs. Finally Mr. Schut7e came to the Big 
Bend country, the year being 1889. and later 
settled in Stevens countv, si.x miles north from 

Usk, where we find him at the present time. He 
located land, mostly timber, then bought more 
until now he owns nearly a section of timber 
and meadow land. Mr. Schutze has also good 
mining property and with his son owns a fine 
copper claim in the Lardeau country. 

In 1879, Mr. Schutze married Miss Eaton,, 
whose father lives in Germany, the mother 
having died some time since. 

Mr. and Mrs. Schutze are members of the 
Lutheran church and he is an active Democrat, 
being interested in the welfare and progress of 
the country. 

In 1903 Mr. Schutze determined to inves- 
tigate the Alberta country, with the intention 
of locating there if satisfied. After due explora- 
tion in this Canadian country, he returned to 
Cusick, where he is now in business. He is 
satisfied that the Calispell valley is one of the 
best and far superior to the Alberta regions. 

with pleasure that we are pri\ileged to gi\e a 
review of the career of the substantial agricul- 
turist and stockman whose name appears at 
the head of this article, since he has wrought 
within the precincts of Stevens county with 
skill and wisdom for a goodly time. He has a 
standing of the very best among the people and 
his wise management of the resources of the 
region have contributed to him a gratifying 
income and prosperity. 

James N. Rogers was born in Dallington, 
Sussex countv. England, on May 3, 1864, the 
son of Henry and Rosamond ( Harris) Rogers, 
natives of England. The father was a country 
gentleman and the owner of a large estate of 
one thousand acres. They were the parents 
of fifteen children. 

James N. was educated in a private school 
at Hawkhurst, Kent and in an institution near 
London. At the age of sixteen he quit school 
and devoted his efforts' to assisting his father on 
the estate. He was engaged in the management 
of the domain and then managed a farm for 
his uncle. Later this relative died and Mr. 
Rogers was appointed to the management of 
the large estates and also to settle them all up. 
These responsible duties being properly com- 
pleted, he came to Canada and explorations of 
this country and the United States occupied him 



for a time. Mr. Rogers finally decided that his 
present place, seven miles west from Camden, in 
Stevens county, was the place he desired above 
all others he had discovered and accordingly he 
located at Diamond Lake. Mr. Rogers has a 
magnificent esetate and has improved it in a 
becoming manner. It is largely hay land and in 
addition to handling this, he has a large band of 
stock. A beautiful residence, three large barns, 
fences, and various other impro\-ements are in 
e\'idence and make the di_~imaiil altogether a 
beautiful and valuable place. 

On October 21, 1891, Mr. Rogers married 
Miss Mary C, daughter of Rev. Thomas and 
Emily C. (Saint) May, natives of England, 
where also they remained until their decease. 
They were the parents of nine children. Mr. 
May was a minister of the gospel for fifty years. 
I^Irs. Rogers came to Port Townsend in 1891, 
where she was married. 

Mr. Rogers is an active and influential Re- 
publican and in 1892 was appointed sheriff of 
Stevens county by the county commissioners. 
He and his wife are communicants in the Epis- 
copal church and they receive the unstinted 
esteem and good will of the entire comunity. 

RICHARD T. RA^IEY. Five miles 
north from Usk we come to the home place of 
Mr. Ramey. The land was secured from the 
government by homestead right, settlement be- 
ing made in 1898, and since that time the indus- 
try, thrift, and skill of our subject have been 
manifested in the present goodly showing. He 
has, in addition to the farm mentioned, some 
land and his large barn with other impro\'e- 
ments show one of the valuable places in the 

Richard T. Ramey was born in Sedalia, I\Iis- 
souri, on June 11, 1877, the son of R. G. and 
Agness (Penney) Ramey, natives of Missouri 
and Kentucky, respectively. They lived in 
Pettis county, Missouri, until 1886, when they 
all came 10 Spokane, whence one year later a 
move was made to Stevens county. The an- 
cestors are all well to do people and are prom- 
inent in their various stations in life. Our sub- 
ject has che following named brothers and sis- 
ters, Ida J. Jared, Albert, and Blair, deceased. 
Richard T. received his educational training in 
his native place and in Spokane and Stevens 

county, continuing in the pursuit of knowledge 
in the schools until he was fourteen. Then he 
devoted three years to the assistance of his 
father and at the early age of seventeen, he 
commenced to assume the responsibilitis of life 
for himself. He labored on the farms in var- 
ious portions of the country, wrought in the 
mills and also harvested in the Palouse until 
1898, when he came to his present place ana lo- 
cated his farm. He has devoted himself to the 
improvement and upbuilding of his place since 
and the assiduity and skill manifested are very 
commendable. His farm produces one hun- 
dred and fifty tons of hay annually and he 
handles seventy head of stock. Mr. Ramey is 
one of the responsible and leading young men 
of the valley and has manifested good ability in 
accumulating his present holding. He is a 
member jf the K. O. T. M. and is allied with 
the Republicans in political matters. 

JAY GRAHAM, who resides three miles 
south from Calispell, has shown himself to be 
one of the leading and substantial farmers and 
stockmen of Stevens county. In 1893 he first 
settled- here and at that time took a homestead, 
to which iie has added eighty acres of railroad 
land by purchase. The land is well improved, 
being fenced, cross fenced, and supplied with 
good buildings. Nearly a hundred tons of hay 
are the annual return of the land, besides other 
crops. Mr. Graham also devotes considerable 
attention to dairying. 

Jay Graham was born in Montcalm county, 
rvlichigan, on June i, 1864, the son of John and 
Perlina (V\'heaton) Graham, natives of Penn- 
sylvania and of Scotch and Irish descent, re- 
spectively. They settled in Ohio in early days 
and there the father operated a boot and shoe 
factory. In 1850 they went to Michigan, and 
there the mother died in 1879, and the father 
in 1867. Four children were the fruit of that 
m-arriage, Eliza, Willia*n M., Ellen, and Jay. 
Jay was edi:cated in the district schools of his 
native place and at the tender age of twelve 
went to do for himself. His first venture was 
driving team in the lumljcr woods, and the fact 
that he continued there for nine years indicates 
the tenacity and purpose of the man. Follow- 
ing his service in the lumber regions, Mr. Gra- 
ham went to .Aberdeen, North Dakota, and 



learned the carpenter trade which he followed 
successfully for nine years. Next he went to 
farming and raising stock. In 1888 he was one 
of the progressive ones who made the journey 
to Washington and for several years he 
wrought at his trade in various places. In 
1891 we see him on the sound and in 1893, he 
settled as stated ahove. 

In 1898 ]\Ir. Graham married IMiss Nancy, 
daughter of ]\Iike and Lizzie Lawyer. In an ear- 
ly day they removed to Wisconsin and in 1887 
came to Spokane, whence the following year 
they came to Stevens county. In 1901, they 
went to Lincoln county and two years later 
they journeyed on to Douglas county where 
they now dwell. They were the parents of 
seven children, James B., Nancy, Frank, Perry, 
Henry. Fred and Rosa E. To ]\Ir. and Mrs. 
Graham th.ere have been born three children, 
Leo, Lulu and Flosev M. 

Mr. Graham is an active and representa- 
tive Republican and is e\er on the alert to push 
forward the chariot of progress. 

JOHN BAKER. The subject of this 
sketch has not been in Stevens county as long 
as some of the pioneers, nevertheless he has 
made a couimendable showing and is one of 
the respected and old citizens of this section. 
Mr. Baker resides about a mile and one half 
south of Calispell upon a quarter section that 
he bought from the railroad in 1898. He has 
made good improvements upon the place and 
devotes hin-iL-elf to farming and raising stock. 

John Baker was born in Baker county, 
Pennsylvania, on March 24. 1840, the son of 
William and Elizabeth (Jamison) Baker, na- 
tives of Beaver county, where they remained 
until their death. They were the parents of 
twelve chil(h-en : John, the subject of this ar- 
ticle; Henry, \Mlliam, Samuel. Marquis, Perry, 
Andrew, Elizabeth, Amanda, Sarah A., Rachel 
and Catherine. The ancestors were prominent 
and wealthy people. 

Our subject was educated in the commo'j 
schools of his native place and when twenty- 
three began to assume the responsibilities of 
life for himself. He was engaged in various 
occupations for fifteen years then moved to 
Wisconsin and took government land where 
he remained until 1898. He then sold out and 

came to Stevens county, purchasing his present 
farm as stated above. Mr. Baker has mani- 
fested wisdom and skill in the improvement of 
his home place and is always allied on the side 
of progress and development. 

In 1872, Mr. Baker married ^liss Hannah 
J., daughter of Meers and Eliza (Kaler) Pow- 
ell, natives of Pennsylvania, where they re- 
mained until their death. Mrs.- Baker has the 
following bi-others and sisters : Aleers, David, 
William, James, Hilary and Katilda. To !Mr. 
and Mrs. Laker have been born eight children, 
Fred, William, Catherine, Tiny, John, George, 
Charley and Martin. 

In political matters :\Ir. Baker is a Demo- 
crat and is alwavs acti\'e in local affairs. 

CHARLES BAKER. ^ Among the young- 
er men who are laboring for the up- 
building of Stevens county, we are constrained 
to mention the subject of this article. Mr. 
Baker is dwelling with his father, mentioned 
elsewhere in this volume, and is associated witn 
him in farming and stock raising. He was 
born in Buft'alo, Wisconsin, June 15, 1883, the 
son of John and Hannah J. (Powell) Baker. 
His early education was received in the schools 
of his native, county and when his father re- 
moved west he came with him. Since then 
he has manifested the real pioneer spirit and 
had devoted himself especially to the good la- 
bors mentioned above. He is a young man of 
good standing, and is a skillful nimrod. 

LUTHER A. LEONARD. Perhaps no 
other occupation is so instrumental in uplifting 
the people, in bringing forward the higher state 
of civilization and aiding progress as that of 
the educator. True it is that education, wealth 
and civilization go hand in hand. Not least 
among this worthy class of people are those 
who by patience, perseverance and painstaking 
labor, fill die very important jjosition of district 
school teacher. As a successful memlier of this 
band of self sacrificing men and women we 
mention Luther A. Leonard, who has for many 
years taughr successfully in various sections of 
the L'nited States. In fact, ^[r. Leonard made 
his own wa^.' through the higher institutions of 



education by teacliing during- portions of the 

Lutlier A. Leonard lives two miles south 
from Calispell and was born in Decatur, Illi- 
nois, on December 16, 1878, the son of Samuel 
and Elizabeth (Foster) Leonard, natives of 
Virginia and Kentucky, respectively. They 
came to Illinois in an early day and are now liv- 
ing on the old homestead. Our subject has six 
brothers and sisters, G. ^^'., James G., S. T., 
John. Cotner A., and Harvey K. \lr. Leonard 
laid the foundation of his education in Macon 
county. Later he entered the Normal at Dixon 
then studied in the Bushneil normal, after 
which he graduated from the Marion business 
college, being master of shorthand and type 
writing. During the long course of study he 
had been te;'ching during portions of each year. 
In due time we find Mr. Leonard in Ritzville 
following hi.s favorite occupation, then he came 
to Stevens county, teaching here for a time, 
then he returned to Illinois on a visit but was 
soon back in the west teaching school again. 
In 1899 he bought his present farm which is 
especially valuable on account of having sev- 
enty acres of choice meadow land. 

Mr. Leonard married Miss Sarah V., 
daughter of Michael and Eleanor (Parke) 
Simpson, in 1902. Her parents were natives 
of Canada where they remained until their 
death. Mrs. Leonard has the following broth- 
ers and sisters : Alonzo, Joseph, Malinda. Me- 
lissa, Charles, Anderson, Marion, Kargret, Eva 
and Benjamin. 

Mr. Leonard is a Democrat. He and his 
wife are members of the Christian church and 
are hig-hly respected citizens. 

FLAVIUS E. PEASE, residing one-half 
mile north of Calispell, Stevens county, is suc- 
cessfully engaged in general farming and stock 
raising. He was born in Dunn county, Wis- 
consin, August 17, 1869, the son of Flavins E. 
and Mary A. (Drake) Pease, natives of Ohio. 
Shortly after their marriage they settled in 
Iowa, and, following a residence of three years, 
they returned to Ohio, and thence to W^i scon- 
sin, where, in 1901, they decided to come far- 
ther west, and, accordingly, came to Stevens 
county. Here they reside, the parents of nine 
children, nr.melv. Ora, Albert, Frank, Ruth, 

Delia, Margaret, Eh'ira, Walter and Flavins. 

The elementary education of our sul^ject 
was secured in the town of Lucas, Wisconsin, 
and at the age of sixteen he learned the trade 
of a printer, and later went to Desmet, South 
Dakota, where he was employed on a stock 
farm. Following one year passed in this oc- 
cupation ha went to Spokane, Washington, in 
1886, where he was employed on a stock farm 
for a Mr. Breckel of Peone prairie. In this 
business he continued until 1890, when he re- 
moved to Stevens county, and engaged ,in 
farming anc. stock-breeding, which he has fol- 
lowed since. In 1894 he removed to his pres- 
ent location. He at present owns four hundred 
and eighty acres, mainly timber land. 

In 1897 Mr. Pease was married to Bertha 
L. Keller, daughter of Henry and Margaret 
(Happer) Keler, the mother a native. of Illi- 
nois, the izAher of New York. Mrs. Pease hai? 
one brother and one sister, Roy H. and Nina 
May. Our subject and his wife have one child, 
Robert Henry. Mrs. Pease is a member of the 
United Brethren church. She has been 1 
teacher in Stevens and Spokane counties for 
several years. 

Politically our subject is a Republican, and 
staunch andi true to the interests of his party. 

EMESLEY D. WILSON, an enterprising 
and successful stock farmer of Stevens county, 
lives five miles west of L^sk. He was born in 
Wise count} , Texas, the son of James A. and 
Susan (Brockshire) W'ilson, the father a na- 
tive of Tennessee, the mother of Missouri. 
They were married in the latter state, but re- 
moved to Texas and lived there six years. In 
1862 the father enlisted in a Texas regiment, 
was captured and died in a military prison in 
1866. The mother v,-as married to Henry 
Ploster, and mo\'ed with him to Kansas, where 
they remained six years, and where she now 
lives. She is the mother of six children, four 
by her first husband, Thomas R., John L., 
Lockey D. and Emesley, and two by her sec- 
ond husband, William H. and Sarah. 

In Cherokee county, Kansas, our subject 
received his early education, but at sixteen 
years of age he began working on farms, and 
this employment he continued until twenty-five 
vears of age. Following one year's work on 


railroads. Mr. Wilson married and came to 
Spokane, wiiere he remained four years, thence 
going to Stevens county in 1892. Here he lo- 
cated one hundred and sixty acres of land, and 
the following spring joined a surveying party, 
and the December following sold out his hold- 
ings and went to Spokane where he engaged in 
the poultry business three years. He then en- 
gaged in farming four years, and returned to 
the Calispell valley, where he has since lived. 
He has eighty acres of excellent land, all fenced 
with substantial buildings, and he breeds stock 
and does considerable diversified farming. 

In 1887 our subject \yas married to Fannie 
L. Penney, daughter of C. T. and Georgia 
Penney, natives of Kentucky. The parents re- 
moved to Missouri in 1880, but seven years 
later returned to Washington where they nov.- 
live. They were the parents of ten children. 
The living are Mollie, Fannie L., James H., 
William T., Ellen, Nettie, Ruby, and John O. 

Three children have been born to Mr. and 
Mrs. Wilson, Charles E., Willard L., and Wal- 
lace A., ,'dl residing with their parents. The 
political principles of Mr. Wilson are in line 
with those of the Democratic party. He is a 
member of the M. W. A., Tent No. 10012. and 
the K. O. T. M., No. 71. Both :\Ir. and Mrs. 
Wilson are members of the Baptist church. 

GEORGE REDNOURS, well known 
and highly respected in Stevens county, resid- 
ing three quarters of a mile north of Calispell, 
is the owner of a valuable farm, and is, also, 
a mail contractor with a route between Calis- 
pell and -Milan, Spokane county. He was born 
in Benton county, Oregon, January 12, 1859, 
the son of Emerson and Sarah (Howell) Red- 
nours. The .father was a native of Tennessee, 
the mother of Iowa. When quite young peo- 
ple, in 1852, they crossed the plains, settling in 
the far-famed Willamette valley, Oregon. The 
mother was only eleven years of age, and her 
parents secured land in the valley. She vv'as 
married to Emerson Rednours in 1856, at 
which period he was a volunteer in the Indian 
war, then raging, serving five months. Fol- 
lowing their marriage they located land and 
l)egan farm.'ng, remaining there until 1877, 
when they removed to East Washington, thence 
to Umatilla cuuntv. for seven vears. and thence 

to Spokane county, where the father died in 
1897. At present the mother resides with our 
subject, in Stevens county. They were the 
parents of nine children, one of whom died in 
infancy, George, Angelina, Ella, Clyde. ]Mary, 
Edward, Emma and Cora. Several of the male 
members ot the mother's family were ministers 
of the gospel. 

In Linn county, Oregnn, our suliject at- 
tended the public schools during winters, and 
working industriously through the summer 
months. At the age of twenty-seven he left 
home and began farming and stock raising, 
which business he has since followed. He went 
to Spokane county in 1882, engaged in farming 
and gardening, and in 1900 he came to his 
present location in Stevens county. The first 
3-ear he reiUed a farm, but subsequently pur- 
chased two hundred acres of railroad land, 
partly improved, with a substantial log house 
and one hundred and twenty acres devoted to 
hay. It is all fenced. Mr. Rednours secured a 
mail contract in 1902, between Calispell and 
Milan, Spokane county, and this he has re- 
cently renewed. 

On No\ember 12, 1889, our subject was 
united in marriage to Emma Smith, tlaughter 
of James and Bell (Humes) Smith, the father 
a native ox Illinois, the mother of Indiana. 
They crossed the plains to Oregon in 1876. 
The father died in 1898, the mother still re- 
sides in Stevens county. Five children were 
born to them, Emma, Rose, Elmer, Charles and 

Mr. and Mrs. Rednours have five children, 
Sada, Jesse, Roy, George and Ivie, all living 
with their parents. The latter are members of 
the Methodist Episcopal church. Politically 
Mr. Rednours is a Republican. 

ECGENE MARKS, a successful and en- 
terprising farmer and lumberman of Stevens 
covmty, lives on an eligible location two miles 
west of Calispell. He is a native of Waterloo, 
DeKalb county. Indiana, where he was born 
February 15, 1879. His i^arents were Jacob 
and Fitena Marks. The father died in 1880. 
the mother in 1893. They were the parents of 
four children, Frank, Minnie, Eugene and Bert. 
By her second husband, David Pierson, Mrs. 
Marks had one child, Dessie. 



The public schools of Indiana, in the vicin- 
ity of our subject, provided his education, and 
at the age of seventeen years he left school and 
engaged in business for himself, worked in a 
hotel and followed other employments. In 1901 
he conducted a milk ranch near Anaconda, 
Montana, for one year, subsequently disposing 
of the same and going to Spokane, where he 
remained tor a short period, and then located 
in Stevens county. On October 19, 1902, Mr. 
Marks filed on a quarter section of timber land, 
cleared a portion of the same and erected a 

Our subject is, politically, a Democrat, and 
enthusiastic in the promulgation of the doc- 
trines of that party. 

JAMES MONROE, one of the pionee'-s 
of Stevens county, and successfully engaged in 
stock-breeding and farming, resides three miles 
southwest of Usk. He was born in St. Johns, 
New Foundland, November 11, 1838, the son 
of James and Mary T. (Stack) Monroe. The 
father was a native of Ireland, the mother of 
New Foundland. They settled near St. Johns, 
where they died. 

Early educational ad\-antages of our sub- 
ject were limited, and this fact will be better 
appreciated when it is known that at the age 
of nine years he began working with an uncle 
at the business of coclfishing on the coast of 
Labrador and Cape Harrison. This arduous 
employment he pursued until he came to the 
United States in 1848, at which period he en- 
gaged in mackerel fishing, which he followed 
until 1852. That year he went to California, 
via Cape Horn, being one hundred and forty- 
fi\'e days on the trip. Here he worked in a ma- 
chine sliiOp, and, also, made several voyages. 
Subsequently he engaged extensively in min- 
ing, in the vicinity of San Francisco and Sac- 
ramento, and in 1886 he came to Stevens coun- 
ty, Washington, where he has since lived. He 
brought sixty-five head of stock into this val- 
ley, where he came accompanied by E. C. 
Rider, and he now owns one hundred and sixty 
acres, mainly hay land, from which he cuts 
about fifty tons of hay annually. He raises 
about sixty-five head of stock. 

Our subject was married in 1873 to jNIar- 
garet E. Smith, widow of Frank Smith. Her 

maiden name was Margaret E. Reagan and she 
is a native of Tennessee. 

In early days the political affiliations of 
Mr. Monroe were with the Democratic party, 
but of late years he has been a Republican. 
He is a member of the Catholic church. 

ELBRIDGE C. RIDER, the oldest settler 
in the Calispell valley, resides three miles soutli- 
west of Usk, Stevens county, where he is en- 
gaged in general farming and stock breeding. 
Fle is a New Englander, having been born in 
Bucksport, Maine, September i, 1837, the son 
of Stephen and Rebecca (Eldridge) Rider. 
They were natives of Maine, where they died, 
leaving four children. 

Our subject attended the public schools of 
Bucksport, and acquired a good business edu- 
cation, and on reaching his majority, in 1858, 
he went to California, via the Isthmus of Pan- 
ama. He at once engaged in mining which he 
continued until 1885. That year he went to 
the Coeur d'Alene country, Idaho, followed 
mining one year and then located in Stevens 
county. The first enterprise to engage his at- 
tention was the cutting of one hundred tons of 
hay. He was the first white settler in this vi- 
cinity, squatting on land, and putting up w ild 
hay. He experienced no difliculty with the In- 
dians, as they were his friends, and he traded 
with them to a considerable extent. When the 
land upon which he had located was surveyed 
he purchased a farm of the railroad company, 
at one time owning two hundred and eighty 
acres. This he subsequently disposed of, and 
purchased one hundred and sixty acres, mainly 
meadow land, and on which he now resides. 
At the period in which he came to the country 
there were no roads, and he was compelled to 
raft his provisions down the Fend d' Oreille 
river and lake, as well as all kinds of farm ma- 

Mr. Rider is a Republican, and has alwavs 
manifested a patriotic interest in the welfare of 
his party. 

EUGENE B. GREGORY, engaged in 
farming and stock-breeding, lives nine miles 
west of Newport, Stevens county. He was 
born in Sriohomish county, Washington, Jan- 


uary 26, 1879. His parents were Jasper C. 
and Effie (Powers) Gregory, the father a na- 
tive of New York, the mother of Wisconsin. 
In early pioneer days they settled in Iowa, and 
later removed to Minnesota, where the father 
assisted in organizing the connty in which lie 
resided. Subsequently they came to Snoho- 
mish county. \\'ashington, where the father 
lived twenty-five years, engaged in farming, 
and where our subject was born. They were 
the parents of eight children, one of whom died 
in infancy: Charles R., in Snohomish county; 
Harry T. ; Mary, wife of Calvin L. Haskell ; 
Alice^ married to H. T. Flaugher; Lawrence 
E. ; James B., and Eugene B.. our subject. 

The latter was educated in Snohomish 
county, and on gaining his majority he en- 
gaged, in company v»-ith his brother, in log- 
ging. They cut eight hundred thousand feet 
of timber in King county, Washington, and 
following this enterprise he was associated with 
his father in general farming. He came to 
Stevens county in 1902, where he located a 
homestead, following farming and stock-breed- 
ing. On his quarter section of land he has one 
million five hundred thousand feet of timber, 
a good frame house, barn, and other out-build- 
ings, and his property is partly fenced. He 
devotes considerable attention, and profitably, 
to the logging industry, and breeds some stock. 

In 1900 our subject was married to Mary 
Newmaster, daughter of Henry and Sarah 
Newmaster. the father a native of Germany, 
the mother of Ohio. They were the parents of 
eight children. 

To Mr. and Mrs. Gregory one child has 
been born, Howard E. The political affilia- 
tions of Mr. Gregory are with the Republican 
party, and he is a member of the K. O. T. M. 

JOSEPH ROBERTS has the distinction 
of being one of the earliest of the early settlers 
of the Colville valley and to minutely relate his 
career would require a volume in itself. The 
thrilling adventures with Indians and wild ani- 
mals, the long tedious journeys during the 'fif- 
ties and 'si.xties. the hardships endured in pros- 
pecting and mining, together with the various 
experiences of these days would be very inter- 
esting reading, but space forbids more than a 
cursory review. At the present time, Mr. 

Roberts is dwelling about two miles north of 
Addy, on one of the finest farm in Washington. 
He owns two hundred acres of fertile land, 
which will produce annually a net re\-enue of 
three thousand dollars. This farm Mr. Roberts 
secured through the homestead right purchas- 
ing a squatters right thereto for five hundred 
dollars. This was in 1873 and since then he 
has continued here devoting himself to raising 
hay and stock. He has sold as high as one hun- 
dred head in a year. At the present time, he 
has but few stock and pays attention entirely 
to handling hay. 

Joseph Roberts was born in Canada, on 
March 14, 1829. the son of Augusta and Louisa 
(Gouges) Roberts, natives of Canada, where 
they remained until their death. Our subject's 
grandfather was a native of France. ^Ir. 
Roberts 'S the youngest of eight children, 
Frank, August. Michael. Celestia, Sophie, 
Lizzet and Olive. Our subject was bereft of 
his mother when two years old and five years 
later he went to live with his oldest sister, his 
father having married again. When twelve 
years of age, he hired out for fifteen dollars a 
year. The next year he received twenty-four 
dollars and the third year he got thirty-six. 
The fourth year he was offered forty-five dollars 
and went to work for a magistrate where he re- 
mained until he was twenty-four. In 1849 he 
was in Buffalo, New York, and four years later 
he went to Missouri. Soon thereafter he 
crossed the plains, driving cattle with John 
Noble of the Grand Valley. This was in 1854, 
and the same year he went to Portland. The 
following spring Mr. Roberts came to Stevens 
county and since that time this has been his 
headquarters. He mined on the Pend d'Oreille 
river for two years and then went to The Dalles 
with se\-en hundred dollars and bought goods 
which he packed to this valley, selling them to 
good advantage. He continued in this business 
for some time. After this he made good money 
in raising hogs, and selling pickled pork at 
fifty cents per pound. In i860 he bought a 
farm for three thousand dollars but was not 
successful on that place and in 1863 came to 
his present place. Mr. Roberts has his place 
improved in fine manner. He has two or three 
residences, several barns, and plenty of out- 
buildings, as vegetable cellars, tool sheds, ice- 
houses, and so forth. 

In 1868, Mr. Roberts married Miss Mary 






Aracasia, and five children have been the fruit 
of this union, three of whom are hving, named 
as follows : Randolph, Olive Seyler, and Addie, 
wife of W. Baulue, in this county. Mr. Roberts 
and his family are adherents of the Cotholic 

Post Creek, Montana in February, 1851, the 
son of Angus and Catherine MacDonald. na- 
tives of Loch Torridon, Scotland, and Montana, 
respectively. The father was born on October 
15, 1816, at Craighouse, R sshire, Scotland, 
and came to the northwest territory as clerk for 
the Hudson's Bay Company in 1838. He oper- 
ated on the head waters of the Columbia, later 
at old Fort Colville, where his uncle. Dr. A. 
MacDonald, was in charge: then moved to 
Fort Vancouver, after which we find him in 
Fort Hall, Idaho. After this, he was in Mon- 
tana and finally returned to Colville, being there 
promoted to a shareholder in the company. In 
1 87 1 he sold his interest to the company and 
went to Montana where he devoted himself to 
stock raising until his death on February i, 
1889. The mother died in 1892. They were 
parents of the following children : John, Chris- 
tie, Duncan, Donald, Annie, Maggie, Thomas 
Alexander, Angus P., Archie, Joseph A., An- 
gus C. and Mary. Donald received his educa- 
tion from various instructors in Stevens 
county in Montana whom the father hired in 
his home. At the age of nineteen he stepped 
forth to assume the duties of life for himself 
and his first venture was as clerk and book- 
keeper in the company store in Colville, at the 
fort, then at Fort Sheppard in trading with the 
miners and Indians. Later he was collector of 
customs under Judge Haynes after which he 
returned to the Colville valley and began farm- 
ing and stock raising, which he has continued 
to the present time. Mr. MacDonald is also 
operating a hotel. 

In 1877 Mr. MacDonald married Miss 
Maggie, daughter of Thomas and Julia (Plant) 
Steinsger. The father came to America with 
our subject's father, and the mother was guide 
for Governor Stevens in 1855. Six children 
have been born to our subject and his wife: 
John, deceased : an infant, deceased ; Emma, 
Julia, Christie and Thomas A. Mr. MacDon- 
old is a Republican, and very active. He and 

his wife are adherents of the Roman Catholic 
church. In addition to his real estate, hotel and 
other property, Mr. MacDonald has a half 
interest in the Ben Franklin mines, two miles 
north of Marcus, which already show great 

Our subject's great-uncle. Dr. Archibald 
MacDonald, and chief factor of the Hudson's 
Bay Company, was the first man to cross the 
continent, being with Governor George Simp- 
son, of the Hudson's Bay Company.. It is very 
interesting to note that Dr. MacDonald was 
one of the first, if not the first, practicing physi- 
cian in the west half of North z\nierica. 

ISAAC STENSGAR. Amid the rugged 
hills of Scotland was born, in the early part of 
the last century, one whose adventurous spirit 
and love of exploration led him soon to forsake 
his native land and turn toward the setting 
sun. After traveling over various portions 
of Canada and the Lhiited States, he entered 
the employ of the Hudson's Bay Company, and 
over fifty years ago, while discharging the du- 
ties as one of the trusted men of that company, 
he came into the Colville valley. He at once 
discerned the wealth that belongs to this re- 
gion and while still in the employ of the com- 
pany here for many years he determined to 
seek out a favorable place and make this his 
home. Such a place was' found two miles north 
from where Addy now stands and Thomas 
Stensgar, the well known, respected and hon- 
ored pioneer, made his home there. From that 
time until the dav of his death, in 1891, Mr. 
Stensgar never failed to manifest a public 
spirit and worthy effort for the upbuilding and 
advancement of the county. His children, well 
known in the county, are mentioned in another 
portion of the work. Isaac, the immediate sub- 
ject of this sketch, was born on the old home- 
stead on May 11, 1865. Two miles from where 
he now lives, was located the little district 
school where he received his early training: as 
he grew up amid the surroundings of frontier 
life he manifested the disposition to carry on 
the good work his father had begun, and his 
industry and close application to business have 
been rewarded by the possession of one-haif 
section of valley land. This is well improved 
with a large eight-room dwelling, barn, fences 
and so forth, and sustains a nice bunch of cattle 


besides producing a large amount of hay and 

Mr. Stensgar is a member of the W. W. 
and also is an adherent to the Catholic church. 
He is a strong and active Republican and ever 
manifests a keen interest in active politics. 

Mr. Stensgar"s mother, a venerable lady, is 
still living with him on the old homestead. Her 
maiden name was Julia Plant. Her father, 
Antione Plant, was one of the earliest pioneers 
of the west, especially in [Montana, and married 
a Flathead woman. 

terested in farming and stock-breeding, and 
resides nine miles west of Newport, Stevens 
county, is a native of Germany. He was born 
in Hanover, June 3, 1840. the son of Henry 
and Mary Schulenburg, who lived and died in 
Hanover. The parents of our subject were 
connected with quite wealthy people in Ger- 
many, and the paternal grandfather was a dis- 
tinguished and wealthy resident of England. 
Our subject had three brothers and one sister, 
Johan, Mary, William and George. 

In Hanover our subject received an ex- 
cellent church schooling, and at the age of 
nineteen years he began learning the trade of 
a stone mason, which occupation he followed 
with the exception of the time passed in the 
army, which was seven years and eight months. 
In 1863 he entered service in the German-Den- 
mark war, in 1866 he was in the Prussian- 
Hanover, in 1870-1 in the Franco-German 
war, and in 1876 came to the United States. 
He located in Reedsburg, Wisconsin, remained 
two years, going thence to Wonewoc, same 
state, for three years, and tlien to St. Paul, 
Minnesota, where he remained eleven years. 
In 1889 he came to Spokane county, Washing- 
ton, and two years subsequently to Stevens 
county, locating on the farm where he now 
lives. At that period the country was a wilder- 
ness. Mr. Schulenburg could stand in his door- 
way and see droves of deer, and in one band he 
counted twenty-five. His location was in the 
vicinity of an old beaver dam, and the animals 
were so numerous that the ditches he dug 
would be filled up each night, flooding his land. 
Our subject now has one hundred acres under 
cultivation, devoted mainlv to tame hav. of 

which he raises excellent crops. The property 
is fenced, and he has a good dwelling house and 
substantial barn, twenty-four by one hundred, 
with a capacity of one hundred and five tons of 
hay. He raises stock, and has a water supply 
amply sufficient to irrigate his entire place 
within ten minutes. 

Mr. Schulenburg was married in 1865 to 
Dora Buhr, the daughter of Henry and Dora 
Buhr, natives of Germany. She was born in 
Ellensdorf, Hanover, Germany, and the mar- 
riage ceremony was performed in Epstof, Han- 
over. They have four children : Dora : Emma, 
wife of George Ward, in Stevens county; Wil- 
liam, a member of the Spokane Fire Depart- 
ment; and Clara, wife of George Lenney. of 
California. Air. and Mrs. Schulenburg are 
members of the Lutheran church. Politically 
he is a Republican. 

MILES C. KENT, general farmer and 
veterinary surgeon, resides seven miles out 
from Newport, Ste\-ens county, on the Pend d' 
Oreille rivei. He was born at Bently creek, 
Pennsylvania, December 16, 1835, the son 3f 
Jonathan and Patience (Gofif) Kent, natives jf 
New York. When young they moved to Penn- 
sylvania, they lived many years, but 
subsecjuently returned to New York, where 
they died. They were the parents of fourteen 
children, one dying in infancy; Sophia, Sam- 
uel, Vine. Annis. James M.. Miles C, Hannah, 
Roswell, Stephen, Ambrose, Hector, Amitta 
and Phoebe. The maternal grandfather of our 
subject was a Baptist minister in New York. 

Until he was twelve years of age our sub- 
ject attended the public schools of the neigh- 
borhood in which he resided, in New York. 
He then worked on a farm three years, pur- 
chased twerty acres of land, worked for other 
parties with his team, and bought and sold 
horses, following this line of business until he 
was twenty-fi\-e years of age. In i860 Mr. 
Kent purchased a canal boat, on the Erie canal, 
and followed this business during the Civil war. 
Following the surrender of General Lee lie 
sold his boats and again began farming. He 
also learned the horse farrier business and went 
to Michigan, where he remained until 1891, at 
which period he located in Stevens county, se- 
curino- a homestead of one hundred and sixty 


acres of lard, wliere he lias since resided. He 
has seventy acres under cultivation, mainly de- 
voted to hay, all fenced and all of which is sus- 
ceptible of irrigation. There are on the place 
five hundred thousand feet of timber and poles. 

Our subject was married in i860 to Esther 
\\'hite. daughter of John and Hannah White, 
the father a native of Vermont, the mother of 
New York. They have three children : Min- 
nie I\I., wife of P. F. Bonus, of Buttersville, 
Mason county, Michigan; F. A., in Stevens 
county: and Mary E., living in Mason county, 

Mr. Kent is a Democrat, and interested in 
the various campaigns of his party. He is a 
member of the Baptist church, and the A. F. 
& A. M. 

GEORGE H. BOBIER, engaged in gen- 
eral farming in Stevens county, living five 
miles northwest- of Newport, was born in Chat- 
ham, Canada, JMay 28, 1840. He is the son of 
Gregory and Sarah (Dockerill) Bobier. natives 
of Ireland, his ancestors having emigrated to 
France and from France to Ireland in the 
twelfth cer.tury. The parents of our subject 
went to C:.nada in 1820, where they died. 
They were the parents of eleven children, Eliz- 
abeth, Joseph and Joshua, twins. Wellington, 
Gregory. Thomas, William, John, Edmond, 
George and Sarah. 

Tire education of our subject was received 
in a log school house in Canada, and when sev- 
enteen years of age lie went west to Missouri. 
He crossed the plains in i860 with ox teams, 
during which trip r.e met with a number of sur- 
prising adventures, many of them e.xciting and 
sensational. He followed mining in Nevada 
twenty years with fair success. In 1867 he 
made a big winning with the Tuscarora. the 
pioneer placer mine of that period. Subse- 
quently he lost all his property through the in- 
compentenc\ of a smelter man. and he then 
went to Custer. Idaho, he engaged in 
hotel business and mining. Later he conducted 
a hotel in Oregon five or six years, going thence 
to the Blue Mountains in the business of log- 
ging. Two years after that he was taken ill, 
and was laid up six months, losing again all he 
was worth. At Wood ri\er lie burned charcoal 
for a smelting furnace, producing two thou- 

sand bushels per day. and clearing up five thou- 
sand dollars in one year. 

Mr. Bobier then drove a band of cattle from 
the Blue mountains of Oregon to Newport. In 
1891 he left some of the cattle at this point, 
went back to Oregon, and was gone two years. 
On his return he secured a homestead, one 
hundred and sixty acres, where he now lives. 
In 1897 he purchased eighty acres of railroad 
land for the purpose of securing title to the 
Cedar Glen ]\Iine. Fifty acres of the homs- 
stead are cleared, all of it fenced and he has one 
million feet of saw timber and cedar poles. He 
raises seventy-five head of cattle, conducts a 
dairy, has twenty-fi\-e milch cows, and finds a 
ready sale for his products. 

Mr. Bobier was married in 1876 to J^^iss 
Roxie Thompson, daughter of A. J. Thomp- 
son, of Nr.rth Carolina. The ceremony oc- 
curred at Elko, Nevada. Her parents crossed 
the plains from Illinois to Ruby Valley. Ne- 
vada, in 1865, later settling at Cheney, Wash- 
ington, where they died. They were the par- 
ents of seven children. When a young man 
our subject was a Republican. Later he be- 
came a Democrat. He was the first road super- 
visor in die town of his adoption. In 1902 he 
was the nominee of his party for county com- 
missioner, lait was defeated owing to his narty 
being in the minority. While he resided in 
Oregon he was a member of the school board. 
Fraternally he is a member of the I. O. O. F. 
and past master. 

JOHN O. JORE. a successful general 
farmer and stock-breeder of Ste\'ens county, 
resides four and one-half miles north of Scotia. 
He was born in Houston county, Minnesota, 
October 6, i860. His parents were Ole and 
Sarah Jore, natives of Norway. When they 
came to the United States they located first in 
Wisconsin, remciving to Houston county, 
where the father died in 1866. The mother 
went to North Dakota, where she passed away 
in 1894. Eleven children were born to them, 
of whom five still live : Andrew, in Minnesota ; 
John O., cur subject: Theodore, in Minnesota: 
Julia, married and living in North Dakota ; and 
Halver, in Minnesota. 

Houston county, Minnesota, was the scene 
of our subject's early days and education. 


wliere he attended tlie public schools. At th; 
ag-e of tweive years he assumed the responsi- 
bility of a man's place on a farm, and at the age 
of eighteen years he rented land and contin- 
ued farming until about 1885. Removing to 
North Dakota, he remained, engaged in farm- 
ing until 1890, when he came to Stevens 
county, located a homestead of one hundred 
and sixty acres, and, in 1891, erected a com- 
fortable house in which he has since resided. 
He has twenty-fi\e acres under cultivation, and 
raises twenty head of stock. He is surrounded 
by substantial farm buildings and other im- 

In 1878 I\Ir. lore was united in marriage 
to Betsie Felland, daughter of Ole K. and Mar- 
garet (Nestog) Felland. natives of Norway. 
They came to the United States in i860, locat- 
ing in ]\Iadison, Wisconsin, where they lived 
four year;. Going to Minnesota they remained 
until 1883, and thence went to North Dakota, 
coming to Stevens county in 1890, where the 
father at present lives. The mother passed 
away in 1866. They had two children, Knute 
O., of Stevens county, and Betsie. married to 
our subject. 

Eight children have been born to i\Ir. and 
Mrs. Jore : Sarah, wife of Horace "Sloon ; Lena, 
married to George Gay ; Ole ; Tilda ; Johanna ; 
Mary; Annie and Mabel. 

Mr. Jore is a Republican. Since the forma- 
tion of the scool district in which he resides he 
has been a member of the school board, and 
is active in local affairs. 

WILLIAM H. DA^TS, born in Rice 
county, Minnesota, on April 17. 1869, resides 
one and one-half miles west of Penrith. Stevens 
county. He is engaged in farming, loggitig 
and blacksmithing. His parents were Napoleon 
and Elizabeth (Van Osdel) Davis. The fa- 
ther was a nati\e of New York, and in early 
days they settled in Minnesota, where thev 
lived until 1889. They removed to Washing- 
ton, where the mother died in 1S95. Napoleon 
Davis now lives near Davenport, in Lincoln 
county, \W.shington. They were the parents 
of eight children, namely: Frank, in Washing- 
ton ; Alice decea.sed : Dora, wife of Ace Judd ; 
W. H. who is our subject : Luther, residing 
with his father: Effie. married to .\rthur Par- 

ker, in \\'ashington : Cora, deceased: and Lu- 
ella, married to \\'infield Holman, of Daven- 
port, Waslnngton. 

At the age of twenty-ihree years our sub- 
ject, having received a fair business education 
in the public schools of Minnesota, learned the 
trade of a blacksmith at Spokane, which he fol- 
lowed two years. He also worked on farms in 
various localities, and in 1900 came to Stevens 
county, where he has since remained. He lo- 
cated a homestead and has now under cultiva- 
tion twenty-five acres, with eighty acres fenced, 
good buildings, and over one million feet of 
saw timber on the land. 

In 1900 our subject was married to Julia 
Ashley, daughter of Damian and Eunice (Mil- 
ler) Ashley, natives of New York and Canada, 
respectively. Mrs. Davis has the following 
named brothers and sisters: Henry, Winifred, 
Diamond and Eunice, all in Spokane county. 
Mrs. Davis comes from Puritan stock, de- 
scended from the famous Edwards family. Her 
ancestral record shows many names renowned 
in literatu.-e and art. 

Mr. and Mrs. Davis have two children, 
IMabel and Florence. They are members of 
the Episcopal church. Politically 'Mv. Davis 
is a Republican. 

JOHAN A. voN Z^^■EYGBERG. deceased. 
The subject of this memoir came to Stevens 
county in 1898 in search of health, where lie 
lived four years, dying October 2, 1902. He 
was born ii; Finland, May 4, 1854. the son of 
Captain Gustave A. and Sophia (Thelene) von 
Zweygberg. natives of Finland, where they 
died. They were of a most distinguished and 
wealthy German family, who went to Finland 
in the Seventeenth century. Two children 
were born to them, Amelia, wife of Yictor 
Geonroos, of \"ieburg, Finland, and Johan A., 
our subject. 

The latter received a liberal education in 
Vieburg, Finland, and at the age of twenty-two 
studied civil engineering, which he subsequently 
followed successfully. Later he studied navi- 
gation, graduating with honors, and for six 
years he followed the seas as captain of va- 
rious craft. During one of his voyages he 
came to the L'nited States and located in Phila- 
delphia. Sending to Europe for his wife, he 
met her in New York, and thcA- settled 'n Buf- 



falo, but soon afterward came west, to Buford, 
Montana, v,-here he was in tlie employment of 
the Great Northern Railroad Company, hav- 
ing charge of a number of pumping stations. 
He remained with the company five years, and 
owing to ill health he came to Stevens county 
in 1898, where he located a homestead. Our 
subject left a wife and one child, Gustave A. 

In 1878 he was married to Hilda E. Fahler, 
daughter of Johan A. and Engrete (Vink) 
Fahler, natives of Sweden, who removed to 
Finland, where our subject v,-as torn. The 
father was a glass manufacturer, and both 
parents died in Finland, leaving nine children, 
Kathleen E., Emma Talgren, Louise Lund- 
strum, Johan A., deceased, Adla S. Sweyg- 
berg; Hilda E., Amelia Fogerstrom, Maria 
Grouberg, and Amanda Fahler. 

Politically our subject was a Republican, 
and manifested a patriotic interest in the va- 
rious campaign issues of his adopted country. 
He was a niember of the Lutheran church and 
the Good Templars, and was highly esteemed 
in the community in which he resided. 

Mrs. Sweygberg is conducting the estate, 
being assisted by her two nephews, John T. 
Sweygberg and Axel Fogerstrom. 

KNUT O. FELLAND, residing four and 
one-half miles northeast of Scotia, Stevens 
county, is engaged in general farming, mak- 
ing a specialty of hay. He was born in Moso- 
ken, Norway December 19, 1856. His parents 
were Ole and Margaret (Nestog) Felland, na- 
tives of Norway, who came to the L^nited 
States in 1S60. They settled in Madison, Wis- 
consin, where they lived four years, thence they 
came to Minnesota, living there until 1883, 
when they removed to North Dakota. In 1890 
they came to Stevens county, where the father 
at present lives, the mother dying in 1869. Two 
children were born to them, Knut O., our sub- 
ject, and Betsy, wife of John Jore, of Stevens 

Our subject was but three and one-baif 
years of age when he came to the L^iited States. 
Huston county, Minnesota, was the scene of 
his early boj'hood days, and at the age of six- 
teen he began working for farmers. Five 
years there;- fter he pre-empted a claim in Pem- 
bina county, North Dakota, but three years 

subsequently he went to Mouse river, same 
state, and thence to the Black Hills. In 1888 
he came to Sp )kane and the same season went 
to the sound, and in the fall of 1889 came to 
Stevens coi'uty. Here he located his presenr 
homestead. In connection with others he se- 
cured the location of the counvy road, and they 
contributed one month's work toward placing 
the highway in a suitable condition for cravel. 
Then twelve other men contributed their serv- 
ices and elected a school house. Mr. Felland 
has made good progress toward clearing his 
farm, having now fifty acres under cultivation. 
He has, also, half a million feet of saw timber 
on his land, an excellent bam, and other sub- 
stantial out-buildings. As illustrating the diffi- 
culties attendant on pioneer life in early days, 
it may be stated that our subject was compelled 
to pack his provisions with a horse from Spo- 
kane when he first came into the country. 

Politically Mr. Felland is a Liberal, and 
manifests a lively interest in all local afifnirs. 

ROBERT D. ANDERSON, farmer and 
stock breeder, resides two miles west of Pen- 
rith, Stevens county. Born in Andrew county, 
Missouri, June 25, 1855, he is the son of Wil- 
liam F. and Anna (Fox) Anderson, natives of 
Ohio. When they were married they removed 
to Indiana, remaining in that state eighteen 
years, going thence to Missouri, where they 
died. They were the parents of thirteen cliil- 
dren, of whom the following survive : Mary A., 
wife of C. M. Clemmens, of Portland, Ore- 
gon ; Le\'i, in Deer Park, Washington ; Thomas, 
in Portland: James L., in Kansas; Silas P., in 
Portland; Sarah C, married to Enos Mann; 
Emma, wife of Ab.salom Pollock, in Andrew 
county, Missouri; Robert D., our subject; Wil- 
liam A., in Kansas; and Lydia E., wife -^f 
Charles Coburn, of Washington. 

At the age of nineteen years, ha\-ing re- 
ceived a common scliool education in Andrew 
county, our subject began farming in Missouri. 
In 1879 he went to the Black Hills, prospected 
and engaged in other employments, during 
which time he, experienced a number of excit- 
ing adventures with hostile Indians. In 188' 
he came to Portland, Oregon, going thence to 
Walla Walla, Washington, then back to Port- 
land where he worked four years industriously 



in the truck ami dray business. Disposing of 
his interesl.s in this locahty. lie returned to 
Missouri, but subsequently came to Latali, 
\\'asliingtcn, remained four years, and then 
came to his present home in Stevens county, in 
1890. He now has four hundred acres of land, 
all fenced, and a portion under cultivation. His 
present location is one of the best in the county. 

On January 14, 1886, Mr. Anderson was 
united in marriage to Alary J. Cross, daughter 
of Levi and Sarah J. (Ivloore) Cross, the fa- 
ther a native of Ohio, the mother of Indiana. 
Following their marriage they settled in Iowa, 
and later n-.oved to Kansas. Afterward they 
came to Spokane county. Washington, and 
thence to Stevens county in 1889. where the 
mother died The father still lives here. They 
had these children, Mary J., James B., Alice, 
wife of Willard F. Belknap: Ella, married to 
John McEvers, and Ada, wife of John Ravens. 

Mr. Anderson is a Republican. He has re- 
ceived frequent offers of nomination for office 
at the hands of his party, but has invariably re- 
fused them. He has served as delegate to 
several county conventions, ?nd in 1891 served 
one term as justice of the peace. 

HENRY FLAUGHER. of Newport, 
Stevens county, residing one mile west of the 
town, is engaged in farming and gardening. 
He was born at Marble Falls, Texas, October 
3, 1853. the son of Henry and Eliza (Wilson) 
Flaugher, natives of Ohio. They removed to 
Illinois at an early day, and to Texas in 1848, 
settling in Burnet county, and engaging" in the 
stock business, which they followed fourteen 
years. In 1862 the father was killed by bush- 
whackers, and the mother returned to Ohio, 
where she reared her family. She was a grand- 
niece of Governor Vance, of Ohio, and her 
father was a colonel in the JNIohawk India-.i 
war, and a neighbor of President Abraham 
Lincoln, their farms joining. She was the 
mother of six children : J. \\'., of L'rbana, 
Ohio, an attorney: Henry, our subject: Olive, 
a teacher in the Ohio State Soldiers' and Sail- 
ors' Orphan Home: Emma, in California: 
Matthew, in Indiana : and Hattie. of Kansas. 

Our sul,>ject remained in Ohio, living with 
an uncle, until eighteen years of age, and until 
he was twerty-tliree followed farming for a 

livelihood. In 1878 he came to Walla Walla, 
Washington, rode the range two years, visited 
in the east, and traveled in old Mexico and 
Alaska. He lived twenty-one years in Snohom- 
ish county, Washington, engaged in farming, 
lumbering and the wheat business, and, suc- 
ceeding a sl'.ort trip to Texas, came to Stevens 
county, where he at present resides. He has 
sixty acres of land, thirty-one acres of which 
are under cultivation, and he raises kitchen gar- 
den produce and hay. The property is fenced, 
supplied v.'ith good buildings, and there is .1 
young and promising orchard on the place. 

Mr. Flaugher was married in 1884, to Alice 
E. Gregory, daughter of Joseph and Efifie 
( Powers ) Gregory, the father born in New 
York, the mother in Wisconsin. They re- 
moved to Minnesota and thence to Snohomish 
county, Washington, where they resided until 
1902, going thence to Stevens county, where 
thev now live. Thev are the parents of seven 
children: C. R.. Alice. L. E.. James B.. H. T., 
]\Iary, and Eugene. 

]\Ir. and Mrs. Flaugher have two children : 
Olive, married to William Carle, of Stevens 
county: and Jasper W'., at home with his par- 
ents. Mr. Flaugher is a Republican and has 
been a member of th.e local school directory for 
the past eighteen years. 

GEORGE W. JOHNSTON, at present 
engaged in general farming and stock breed- 
ing, residing eleven miles southwest of New- 
port. Stevens county, is of a family with a 
most distinguished war record. He was born 
in Tompkins county. New York. August 5, 
1848. the son of William and Amy (Parker) 
Johnston, natives of the Empire State. The 
mother died in 1850. In 1866 the father re- 
moved to Illinois, dying one year later. He 
was the father of six sons, who rendered em- 
inent service during the dark days of the Civil 
war. Enns, who enlisted in Company E, 
Twelfth Wisconsin Infantry and died in 1862 
at Humboldt. Tennessee: Stephen H.. who e.i- 
listed in the Fifty-eighth Illinois, and was dis- 
charged April 9. 1863. He re-enlisted in the 
regular army and was mustered out in 1865. 
At present he resides at Keokuk. Iowa. Isaac, 
a private in Company I. Fifth Wisconsin, was 
killed at the battle of Rappahannock. Sylves- 



ter AI., a corporal in Company A, Thirty-sec- 
ond Infantr}", New York A'olunteers, was dis- 
charged and re-enHsted October i, 1864, in 
Company B. Fifty-eighth Ihinois Infantry, be- 
ing discharged June 6, 1865. He now lives in 
Oregon. William H., of Company I, One 
Hundred and Eleventh New York Volunteers, 
enlisted August 3, 1864. and was captured in 
action, October 30, 1864, and died in prison, at 
Salisbury, North Carolina. George W., was a 
member of Company H, in a New York Infan- 
try regiment. He enlisted February 22, 1865, 
and was discharged in the following Septem- 
ber, being only sixteen years of age. Three of 
the ten children still survive, viz., Stephen H., 
Sylvester M., and George W., our subject. 

At the age of sixteen the latter began life 
as a teamster, and the following season he en- 
listed and served until the close of the Civil 
war. He then worked on a farm and teamed 
in Iowa, two or three years, learned the trade 
of broom-making, and in 1881 removed to 
Minnesota. In 1891 Mr. Johnston came to 
Stevens county, and secured a quarter section 
of land as a homestead, which he has since im- 
proved. His principal crop is timothy hay. 
He has a good frame house and two barns, the 
finest of water, and the larger portion of his 
land is irrigated. He raises some stock. 

Our subject was married in 1875 to Eliza 
L. Farnum. daughter of Benjamin and Lititia 
(Kieth) Farnum, the father a native of New 
Hampshire, the mother of Virginia. They re- 
moved to Iowa where ]\Irs. Johnston was torn. 
The latter has three children : Fred, in Stevens 
county; Nettie, wife of W. H. Andrus, in 
\Vhitman county: and Amy L.. married to U. 
S. Walker in Stevens county. Mr. Johnston is 
a Liberal, politically, has served six years as 
deputy treasurer, two as deputy assessor and 
two as road supervisor. He is a member of 
the G. A. R. 

farmer and lumberman, resides seven miles 
southwest of Newport. He was born in Mon- 
roe county, Ohio, August 17. 1854. His par- 
ents were Samuel and Deborah (Stevens) 
Jackson, natives of Pennsylvania. When quite 
young thev removed to Ohio and thence to Wis- 
consin. Flere they lived until the period of 
their deaths. The familv were distantiv related 

to General Jackson, "Old Hickory," and of 
Irish and Scotch descent. They were the par- 
ents of six children, five of whom are living; 
David, of Wisconsin; Jesse, of Ohio; Andrew; 
John; and Zachariah, our subject. 

The was reared in Sauk county, Wis- 
consin, where he attended the public schools, 
secured a fair education and worked for differ- 
ent farmers and his parents. In 1901 he came 
to Stevens county, finding various employ- 
ments, and finally taking a homestead of one 
hundred and. sixty acres of land, having upon it 
eight bundled thousand or one million feet of 
excellent saw timber. 

Mr. Jackson was married in 1875, to INIary 
Sanborn, daughter of Daniel and Catherine 
Sanborn, natives of Illinois. Many years ago 
they located in Wisconsin, where the wife of 
our subject was born, and where they passed 
away some time since. Mr. and Mrs. Jackson 
have five children; Ralph; Alice; Susan, wife 
of Earl Rusho; Deborah, married to Daniel 
McTagart; and Cleveland, all of Stevens 

The political afiiliations of Mr. Jackson are 
with the Democratic party. 

JAMES B. GREGORY is engaged in gen- 
eral farming and logging in Stevens county. 
He resides one and one-half miles west of New- 
port, where he located in igoo. Our subject 
was born in Luverne, Minnesota, November 13, 
1874, the son of J. C. and Efiie A. (Powers) 
Gregory. The father is a native of New York, 
the mother of \Visconsin. When young they 
settled in Illinois, and in 1865 removed to Iowa, 
living in that state seven years. Going to 
southwestern Minnesota they resided in that 
locality four years. In 1876 they went to tlie 
sound and resided twenty-four years. They 
came to Stevens county in 1901, where they 
are now located. 

Our subject was practically reared and ed- 
ucated in Snohomish county. \\'ashington, and 
he began life for himself at the age of eighteen 
years, mainly working in the woods until 1900. 
Part of that year he was logging with four 
brothers on the Snoqualmie ri\-er. then he se- 
cured a homestead in Stevens county, compris- 
ing one hundred and sixty acres of land, of 
which seventy-five acres are devoted to hay. 
There are over one million feet of saw timber 



on tlie property. Mr. Gregory has a good 
frame house, substantial barn, and he rents 
eighty acres, two and one-half acres of which 
he devotes to the cultivation of vegetables, the 
remainder being hay land. He has a good 
team and logging outfit, and six acres of land 
adjoining the townsite of Newport. He has 
four brothers and two sisters: C. R., at pres- 
ent living on the sound; H. T. ; Mary, married 
to C. L. Haskell, now on the coast; Alice, wife 
of H. T. Flaugher; L. E. ; and Eugene B., of 
Stevens county. 

]\Ir. Gregory is in line with the Republican 
party, and has held the office of school clerk in 
his district for several terms. Fraternally he 
is a member of the I. O. O. F., Newport Lodge 
No. 1 80, and Tent No. 5, K. O. T. M., of Sno- 
homish, \^"ashington. 

GEORGE GEAUDREAU, residing one 
mile south of Penrith. Stevens county, is en- 
gaged in general farming and logging. He is 
the son of George and Elizabeth (Tebert) 
Geaudreau, natives of Massachusetts. They re- 
moved to Canada at an early day, where they 
died. Twelve children were born to them, some 
of them residing in Canada, others in the Uni- 
ted States. They are Charles, Betsy, Joshua, 
Delia, George, Elizabeth, Louis, Marj^, Frank, 
Emma and Jacob. 

At the age of fourteen years, with but a 
meagre education, he commenced life for him- 
self, and for three years was a navigator on the 
St. Lawrence river. At the age of twenty he 
went to Stevens Point, Wisconsin, and for sev- 
eral years was in the woods and on the rivers 
driving logs. In 1887 he went to Minnesota 
and devoted the following years to farming, 
and about 1890 went to Rathdrum, Idaho, com- 
ing to Stevens county in 1891, where he has 
since resided. He located one thousand six 
hundred and seventy acres, having thirty acres 
under cultivation. He has one million five 
hundred thousand feet of timber, and his princi- 
pal business at the present time is logging. 

In 1882 our subject was married to Lora K. 
Shelburn. daughter of H. H. and Esther 
(Sitte) Shelburn, natives of Illinois. Mr. and 
Mrs. Geaudreau are the parents of the follow- 
ing named children : Dora, wife of Edwin Mc- 
Tush : Victoria. Charles, Frank, William, Lil- 
lian, Guy and Gregory. 

The political principles of Mr. Geaudreau 
are in line with those of the Democratic party. 
He and wife are members of the Catholic 

JESSE L. LONG, logger, contractor and 
general farmer, residing two miles south of 
Newport, Stevens county, was born in Dayton, 
Washington, March 3, 1870. His parents, who 
are mentioned in the article in this work de- 
voted to John H. Long, were John and Ann 
W. (Barker) Long, the father a native of Ohio 
the mother of Missouri. 

Our subject received his initial schooling 
in Columbia county, and at the age of fourteen 
he was riding the ranges following the cattle 
of his father. He rented land in 1889, in 1890 
he engaged in the meat business, and in 1892 
removed to Sandpoint, Idaho, following the 
same employment. Thence he went to Garfield, 
where he again attended school, and came to 
Stevens county in the winter of 1892-3. The 
first business to engage his attention was that of 
cutting wood and ties, but in 1898 he went to 
Kendrick where he remained until the spring of 
1900, when he returned to Stevens county, 
where he now lives. He secured a homestead in 
1 89 1 and subsequently purchased forty acres, 
making two hundred acres in all. Although it 
is mainly timber land there are about fifty acres 
of meadow, and he breeds some stock. 

Mrs. Long, the mother, of our subject, is the 
mother of five boys and five girls. With her 
husband she crossed the plains in 1852, the 
party driving two hundred head of cattle, one 
hundred of which her husband owned. Going 
to California they sold the cows for one hun- 
dred and fifty and two hundred dollars apiece. 
While crossing the plains the party were afflict- 
ed with cholera, from which several of them 
died. Her father. Dr. Barker, was among the 
victims. They also experienced considerable 
trouble with hostile Indians. The trip occupied 
from April 10, to September 15. Politically 
Mr. Long is a Democrat. 

JOHN H. LONG, engaged in lumbering, 
contracting and real estate, resides two miles 
south of Newport, Stevens county. He was 
born in Solano countv, California, October 12, 



1854. His parents were John and Ann \V. 
(Barker) Long, the fatlier is a native of Ohio, 
tlie mother of Missouri. This family crossed 
tlie plains in 1852, and in 1859 went over into 
Oregon, coming to Washington in 1865. The 
father erected the second grist mill northeast 
of Walla Walla, in 1867, and this enterprise 
he conducted until 1882, when he engaged in 
the stock business which he followed until i8gi, 
coming to Stevens county that year. He died 
in 1902. The mother still lives. To them were 
born nine children : Sarah C, wife of W. S. 
Newland; John H., our subject; Hilah A., 
married to John W. Ranch, a sketch of whom 
appears elsewhere; Dora, wife of James Brat- 
cher, of Idaho ; Mary, married to John Tarbet ; 
Paulina, wife of E. M. Ranch; William I.; 
Finis W. and Jesse L. 

Eugene City, Oregon, was the scene of our 
subject's Ijoyhood days, and here he received 
the benefit of the public schools. When eleven 
years of age he came to Washington, engaged 
in freighting at the age of fifteen years, and at 
the end of fi\-e years began farming. Two 
years later he came to Washington. Next he 
mined and worked in a mill, and was subse- 
quentlv, for two years, in a warehouse, and 
continued farming three years afterward. 
Going to Garfield county, Washington, he con- 
ducted a grain werehouse for Lundy & Com- 
pany, and then removed te Kendrick, Idaho, as 
superintendent of a warehouse. Coming to 
Stevens county he purch.ased, in 1900, a half 
section of timber land upon which he is now en- 
gaged in logging. 

Mr. Long was married in 1876 to Xancy 
E. Matzger, daughter of William and Abigail 
(Allen) Matzger, the father a native of Ger- 
many. They first located in Marion county, 
Oregon, thence coming to Dayton, Washing- 
ton, where he died. His widow removed to 
Stevens county, and followed her husband in 

Mr. and Mrs. Long have three children ; 
Elsa, wife of J. E. Harris, of Stevens county; 
Lenna Leota, wife of Charles Martin, of North- 
port ; and Alta, single, and residing with her 

Politically ]\Ir. Long is a Democrat. In 
Columbia county he was apjDointed deputy 
sheriff under R. P. Steen, and elected constable. 
In 1877 he was one of four from Dayton to 
volunteer to go to the scene of the Indian war 

for information. This was a perilous trip. In 
company with Captains Hunter and Randall 
Mr. Long crossed the Salmon river to locate 
the Indians. Later Randall was killed at the 
Cottonwood fight. 

While in camp with ]Mt. Idaho, Lewiston 
and Garfield county volunteers at Mt. Misery, 
the Indians attacked the party at night taking 
many of the horses, and the next day our sub- 
ject traveled barefooted to Grangeville, having 
worn out his shoes. He assisted in burying the 
dead at Salmon river. Following this trouble 
with hostile Indians he returned to Dayton. 
In 1880 he went to Gai-field county; later to 
Latah county, and finally in 1900 he came to 
Stevens county. 

Mr. Long is a member of the K. P. and the 
A. O. v. W. Mrs. Long is a member of the 
Cumberland Presbyterians. Mr. Long was a 
delegate to the state convention at Walla Walla 
when Voorhees was nominated for congress. 
At that time Washington was a territory. 

GEORGE COPP, residing at Echo, Ste- 
vens county, is engaged in general farming 
and stock-breeding. He is a native of Mis- 
souri, having" been born at Herman March 5, 
1863. His parents were George and Barbara 
( Fisher) Copp, natives of Germany. The pa- 
ternal grandfather of our subject was with 
Napoleon when defeated at the burning of Mos- 
cow. The father of our subject came to the 
United States in 1848. He had been a member 
of a secret society in Germany, of which also 
General Sigel of the American army was a 
member. The object of the society was to over- 
throw the government and establish a republic. 
The plot being discovered to the government, 
many implicated in it escaped to the United 
States and many of their more unfortunate 
companions were decapitated. The mother came 
to the LTnited States in 1853. They settled in 
Gasconade county, Missouri, and here the 
mother died in 1864. Her husband survived 
her thirty-three years, passing away in 1897. 
They are survived by five children : John, in 
Missouri; Andrew; Caroline, wife of Mr. 
Flohr. of St. Louis; Christina, married to Mel- 
chior Shindler, of Missouri ; and George, the 
subject of this article. 

The latter is well educated in f^icrman and 


Englisli. and when nineteen years of age he 
began working for himself, farming at first, and 
subsequently going to Eau Claire, Wisconsin, 
where for three years he was logging in the 
pine woods. After eighteen months as clerk 
in a store he removed to South Dakota and en- 
gaged in farming five years. In 1891 our sub- 
ject came to Moscow, Idaho, remained four 
years, disposed of his accumulated property 
and located in Stevens county. Here he se- 
cured a homestead upon which he lived until 
1900. erecting, meantime, good buildings and 
other improvements. Then he purchased one 
hundred and twenty acres which is improved 
with residence, barn and other outbuildings. 
This property he disposed of in 1903. purchas- 
ing the quarter section upon which he at pres- 
ent resides. Forty acres of this land are culti- 
vated, and he has good buildings and other im- 
provements. He breeds horses and cattle. 

Mr. Copp was married in 1889 to Helen 
Klein, daughter of John Klein. She was born 
and reared in Clark county, Iowa. They have 
five children, all residing at home. Alpha, 
Vitus, Leuita, Sylvia and Lorene. 

The political affiliations of Mr. Copp are 
with the Democratic party, and he is precinct 
committeeman and road supervisor. Air. and 
Mrs. Copp are members of the Lutheran 
church. Mr. Copp is just completing a barn. 
fcrty by sixty feet, which it the finest building 
of its kind in Echo vallev. 

JOHN W. RAUCH, an enterprising and 
progressive pioneer of Stevens county, and 
closely identified with the commercial indus- 
tries of Newport, resides one and one-half miles 
west of this place, and is at present engaged in 
general farming and lumbering. He was born 
in Dayton, Ohio, May 7, 1855, the son of G. 
W. and Sarah J. (Maus) Ranch, natives of 
Ohio. The family, of distinguished ancestry, 
had resided in this vicinity two hundred years, 
and the eminent sculptor. Christian Ranch, was 
one of this number. It was in Miami county. 
Ohio, to which locality his family had moved, 
that our subject received his education. 

At the age of seventeen he began life as a 
clerk in a grocery store, coming in 1877 to Day- 
ton, Washington, where he continued te reside 
five years. He was employed in the crjunty 
auditor's office preparing the first set of ab- 

stract books in Columbia county. The fijllow- 
ing five years he accumulated about forty thous- 
and dollars in the real estate business, and then 
located in Stevens county. He was appointed 
United States commissioner and ser\ed eight 
years, resigning for the purpose of engaging 
in the lumbering business. He owns five hun- 
dred acres, mainly timber land, and conducts 
an extensive business. in logging, employing a 
large force of men. 

In 1879 Mr. Rauch was married to Hilah 
A. Long, daughter of John and Ann W. 
(Barker) Long, natives of Ohio and Missouri 
respectively. They came west in 1852, her ma- 
ternal grandfather. Dr. Barker, dying while 
crossing the plains. They located in Califor- 
nia, near Santa Rosa, in 1862, subsequently 
removing to a point near \\"alla Walla, Wash- 
ington, and in 1891 they came to Stevens coun- 
ty, where the father died in 1902. The mother 
still lives. They were the parents of ten chil- 
dren, nine of whom survive : Catherine C, 
wife of W. S. Newland ; John H. ; Hilah : Dora, 
married to James Bratcher: Liewemma, wife 
of J. B. Tarbet; Pauline J., wife of E. M. 
Rause; William I. ; F. W. and Jesse L. 

The parents of our subject had six children : 
James B., of Galena, Kansas; L'rilla J., wife of 
\\'esley White, of Columbus, Ohio; IMetta A., 
wife of Frank Drake, of Chillicothe. Ohio; and 
Austia, living in Ohio. Mr. and Mrs. Rauch 
have five children, R. R., Myrven, Nellie. Jewel 
W. and Harold, all living with their parents. 
Mr. Rauch is a Democrat. In 1881 he was 
elected treasurer of Garfield county, and re- 
elected in 1883. He was the first city clerk of 
Dayton, and lias been school director many 

The fraternal affiliations of our subject are 
with the I. O. O. F., which order he joined in 
1875 at Fort Wayne, Indiana; the K. of P., 
Dayton, Washington; the A. F. & A. M., hav- 
ing been made a Mason in Pomeroy, Washing- 
ton, in 1882: and the R. A. M., of Pomeroy. 
Mrs. Rauch is a member of the Congregational 
church at Newport. 

DAVID M. WATTS, residing one mile 
south of Echo, Stevens county, is engaged in 
farming and logging. He was bom in Canton, 
North Carolina, November 5, i860. His par- 
ents were David and Susan (Henderson) 


Watts, natives of North Carolina. They re- 
moved to East Tennessee, but returned 
to North CaroHna, where they now hve. 
They were parents of seven children: Martha, 
wife of Melvin Christopher, of North Carolina ; 
Dosha, married to Robert IMcElrath; Judson 
O. ; Joseph; Roland: our subject, David M. ; 
and \\'illiam R., deceased. 

The education of our subject was received 
at Canton and W'eaverville, North Carolina, 
and in Tennessee. At the age of twenty-two 
years he was teaching school, which occupa- 
tion he continued four years. He then traveled 
for the Empire Stove Company ten years, and 
subsequently conducted a saw mill until 1901, 
when he came to Washington and began farm- 
ing where he now lives. He is living on a 
quarter section of land, thirty acres of which is 
under cultivation, and he owns six head of 
cattle and three horses, comprising his logging 

Mr. Watts was married in 1890 to Cora 
Furniss, born in Bastrop, Louisiana, in 1869, 
at which place the ceremony was performed. 
They have three children, all residing at home, 
Jeffrey P., Furniss L. and Loy. Mr. Watts is 
a staunch Democrat and manifests a patriotic 
interest in all local affairs, and is in every way 
a worthy and highly respected citizen. He is a 
member of the A. F. & A. M., at Canton, North 
Carolina, and he and his wife are consistent 
members of the Methodist church. 

From 1888 to 1892 ^Nlr. Watts was in the 
general merchandise business in Dunsmore, 
North Carolina. And, although a Democrat, 
he held through President Harrison's adminis- 
tration the postmastership there. 

JANE E. BRUCE, one of the pioneer 
settlers of Stevens county, and one of the larg- 
est holders of landed property, resides at Echo, 
engaged in the real estate business and general 
farming. She was born at East Lansing, New- 
York, March 11, 1833. Her parents were Rob- 
ert and Rebecca (Cooper) Bruce, natives of 
New York, who subsequently removed to ]\Iich- 
igan, where they died. The father was a dis- 
tant relative of the late eminent Peter Cooper, 
of New York. They were the parents of four 
children: Lora A., wife of Bishop Hotch- 
kiss, of Spokane; Mary M., wife of Arby 

Shoop, deceased; Caroline C. married to Je- 
rome Miller, of Indiana ; and Jane E., our sub- 

Having availed herself of such educational 
advantages as were provided by the public 
schools in her neighborhood, at the age of six- 
teen years our subject began to learn the tailor's 
trade to which she was apprenticed four years. 
At this business she continued until 1885 when 
she came to Washington. She kept house for 
Robert Bruce six months, at the termination of 
which they were married. In 1902 Mr. Bruce 
lost his reason, and since then our subject has 
successfully conducted the business. She owns 
one hundred and sixty acres of land, including 
the townsite of Echo. She has donated a lot for 
a store building and also one million five hun- 
dred thousand feet of lumber, and it is conceded 
that she has the best farm in the valley. The 
marriage ceremony between our subject and 
Robert Bruce was performed June 9, 1886. 

At the time Mrs. Bruce came to Washing- 
ton she passed through a thrilling experience 
in ^lontana. The party with whom she was 
traveling were fired upon by cowboys. Our sub- 
is the only one of the early settlers now residing 
in the vallev. 

JESSE R. HALL, at present engaged in 
mining, general farming and stock-breeding, 
has had a long experience in Washington jour- 
nalism, and been the editor and proprietor of a 
number of excellent papers. He resides two 
miles east of Bossburg, Stevens county. He 
was born in Kansas City, Missouri, December 
12, 1852, the son of Francis and Pearcy( Price) 
Hall, natives of North Carolina. When quite 
young they located in Missouri, the father dy- 
ing in 1878, and the mother in 1900 at the age 
of eighty-seven years. They were the parents 
of fourteen children, of whom there are living: 
William A., in Missouri ; S. F. ; Lizzie, wife of 
R. M. Johnson, of New Mexico; Mary, mar- 
ried to William McKissick, of Colorado; Mar- 
tha, wife of Louis .Gallagher, of Missouri ; and 
our subject, Jesse R. 

Having received an excellent education in 
the public schools of Ray county, Missouri, at 
the age of twenty-one years our subject went to 
Colorado where he followed mining four years. 
He then learned the trade of machinist, and for 
eighteen months was a locomotive engineer. 


In 1S83 he went to Seattle, Washington, pur- 
sued his trade, and for four 3^ears was engaged 
in tlie newspaper business on the Jiitcniatioiial 
Vidcttc at Sumas, Washington. Coming to 
Kettle Falls in 1894 he purchased a newspaper 
plant and edited the paper a year and a half. 
Then he bought the Colville Standard, consoli- 
dating it with another paper, and the name was 
the Pioneer-Standard. Having edited this paper 
with ability for one year he disposed of the 
same and began mining which he pursued suc- 
cessfully. He also purchased a farm of which 
he has thirty acres under cultivation. He is 
interested in the "Uncle Sam"" mine in Stevens 
county, and a number of other promising pros- 

]\Iay 14, 1S74, Mr. Hall was united in mar- 
riage to Alary J. Baker, daughter of Preston 
and Jane (Clark) Baker. She was born in St. 
Joseph, Missouri. They have three children : 
Elmer D., in the newspaper business at What- 
com, Washington; Emery L., and Elvie R., 
the latter residing with her parents. 

Air. Hall is a staunch Republican, a strong 
supporter of his party, both personally and with 
the influence of such papers as he may control. 
He has served eight years as notary public, and 
at present is United States commissioner of the 
District of Washington; Fraternally he is a 
member of Bossburg Lodge No. 164, I. O. O. 
F., the encampment at Whatcom, and the 
W. \\'. 

Mr. Hall was recently appointed postmaster 
at Bossburg, and in connection with the duties 
thus incumbent upon him he is operating a first- 
class drug store. Upon his appointment to the 
postmastership he resigned the position of Uni- 
ted States commissioner. 

ing seven miles east of Bossburg, Stevens 
county, is engaged in farming and stock raising. 
He was born in Lawrenceburg, Anderson 
county, Kentucky, January 19, 1863, the son 
of Robert and Elizabeth (Sappington) 
Houtchens, natives of Kentucky. At an early 
day they settled near Lawrenceburg where they 
died. They had twelve children of w'hom there 
are living: John S., Susan J., wife of James 
Cox, James W., in Missoula, Montana, George 
F., Samuel R., in Texas. Catherine, Christopher 

T., our subject, and Robert P., now in Illinois. 

Our subject attended school in Blandins- 
ville, Illinois, until he was si.xteen years of age, 
and then came to Alontana, where, for awhile 
he clerked in a store, subsecjuently purchasing 
a team and engaging in freighting nine years. 
In 1888 he came to Spokane, Washington, fol- 
lowing the same line of business two years, and 
in 1890 he came to Stevens county, and secured 
the homestead upon which he at present re- 
sides. Two years he was engaged in mining. 
Mr. Houtchens has .sixty acres of land under- 
cultivation, fifty head of stock, and does con- 
siderable freighting. He is, also, quite an ex- 
tensive dealer in horses. 

Our subject was married, in 1889, to Aliss 
Katie Campbell, her parents being natives of 
Scotland, where her father died. Her mother 
now resides in Spokane. They were the parents 
of seven children, Peter, Andrew, Lochlan, 
Sarah, wife of I. A. AlcClintic. of Latah, 
Washington, James, Mary, wife of Augustus 
Rinkert, and Katie, wife of our subject. 

The political principles of our subject are 
identified with the Republican party. 

The following named children have been 
Ixirn to Mr. and Mrs. Houtchens: Hazel, 
Stella, Blanche, Rollin and Wayne. 

HANS ANDERSON, a successful and 
enterprising farmer, fruit grower and stock 
breeder, resides one mile and one-quarter south- 
east of Bossburg, Stevens county. He was 
born eight miles from Christiana, Norway, 
December 28, 1862. His parents were Andrew 
and Olive (Wolson) Haakenson, natives of 
Norway, where the father died. The mother 
came to the United States and located in Polk 
county, Minnesota, where she passed away. 
Five children were born to them, Ole. Edward, 
Oliva, deceased, Hans, and Charles, deceased. 
His father served in the army and his paternal 
grandfather participated in the war between 
Sweden and Norway. 

Our subject receivetl an excellent education 
in Norway. He attended the public schools 
until the age of fourteen, and then was taught 
in the higher branches by a neighboring 
preacher, with whom he remained one year, 
passing a good e.xaminati(Mi at the end of his 
studv. .\t the age of seventeen vears he came 



to the United States, wliere he supported his 
mother and- the younger children. They hved 
in Minnesota and Dakota, and in 18891 our 
subject came to Stevens county, Washington, 
wliere he secured a quarter section of land. He 
was compelled to work out until he could im- 
prove his farm sufficiently to permit its being 
profitably worked. He purchased four horses, 
and for a period engaged in freighting, 
receiving as high as eight dollars a day for this 
work. Two years subsequenth' he mo\-ed on 
to his place, having purchased one hundred and 
forty acres more, making three hundred acres 
in all, and having eighty acres under cultiva- 
tion, all fenced, with substantial buildings, 
and other conveniences. He has, on an average, 
twenty head of stock. 

Our subject was married in 1899 to Gertie 
Olson, a native of Norway, who came to the 
United States with her husband. They have 
three children, Emma, Jennie, and Hilda, all 
at home with their parents. The political prin- 
ciples of our subject are in line with those of 
the Republican party, and he is a member of 
Bossburg Lodge, No. 164, I. O. O. F., and he 
and his family are members of the Lutheran 

Mr. Anderson has an orchard of six hundred 
trees, and specimens of fruit raised by him hzxe 
been sent to Florida for exhibition. 

BURRELL W. CHAPIN, stock breeder 
and general farmer, residing six miles east of 
Bossburg, Stevens county, was born in Jeffer- 
son county. New York, August 14, 1842. His 
parents were Joel and Lucy E. (Eley) Chapin. 
The father was a native of the Empire state, 
and the mother was born in Massachusetts. 
The family located in Niagara county. New 
York, removing in 1852 to Illinois, where they 
remained three eyears. They then went to 
Green county. Wisconsin, and seven years 
subsequently to Iowa, where they died. Five 
children were born to them, of whom, Julietta, 
now in South Dakota, Eh'ira, widow of George 
Burns, and Burrell W., our subject, survi\-e. 

Illinois and Wisconsin were the scenes of 
our subject's early days, and in these states he 
attended public schools and acquired an excel- 
lent business education. On gaining his major- 
ity he accepted the fortunes of life, on his own 

account, and began the world by crossing the 
plains in 1864, in company with Captain Fisk. 
During this perilous trip the party was attacked 
by Indians and, at one time, our subject was 
nearly run down during a frantic stampede of 
buffalo. He located in Helena, Montana, where 
he mined and prospected four years, and en- 
gaged in railroad work three years more. In 
1867 he removed to Iowa, where for twenty 
years he engaged in general farming. Selling 
out this property he came west and, until 1895, 
traveled extensively throughout the country. 
He purchased a farm, known as the "Bruce 
Ranch," in Stevens county, where he has since 
resided. His son has four hundred acres, two 
hundred of which are under cultivation. The 
property is enclosed with three miles of fence, 
and the buildings are commodious and substan- 
tial. Mr. Chapin is, also, interested in a 
number of valuable mining properties. 

In 1874 our subject was united in marriage 
to Lizzie Hilliker, daughter of E. G. and Maria 
(Reese) Hilliker, natives of New York. They 
first settled in Dodge county, Wisconsin, sub- 
sequently removing to Iowa, where they died, 
leaving two children, Samuel and Lizzie. Mr. 
and Mrs. Chapin have two children, Charles E. 
and Edith M., both residing with their parents. 
Mr. Chapin is a Republican. 

In the bench country of Montana, Mr. 
Chapin owns a placer claim which washes one 
dollar to each pan. 

CHARLES H. WESTON, residing seven 
miles east of Bossburg, Stevens county, is en- 
gaged in the lumber business and general farm- 
ing. He was born in Milton, Oregon, July 17, 
1 88 1. His parents were E. S. and Elizabeth 
(McCoy) Weston, the father a native of Iowa 
and the mother of Texas. Sketches of the 
parents of Charles H. \Veston, our subject, 
appear in another portion of this work. 

LTntil the age of sixteen our subject 
attended the district schools in the neighborhood 
of Farmington, Washington, and then he began 
the world on his own account, following the 
occupation of a farmer for two years. He then 
turned his attention to mining, and prospected 
in various localities two years more, and then 
engaged in the saw mill business in the vicinity 
of Bossburg. He now has se\'enty-five head 


of horses, and is largely interested in mining 
enterprises in British Columbia. 

The father of our subject, Eli S. Weston, 
came to Washington in 1886, and located in 
Stevens county, where he engaged in farming. 
Our subject has one brother and three sisters. 
William E., Jessie N., i\Iary E., and Lillian B. 
Politically Mr. A\'eston is a staunch Republican, 
and takes a patriotic interest in local politics. 

ELWOOD D.\Y, residing four miles north 
of Echo, Stevens county, is engaged in general 
farming and stock-breeding. He was born in 
Long Island, Kansas, October 5, 1881, the son 
of William and Susan (Gammon) Day. The 
father was a native of England, and the mother 
of Iowa. They settled in Kansas where they 
lived twenty years, coming to W'ashington in 
1889. Here William Day secured a contract 
for grading streets, at Spokane, and they moved 
to Stevens county in 1888, taking a quarter 
section of land, where they lived until 1900, 
when the father died. Thereafter the mother 
conducted the farm and reared the family. 
They were the parents of six children : Willis, 
in the Indian Territory ; Richard, Joseph and 
Elmer, in Stevens county ; Mollie." married to 
Thomas Stack, in Victoria, Canada ; and El- 
wood, the subject of this sketch. 

The first schooling received by the latter 
was in Stevens county, and at the age of fifteen 
year he began working at different employ- 
ments, buying, in 1899, one hundred and sixty 
acres of land, upon which he now lives. He has 
forty acres under cultivation and five hundred 
thousand feet of saw timber on his place. He 
owns fifteen head of cows, four head of horses, 
and has eighty acres fenced, with a good house 
and outbuildings. 

FRANK HIBERT, a prosperous farmer 
and stock breeder, residing six miles east of 
Bossburg, Stevens county, was born in Quebec, 
Canada, August 16, 1849, the son of Joseph 
and Beledo (Theakers) Hibert, natives of Can- 
ada, where they died. They were descendants of 
French ancestry and the parents of twelve 
children, of whom sur\-ive Peter. Joseiih. 
Michael, I-'rank, Thomas, Ellen. Paul, .\rthur. 
and Octave. 

Frank Hii^ert, our subject, received but. 
slender schooling during his boyhood days, as 
he was raised in the back woods, and left 
Quebec when he was thirteen years of age. He, 
thus, possessed none of the advantages offered 
to others of his class, but he has availed him- 
self of every opportunity to secure education 
sufficient to enable him to conduct business. 
While still a boy he went to London, Ontario, 
worked on a farm and, also, for a doctor, taking 
care of the latter' s horse. Two years subse- 
quently he went to Orangeville, and worked on 
a railroad. For several years he followed min- 
ing in Canada and Michigan, in the neighbor- 
hood of Duluth and Ashland, and was for four 
years in St. Paul in a lumber mill. Coming to 
Butte, Montana, he remained two years, then 
went to Minneapolis, and in 1887 he came to 
his present location, where he worked for Mr. 
Bruce six months, after which he filed on a 
ranch of one hundred and sixty acres. In 1899 
he purchased one hundred and sixty acres more, 
having now one hundred and twent)' acres 
under cultivation, good buildings, the land all 
fenced and well watered. He raises consider- 
able stock and does diversified farming. 

In 1900 our subject was united in marriage 
to Janet Dixon, daughter of Thomas and 
Jennie (Shepard) Dixon, who were born in 
Scotland, and are at present living in Stevens 

Mr. and Mr^. Hibert have two children, 
George and Alice, both of whom are living at 
home with their parents. Politically Mr. 
Hibert is a Liberal. 

JAMES G. WILEY, engaged in diversi- 
fied farming and stock breeding, six and one- 
half miles northeast of Bossburg, Stevens 
county, was born in Meigs county. Ohio, in 
January 1845. His parents were Hugh and 
Huldah (Fellows) Wiley, the father a native 
of Pennsylvania, the mother of \'ermont. The 
family removed to ]\Iinnesota in 1856, locating 
on Rum river, where they died. They were 
lx)th of Scotch descent, and' the parents of eight 
children, six of whom survive: Thomas J.; 
Henry H. ; Samaria, wife of Benjamin Barret, 
of Minnesota: J. H., in Ballard. Washington; 
James G., our subject ; and Mary E., wife of O. 
S. Miller, a member of the Minnesota legis- 



The education of our subject was obtained 
in Ohio and Minnesota, and at the age of twenty 
he began the world on his own account, going 
to Champhn, ^Minnesota, and engaging in lum- 
Ijering. Here he remained three years, and lost 
his saw mill by fire. He then removed to 
Fredonia, Kansas, staying three years, thence 
to Arizona, in the lumber business, and at the 
expiration of ten years he sold out and came 
to Palouse City, Washington, and was iden- 
tified with the mercantile business. Ten years 
later he went to Rossland, British Columbia, 
and in 1895 secured a contract from the Leroi 
Mining Company to haul ore, remaining there 
until the railroad was built, when he opened a 
feed and grain store. Two years subsequently 
he came to Stevens county, it being 1898, and 
purchased a farm in Echo valley, where he at 
present resides. He has sixty-five acres under 
cultivation, and fenced, and raises considerable 

In 1878 our subject was married to Ida ]M. 
Reeves. She died at Palouse City in 1890. 
He was married the second time, in 1892, to 
Margaret E. McCIeod, of Anoka, Alinnesota. 
The children by his first wife are: Chester R., 
of Colfax; Guy, in Stevens county; Floyd E. 
and Ida J., with their father. The three 
children by his present wife are, Irving, Bernice, 
and Richard, residing at home. 

Mr. Wiley enlisted during the Civil war, in 

1864, in the Second Minnesota Light Artilery, 
serving until the close of the war. His battery 
was in several engagements and was mustered 
out at Fort Snelling, Minnesota, in the fall of 

1865. Following the close of the war he 
engaged, associated with his brother, in the 
lumber business. Mr. Wiley is a Republican, 
and assisted in the organization of Palouse City 
and served in the city council. He is a member 
of Palouse City Lodge A. O. U. W. 

and stock grower, residing five miles east of 
Bossburg, Stevens county, was born in Glen- 
gary. Province of Ontario, in December, 1840. 
His parents were Philip and Mary McDonald, 
natives of Canada, where they died. The family 
were distant relatives of Sir John McDonald, 
late Premier of Canada. Our subject. has three 
brothers and sisters: Margaret, wife of Alex- 

ander McDonald, of Glengary, Canada ; Hugh, 
on the old homestead, Canada; and Samuel, 
in Portland, Maine, engaged in the boot and 
shoe business. 

At the age of twenty-one years our subject 
left Glengary, where he had obtained a fair 
business education, and mined on the Gilbert 
ri\-er. He discovered the largest gold nugget 
ever found in that vicinity, weighing forty-five 
ounces and fifteen drams. For several years 
he mined in the Lake Superior district, coming 
to Spokane in June, 1889, thence to Nelson, 
British Columbia, where he purchased a pony 
and came to the Columbia river where he now 
lives. He took a homestead of one hundred 
and sixty acres of land, eighty acres of which 
are under cultivation. It is fenced and supplied 
with substantial buildings. He breeds stock 
and has a fine bearing orchard of various kinds 
of fruit. 

July 4, 1872, our subject was married to 
Matilda Baker, daughter of John B. Baker, of 
Quebec, where Mrs. McDonald was born and 
reared. She has one sister and four brothers : 
Mary, wife of John McClintic, of Stevens 
county; Samuel, at Vancouver; John, in the 
Philippine Islands, Company F, Twenty-eighth 
United States Regulars; Donald, with his 
parents; and Archie. 

Mr. McDonald is a Socialist, politically, and 
has been school director and road supervisor 
se\-eral terms. 

CHESTER S. BOSS, prominently identi- 
fied with the mercantile industry, general farm- 
ing, and fruit growing, resides at Bossburg, 
Stevens county, which town he founded, and 
which, in his honor, is named, was born in 
Jonesville, ^Michigan, September 28, 1843. His 
parents were Truman and Sarah (Carr) Boss, 
natives of New York, ^\•hence they removed to 
Michigan about 1835. In 1846 they went to 
Wisconsin, and in 1855 to Minnesota, being 
territorial pioneers. They located at Fairbault. 
Rice county, and thirty-four years later moved 
to Sauk Center, where they died at the age of 
seventy-five years. They were the parents of 
four sons, who arrived at manhood's estate : 
Theadore, dying in the army in 1863 : Chester, 
our subject; Charles M., of Sauk Center ; and 
Eugene, of Wadena, Minnesota, and now audi- 
tor of Wadena county. 



Educated in \\'isconsin and Minnesota, our 
subject enlisted, August 8, 1862, in Company 
C, Sixth Minnesota Volunteers. Captain Bail}', 
Colonel William Crooks, at present one of the 
officials of the O. R. & N. Railroad Company. 
Our subject served during the Indian outbreak- 
in Minnesota, in 1862, and within ten days after 
his enlistment was engaged burying the dead 
killed near Fort Ridgely and then participated 
in the two battles of Birch Coulee and Wood 
Lake. In 1863 his company pursued the hos- 
tile Indians to Dakota, and across the Missouri 
river. Returning to Fort Snelling in the fall, 
the members of his regiment were anxious to 
go south, but were sent on to the frontier. 
However, the regiment was ordered south in 
the spring of 1864, and at Helena, Arkansas, 
the entire regiment was afflicted with fever, one 
half of the soldiers dying. In the spring fol- 
lowing, the regiment went to New Orleans, in 
the Sixteenth Corps, thence to Sandford. where 
they captured Spanish Fort, thence went up the 
Alabama river, to Montgomery, and in the 
spring of 1865 they lived for ten days on raw 
corn. On August 20, 1865, he was mustered 
out at Fort Snelling. Our subject then went to 
Stearns county, secured a homestead, upon 
which he lived several years, but eventually 
traded the land for a half interest in a saw mill. 
This property he sold and drove stock to Fort 
Gary, now Winnipeg, and two years subse- 
quently went to the Black Hills. Here he 
freighted and finally returned to Minnesota, 
settled at Osakis. and remained there five years. 
In 1888 he came to Spokane, removing his 
family there later, and in 1890 came to Marcus, 
Stevens county, where he conducted a mercan- 
tile business in a tent. He then came to Boss- 
burg, or what was afterward to become Boss- 
burg, where he has remained in business, suc- 
cessfully, ever since. He secured the establish- 
ment here of a postoffice, named Bossburg. and 
served as the initial postmaster of the same for 
eight years. A portion of the land pre-empted 
by Mr. Boss became the site of the town. Here 
he and his wife reside in a substantial house 
surrounded by commodious buildings, and the 
largest orchard in the vicinity. 

In 1866 Mr. Boss was married to Belinda 
Bolles. daughter of Thomas and Elizabeth 
(Sears) Bolles, natives of New York. Mr. and 
Mrs. Boss have three children : Mabel, wife 
of Dr. I\I. B. Grieve, of Spokane: Nina, wife 

of R. C. Crowell, of Bossburg; and Irene, 
married to Grant Hinkle, of Spokane. jMr. 
Boss is a Republican, and has been school 
director since the organization of the town. 
He is commander of the Bossburg Post. 
G. A. R., No. loi, and he and wife are members 
of the Congregational church. 

FRANCIS M. CORBELL, residing one 
mile and one quarter south of Bossburg. Stevens 
county, is engaged in general farming and fruit 
culture. He was born in Iowa, January 10, 
1849. His parents were Joseph and Amanda 
(Black) Corbell, the father a native of Ver- 
mont, the mother of Kentucky. In 1853 they 
crossed the plains to Eugene, Oregon, where 
the mother died, and was followed by the father 
in 1861. They were the parents of five children, 
two of whom are li\-ing. John M. and Francis, 
our subject. 

In Linn and Jackson counties. Oregon, the 
latter recei\ed the advantages of a common 
school education, x^t the age of fourteen years 
he began working at various employments, 
and in 1864 he enlisted in the First Oregon 
Infantry, Company I, with which organization 
he remained two years and eight months. He 
was engaged in numerous battles with hostile 
Indians throughout the northwest, and was 
wounded at one battle. He was mustered out 
of service at Jacksonville. Oregon, in July, 
1866, and then turned his steps toward Nevada, 
where he followed mining until 188 1. On 
account of a severe attack of rheumatism he 
was compelled to abandon mining, and he went 
to Whitman county, Washington, where he 
was employed as chief clerk for the Oregon 
Railroad & Navigation Company. Thence he 
went to Lewiston, Idaho, as night clerk, 
and here, for ten years, he was en- 
gaged in the wheat business, in a ware- 
house. Going to British Columbia, he in- 
vested in real estate and lost heavily during the 
hard times of 1890. He then, in 1894. came to 
Stevens county, followed mining, and subse- 
quently, in 1900, purchased a farm of one 
hundred acres, and in 1902 bought eighty acres 
more, which is all fenced. He raises consider- 
able stock. 

In 1884 our subject was married to Minnie 
Willie, of Lewiston. Idalui. daughter of David 



Willie. j\Irs. Corbell is the first white twin, 
if not the first white child, born in Idaho. Her 
parents are both dead. To them w as born seven 
children, three of whom are living, Marvin and 
Minnie, twins, and J. D., of Okanogan county. 
Mr. and Mrs. Corbell have two children, Beryl 
and Stanley M., both residing with their 
parents. Politically Mr. Corbell is a Republi- 
can. Fraternally he is a member of Moscow, 
Idaho, Post G. A. R., and Colfax, Washington, 
Lodge No. 14, A. O. U. W. Mrs Corbell is a 
member of the W. R. C, and both she and her 
husband are members of the Baptist church. 

WILLIA'M J. GILPIN, prominently iden- 
tified with the mining interests and a valuable 
marble quarry in Stevens county, resides in 
Bossburg. He was born in Fairmont, West 
Virginia, March 21, 1865. His parents were 
Jefferson \\'. and Alary (Meredith) Gilpin, the 
father a native of Pennsylvania, the mother of 
West Virginia. They both died in the latter 
state. They were the parents of nine children, 
three of whom were in the Civil war, and one 
of them dying four weeks after leaving the 
service. They enlisted in Fairmont, West Vir- 

Our subject remained in Virginia until he 
reached his majority when he went to the Black 
Hills, remaining in that district eleven years. 
In 1897 he came to Stevens county, engaged 
in mining, stage driving and freighting until 
1900, when he secured a farm on the Colville 
reservation, where he now resides. In the fall 
of 1900, in company with Colonel Smith, of 
Nordica Lake, he discovered what is now the 
valuable marble deposit owned by the Columbia 
River Marble Company, of Spokane. The 
property is an inexhaustible mass of marble, 
capable of providing tombstones for unborn 
millions, a deposit which cannot be estimated 
in cubic feet without making the figures look 
ridiculously large. The company is now pre- 
paring to put in machinery for profitably work- 
ing this deposit. It is situated three miles from 
Bossburg, on a good road, and with a cable 
tramway that can load the marble on the S. F. 
& N. R. R. The quality of this marble is the 
finest in the northwest, close grained, and 
susceptible of a high polish. 

Mr. Gilpin is unmarried. He is a member 

of Bossburg Lodge, No. 164, I. O. O. F., and 
Bossburg Camp, No. 1128, JM. W. A. Politi- 
cally he is a Republican and patriotically inter- 
ested in the affairs of his town. 

Besides owing a large block of stock in the 
Columbia River Marble Company, Mr. Gilpin 
has one hundred and twenty acres of fine marble 
land adjoining that company's holdings. 

JOHN N. HOFFER, residing five miles 
northeast of JNIarcus, Stevens county, engaged 
in school teaching and general farming, was 
born in Center county, Pennsylvania, October 
I, 1848. His parents, George and Susan 
(Durst) Hoffer, are natives of Pennsylvania, 
the father of Lebanon, the mother of Center 
county. They are the parents of nine children : 
John, our subject; C. Z., in Pennsylvania; P. 
S., in North Carolina ; William G., of Willshire, 
Ohio; I. O., a prominent merchant in Phila- 
delphia; Maggie, wife of Albert JNIinge, en- 
gaged in the boot and shoe business in Belle- 
fonte, Pennsylvania ; Frances ; Emma G. and 

The education of our subject was received 
in the public schools and Center Hall, Pennsyl- 
vania. He began teaching school when eighteen 
years of age, continuing this occupation, inter- 
spersed with farming, until 1876, when he 
removed to Iowa, remaining two years. In 
1878 he went to Kansas and thence, in 1886, 
to the Black Hills. It was in 1898 that he 
located in Stevens county, where he has since 
lived, occupied at intervals in school teaching. 
When he arrived in Washington he devoted 
some time to placer mining, but subsequently 
secured the farm on which he now resides. 

In October, 1870, Mr. Hoffer \yas married 
to Emma G. Alexander, daughter of James and 
Elizabeth Alexander, natives of Center county, 
Pennsylvania, where she was born. Her father 
died several years since. The mother still 

Mr. and Mrs. Hoft'er are the parents of ten 
children: Ivan L.. in Stevens county; Earl E., 
of Ness county, Kansas ; George L. ; Sidney 
C. ; Victor L. ; Bessie, wife of Alvin Leonard ; 
Maud B. ; Edna G. ; Anna L. and Gladys B. 

The political affiliations of Mr. Hoft'er are 
with the Socialist party, and he manifests a 
lively interest in local politics. In 1890, while 



living in Crook county, Wyoming, Mr. Hoffer 
was elected county superintendent of schools, in 
Catherine, residing with her husliand on the 

JOHN LEBLANK, a successful breeder 
of fancy stock, living seven miles southeast of 
Bossburg, Stevens county, was born lin Essex, 
Vermont, April 20, 1864. His parents were 
John and Matilda (Granger) Leblank, the 
father a native of Vermont, the mother of Mas- 
sachusetts. The parents of the father came 
from Nova Scotia, settling in Vermi:)nt. The 
parents of our subject had eight children, Jo- 
seph, Mose, Mary, Matilda. Peter, Louis, John 
and Victorine. 

John, our subject, was reared in Vermont 
and received his schooling at Winooski Falls. 
He began life on his own account at 'the age of 
thirteen years, becoming an expert telegraph 
operator, and this profession he followed on 
various railroads until 1880, when he came 
west to the coast. He conducted hotels in Se- 
attle, Whatcom and other Sound cities, and in 
i8go located in Stevens county. Subsequently 
he went to Rossland where he remained four 
years, and in 1896 selected his present location 
and engaged in mining. He purchased one 
hundred and sixty acres of land, which he has 
improved, and now has a fine house in a most 
eligible location. He cultivates one hundred 
and twenty acres, which is all fenced and sup- 
plied with good water. He also carries con- 
siderable fine stock through the winter. 

In 1892 Mr. Leblank was united in mar- 
riage to Miss Nora Slinkard, daughter of An- 
drew Slinkard. She has five brothers, \\'illiam, 
Ashberg, Charles, Mose and Luther. Mr. and 
Mrs. Leblank have three children. Ethel M., 
Howard and John H., all of whom at present 
reside with their parents. 

ARTHUR F. CAMP, of Colville, Stevens 
county, is not only a successful school teacher, 
of experience and ability, but an energetic 
farmer and stock breeder. He was born in 
Lincoln, Nebraska, on April 12, 1876, his par- 
ents J. .\. and Hattie (Hamblett) Camp. 
His father is a native of Wisconsin, 
his mother of ^Michigan. The father 

went to Lancaster county, Nebraska, in 
1865 and engaged in farming. Thence the 
family removed to South Dakota, remaining a 
short time and coming to Washington in 1895. 
They located in Stevens county where they now 
live. They have six children : Fay L. ; Arthur, 
our subject; George, in Idaho; J. B. ; Cecil; 
and Clinton. The father of our subject, J. A. 
Camp, served three years and eight montlis in 
the Civil War, and received a wound in his left 
arm. He enlisted in the Tenth Wisconsin Vol- 
unteers, Company I, and re-enlisted in the 
Forty-fourth Infantry, serving until the close 
of the war, under Generals Grant and Rose- 

Our subject received the foundation of an 
excellent education in Waverly, Nebraska, 
which was amplified in the Northwestern Acad- 
emy and at Spokane. The winter of 1902-3 
he attended the Washington State Normal 
School, at Cheney, Spokane county. In 1899 
he taught school in Stevens county, two terms, 
and one term in the Pend d'Oreille district, and 
one term at Bossburg. Associated with Booth 
Fay, Mr. Camp is interested in stock growing, 
they having over one hundred head of cattle. 
He also owns an interest in eighty acres of 
land three miles from Colville, and a quarter 
section five miles from the county seat. The 
principal crop is hay. Both properties are 
fenced. With his brother, Mr. Camp is inter- 
ested in a hay-baling machine, which is operated 

Mr. Camp is a Democrat, politically, and 
was, for two years, deputy in the assessor's 
ofiice, at Colville. 

WILLIAM DRISCOLL, residing four 
and one-half miles north of Marcus, Stevens 
county, is engaged in the cultivation of fancy 
fruit, raising many varieties, to which the 
climate along the Columbia river is favorable. 
He was born in Dorchestershire, England, 
March 17, 1854. His parents, John and Cathe- 
rine Driscoll, were natives of Cork, Ireland. 
They removed to England in 1840, where they 
continued to reside until their death. Five 
children were born to them, of \\hom four 
survive: William, our subject; Cornelius; 
Mary, married and living in New Zealand; 
Catherine, residing with her husband on the 
Isle of Man. 



Reared and educated in Cornwall, England, 
until the age of sixteen, our subject began min- 
ing, uhich business he had already learned, 
and in this industry he continued until 1872, 
when he came to the United States and located 
at Scranton, Pennsylvania. Subsequently he 
removed to California, where he continued min- 
ing until 1880, at which period he went to 
Seattle, Washington, finding employment